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Groundwater

Transcript of Unesco 1988

  • UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    UNEP

    HYDROGEOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES & GROUNDWATER PROTECTION

    Handbook of Scientific Methods

    VOLUME I

    USSR MOSCOW

  • The monograph Hydrogeological Principles of Groundwater IProtection has been written by an international team of authors and prepared for publication by the Centre of international Projects of the USSR State Committee for Science and Technology in accordance with the program of the UNEP/UNESCO/USSR project Protection of the Lithosphere as an Environmental Component.

    Editor-in-Chief E. A. K o z I o v s k y (USSR)

    Deputy Editor-in-Chief K. I. S y c h e v (USSR)

    Editorial Board: V. M. G o I d b e r g, L. S. Y a z v i n (USSR), J. V r b a (Czechoslovakia), G. C a s ta n y (France), H. M e y e r (USA), C h. Y o u n g (Great Britain), I. I. S n e z h k o (UNESCO)

    V.M. Goldberg - editor responsible for Russian version C.P. Young, J.N. Hutchinson - editors responsible for English version

    0 UNESCOIUNEP

  • PREFACE

    Activities with the aim of preparation of the two- volume monograph Hydrogeological Principles of Groundwater Protection have been carried out within the framework of Project FP/1107-79-04 Protection of the Lithosphere as a Component of the Environment sponsored by the United Nations Environment Pro- gramme (UNEP) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Some of the main tasks of Project FP/1107-79-04 were the generalization of the advanced international experience in the area of integrated management and rational use of groundwater with allowance for environmental protection aspects and passing on this experience to developing nations.

    The present-day level of using natural resources for meeting demands of economic growth and raising stan- dards of living has given impetus to the development of geology and related sciences. The solution of these com- plicated problems on the global scale is the main content of the international co-operation in the area of the litho- sphere.

    Groundwater, being one of the essential components of the geological environment, plays an important role in the life of modern society. Of particular importance is fresh groundwater as one of the principal drinking water supply sources. Therefore groundwater pollution and depletion control is an urgent hydrogeological and water-management problem of to-day whose solution should be considered within the framework of environ- mental protection as a whole.

    Both for UNESCO and UNEP, the successful com- pletion of the preparation of the monograph Hydro- geological Principles of Groundwater Protection is an important stage in the implementation of the broad programme of international co-operation in the area of the protection of the geological environment and rational use of its resources.

    The elaboration of the main scientific and practical recommendations on the content of the present mono- graph has been performed within the International Scien- tific Council on Problems of the Lithosphere, which consisted of 18 well-known scientists from nine COUntrieS, UNESCO, and UNEP.

    The editor of the Russian text of the monograph is V.M. Goldberg (USSR) and the editor of the English text is Ch. Young (Great Britain).

    A large number of the sections of the mono- graph have been prepared by USSR scientists, mostly engaged at the All-Union Research Insti- tute for Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,

    USSR Ministry for Geology. Among them are such well-known experts as A.A. Konoplyantsev, V.M. Gold- berg, L.S. Yazvin, V.A. Mironenko, K.I. Sychev, and A.E. Oradovskaya. Well-known scientists from France (J.J. Fried, L. Zilliox, G. Castany), USA (H. Meyer, Ph. Cohen, B. Foxworthy), Czechoslovakia (J. Vrba, V. Pe-

    .likan, J. svoma, M. Vrana), Hungary (F. Saky), Greece (J. Ganulis), and the Netherlands (G.B. Engelen) have contributed much to the monograph. So, the contri- butors to Hydrogeological Principles of Groundwater Protection are competent and from countries where groundwater protection issues receive considerable empha- si s.

    The monograph has been successfully completed largely due to the attention and practical help on the part of the leadership of UNESCO and UNEP which offered aid and means that made it possible to describe the present state of the hydrogeological problems of ground- water protection on the international scale. I would like to acknowledge all the authors participated in the prepara- tion of the monograph and express thanks to all the persons whose names are not mentioned in the mono- graph, but who contributed by their efforts to successful completion of the monograph, being an all-round scien- tific publication on the subject it deals with.

    The participation of many leading scientists in the studies under discussion, broad representativeness and scientific importapce of the materials enable one to express an opinion that the monograph will be timely and useful for scientists and experts from both developing and developedcountries.

    The task of further studies in the area of ground- water use and protection is the theoretical, technological and organizational substantiation of the system of pre diction and optimal management of the groundwater regime and groundwater resources under conditions of the increasing human impact on the lithosphere.

    Development of the research and integrated assess- ment of the influence on the geological environment of water-management and reclamative activities, mining, fuel and energy production, and major urbanized areas are of great scientific and practical importance. Elabora- tion of dynamic models of regions, being intensively developed, establishment of experimental environmental protection areas, and application of advanced interna- tional experience to efficient solution of the problems of rational use of natural resources and environmental pro- tection in many countries are gaining importance.

    The creation, at the regional and national levels, of lithomonitoring as a single system of control, evaluation

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  • of the state and prediction of changes in hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions under the human

    impact may be recommended as one of guidelines of further research.

    Prof. E.A. Kozlovsky Editor-in-Chief, Scientific leader of the project

    INTRODUCTION.

    Tasks and main contents of the monograph

    The increasing role of groundwater in the economic development of some countries and regions and the need for provision of people with drinking water of good quality promoted the international co-operation in the area of rational groundwater management, use, and pro- tection.

    In many countries, groundwater is the principal drinkingwater source and is also extensively used in industry and agriculture. In the USA, aquifers provide about half of the nations population with drinking water and meet about 40 % of irrigation demands, Groundwater accounts for 8.5 % of total water resources, however, it satisfies 25 % of water demands of industry, agriculture, and population.

    In connection with the wide use of groundwater for drinking, the importance of ia quality within the human health protection system increased substantially. Un- fortunately, meeting of human demands for pure water is far from complete in all regions.

    Despite the existence of unconsoling statistical data on groundwater quality in many regions, it is evident that the quantity of pollutants entering aquifers decreases slowly and in some cases even increases.

    Though prevention of groundwater pollution is undoubtedly the most effective means of preservation of the good quality of groundwater, aquifer contamination continues and this requires solution of groundwater protection problems. The efforts of many scientists, national organizations, and institutions are aimed at solution of these problems.

    A number of valuable scientific works on ground- water occurring under various climatic and hydrogeolo- gical conditions have been published recently. They include such UNESCO publications as Groundwater Pollution and Protection (19801, Groundwater Stud/es (19821, Mathematical Modelling for Groundwater Resources Assessment 19821, Groundwater of Mag- matic Rocks (19821, Problems of Salinization of Coastal Aquifers (19831, and Proceedings of the Inter- national Symposium on Groundwater Quality (1981).

    However, all the above publications discuss separate aspects of hydrogeology and are no all-round descriptions of processes related to groundwater pollution and deple- tion control with allowance for environmental protection. In this connection, UNESCO and UNEP made a decision to publish an extensive monograph Hydrogeological Principles of Groundwater Protection, in which all aspects of studying processes of groundwater pollution and depletion, as well as activities for prevention of groundwater quality deterioration might be systemati- cally and purposely discussed.

    The monograph deals with the theoretical, metho- dological, and practical issues of the problem of ground- water pollution and depletion control.

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    The monograph comprises four chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the state of the problem of

    groundwater use and protection and theoretical aspects of the migration of pollutants in groundwater.

    Chapter 2 covers issues concerning groundwater pollution conditions, the effects of various man-induced factors, and seawater intrusion into coastal fresh-water aquifers. Considerable attention is given to laboratory and on-site methods for studying migration and for estimating migration parameters, as well as seepage pro- perties of clayey deposits, whi