Unesco 1987

download Unesco 1987

of 202

  • date post

    12-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    25
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

ground water water resources management

Transcript of Unesco 1987

  • Studies and reports in hydrology 44

  • Recent titles in this series:

    5 .

    30. 31.

    32. 33. 34.

    35. 36. 37.

    38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

    41. 48.

    46.

    Discharge of selected rivers of /he world (English/French/Spanish/Kussian). Volurrie I11 (Part IV): Mean monthly and extreme discharges (1976-1979). 1985. Aquifer contarniriu/ion andprotection. 1980. (Also published in French and Arabic.) Methods of compulalion of the water balance of large lakes and reservoirs. Volume I: Methodolog-v. 1981. Volume 11: Case studies. 1984. Application of results from representative and experimental basins. 1982. Ground water in hard rocks. 1984. Ground-water models. Volume 1: Concepts, p rob lem arid inelhods of analysis with exaiiiples of their application. 1982. Sedimentation problems in river basins. 1982. (Also published in French.) Methods o$ computation o$ low stream f low. 1982. Pr0ceeding.s of the Leningrad Symposium on specific aspects of hydrological computations for water projects. 1981. (Russian only.) Methods of hydrological computations for water projects. 1982. (Also published in French.) Hydrological aspects of drought. 1985. Guidebook to studies of land subsidence due lo ground-water wifhdrawal. 1984. Guide to the hydrology of carbonate rocks. 1984. Water and energy: demand and effects. 1985. Planning and design of drainage bsymslen?s in urban areas. (2 volumes.) (To be published.) The process of water resources project planning: a systems approach. 1987. Ground water problems in coastal areas. 1987. The role of water in socio-economic development. (To be published.) Communication strategies for heightening awareness of water. 1987. Casebook of methods for computing hydrological parameters for water projects. 1987.

  • The process of water resources project planning: a systems approach

    Project A 4.3 of the International Hydrological Programme

    Report prepared by the Project Team

    Editorial Board: Y. Y. Haimes, Chairman J. Kindler E. J. Plate

    Unesco

  • The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part o f Unesco concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or o f i t s authorities, or concerning the delimitation of i t s frontiers or boundaries.

    Published in 1987 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris

    Printed by Irnprimerie Bietlot Freres, Fleurus, Belgique

    ISBN 92-3- 102476-0

    0 Unesco 1987 Prinied in Belgium.

  • Preface

    A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l amount o f water on E a r t h i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t o have remained v i r t u a l l y c o n s t a n t d u r i n g r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y , p e r i o d s o f f l o o d and d r o u g h t have c h a l l e n g e d t h e i n t e l l e c t o f man t o have t h e c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e water r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h i m . C u r r e n t l y , t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h ' the e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t e d agriculture and i n d u s t r i a l development , a r e s t r e s s i n g t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y aspec ts o f t h e n a t u r a l system. Because o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g problems, man has begun t o r e a l i z e t h a t he can no l o n g e r f o l l o w a 'use and d i s c a r d ' p h i l o s o p h y -- e i t h e r w i t h water r e s o u r c e s o r any o t h e r n a t u r a l resource . As a r e s u l t , t h e need f o r a c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y o f r a t i o n a l management o f wa te r r e s o u r c e s has become e v i d e n t .

    R a t i o n a l w a t e r management , however, s h o u l d b e founded upon a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f wa te r a v a i l a b i l i t y and movement. Thus , as a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s w a t e r proSlems, UneScO, i n 1965, began t h e f i r s t wor ldw ide programme o f s t u d i e s o f t h e

    t h e h y d r o l o g i c a l c y c l e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Decade ( IHD) . The r e s e a r c h programme was complemented by a major e f f o r t i n t h e f i e l d o f h y d r o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n an8 t r a i n i n g . The a c t i v i t i e s under taken d u r i n g t h e Decade p roved t o b e o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t and v a l u e t o Member S t a t e s . By t h e end o f t h a t p e r i o d a m a j o r i t y o f Unesco's Member S t a t e s had fo rmed IHD N a t i o n a l Committc'es t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e l e v a n t n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e I H D programme. The knowledge o f t h e W o r l d ' s w a t e r resources as an independent p r o f e s s i o n a l o p t i o n and

    --

    f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f h y d r o l o g i s t s had been deve loped.

    Consc ious o f t h e need t o expand upon t h e e f f o r t s i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Decade , and , f o l l o w i n g t h e recommendations o f Member S t a t e s , UneSCO, i n 1975, l aunched a new l o n g - t e r m i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l programme, t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Programme ( IHP) , t o f o l l o w t h e Decade.

    A l t h o u g h t h e IHP i s S a s i c a l l y a s c i e n t i f i c and e d u c a t i o n a l programme, Unesco has been- aware f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a need t o d i r e c t i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o w a r d t h e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d ' s v e r y r e a l wa te r r e s o u r c e s p rob lems . A c c o r d i n g l y , and i n l i n e w i t h t h e recommendations o f t h e 1977 U n i t e d N a t i o n s Water Conference , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Programme have been g r a d u a l l y expanded i n o r d e r t o c o v e r n o t o n l y h y d r o l o g i c a l p rocesses c o n s i d e r e d i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e env i ronment and human a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o t h e s c i e n t i f i c a s p e c t s o f m u l t i - p u r p o s e u t i l i z a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f wa te r r e s o u r c e s t o meet t h e needs o f economic and s o c i a l development. Thus , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g IHP ' s s c i e n t i f i c concept , t h e o b j e c t i v e s have s h i f t e d

    m u l t i - p e r c e p t i b l y towards a d i s c i p l i n a r y approach t o t h e assessment, p l a n n i n g , and r a t i o n a l management o f w a t e r r e s o u r c e s .

    AS p a r t o f Unesco ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s O f t h e IHP, two p u b l i c a t i o n s e r i e s a r e i s s u e d : ' S t u d i e s and R e p o r t s i n H y d r o l o g y ' and ' T e c h n i c a l Papers i n H y d r o l o g y ' . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s , and i n o r d e r t o e x p e d i t e exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n , some works a r e i s s u e d i n t h e f o r m Of T e c h n i c a l Documents.

  • Foreword

    T h i s volume summarizes t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e Working Group f o r P r o j e c t A.4.3.1 o f Unesco ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Programme ( IHP) . T h i s Work ing Group was charged w i t h e v a l u a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o u n t r i e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i n o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e imp lemen ta t i on o f wa te r r e s o u r c e development and management.

    I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y , a p l a n n i n g subcommit tee f o r t h e IHP Work ing Group - Y . Y . Ha i mes (Chairman), J . K i n d l e r , and E . P l a t e - was fo rmed and f i r s t met i n P a r i s d u r i n g June 9-12, 1981. S o r i n Dumi t rescu, D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n of Water Sc i ences, and John G l a d w e l l , P r o j e c t O f f i c e r f o r t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , a t t e n d e d t h i s f i r s t mee t ing , p r o v i d i n g i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e and i n s i g h t t a t h e subcommit tee. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Messrs . Dumi t rescu and Gladwel 1 posed the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s t o t h e subcommittee:

    ( 7 ) I s there a need for the project as described, or should i t modif ied or abandoned?

    (21 What would be the Working Group produce, and what would be i ts objectives?

    (3) Who would be the audiencels) to whom the products would be directed?

    (41 What products would be most useful (documents, training programmes, seminars, symposia, etc. /?

    A f t e r an e x t e n s i ve d e l i b e r a t i o n , t h e subcommit tee dec ided t o m o d i f y t h e genera l s ta temen t o f t h e p r o j e c t and summarized i t i n t h e p r o j e c t t i t l e -

    The Process of Water Resources Project Planning: A Systems Approach.

    Fur the rmore , t h e subcommi t tee recommended t h a t t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t r e p o r t s h o u l d be based upon case h i s t o r i e s o f t h e use o