Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technology Prof. Ki-Hyung Kim [email protected] Ajou University, Korea.

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Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technology Prof. Ki-Hyung Kim [email protected] Ajou University, Korea

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Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technology Prof. Ki-Hyung Kim [email protected] Ajou University, Korea Slide 2 1 Contents Standardization of Wireless Sensor Networks IETF, SP100, WirelessHART, ZigBee, IEEE 802 Overview IP-USN Research and Development Slide 3 2 Internet L2N TrueMesh Wireless HART ISA SP100.11a Xmesh Znet MintRoute MultiHop LQI CENS Route Smart mesh TinyAODV Honeywell Overview of Wireless Sensor Network Technologies Slide 4 IEEE 802.15 Slide 5 4 IEEE 802.15 Task Group TG 1TG 2TG 3TG 4TG 5 TG 3a 802.15 WG for WPAN Secretary Publicity CommitteeTask Groups Study Groups TG 3c TG 4b TG 3b TG 4d TG 4c TG6SC wng finish Withdrawn TG 4a TG4e Standing Committee Working TG Slide 6 5 IEEE 802 WG15 Overview IEEE 802.15 15 th working group of the IEEE 802 which specializes in Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) standardsworking groupIEEE 802Wireless PAN TG1 : Bluetooth based WPAN (finished) TG2 : Coexistence of WLAN and WPAN (finished) TG3 : High Rate WPAN (finished) TG3a : TG3 based Alternative PHY (withdraw) TG3b : TG3 based MAC Amendment (finished) TG3c : TG3 based Millimeter Wave Alternative PHY (in progress) TG4 : Low rate WPAN (finished) TG4a : TG4 Alternative PHY (finished) TG4b : TG4 based Revision (finished) TG4c : TG4 based Chinese amendment PHY (in progress) TG4d : TG4 based Japan amendment PHY (in progress) TG5 : TG3 & TG4 based Mesh networking (in progress) TG6 : Body Area Network (in progress) Slide 7 ZigBee Slide 8 7 Zigbee Organization Slide 9 8 Present Status of ZigBee Alliance Specification : ZigBee Pro (2007) Balloted Specification PRO Features Features removed from ZigBee-2006 in PRO CSKIP address assignment Tree routing (table routing remains) Features added to PRO Mesh network routing Stochastic address assignment/address conflict resolution Many to one routing/Source routing Multicast Frequency Agility Fragmentation/Re-assembly Link Status/Symmetric routes Slide 10 9 Present Status of ZigBee Alliance ZigBee Network Topologies and Routing Cluster tree networks provide for a beaconing multi-hop network Mesh network routing permits path formation from any source device to any destination device via a path formed by routing packets through neighbors ZigBee Routing employs both Mesh Routing and Cluster Tree Routing Routing by default will employ mesh and can fall back to cluster tree if a route error is generated on the packet Slide 11 10 Advantages of IP-based Sensor Networks (Interoperability) (WiFi, Ethernet, WiBro, Wireless Mesh, HSDPA ) (Security) (Authentication), (access control), and (firewall) Network design (Established Application model and service API DNS, SLP (Integrated Network Management) Ping, Traceroute, SNMP (Transport Protocols) End-to-End Reliable streaming Slide 12 11 6lowpan Node Architecture Sensor Node Hardware IEEE 802.15.4 (a,b) Fragmentation /Reassembly Adaptation Layer Commissioning & Bootstrapping Mesh Routing IP ICMP TCP/UDP Socket-lite API SNMP Mngmt Service Naming & Discovery Sensor App ND Optimization Slide 13 Standardization Activities in IETF Slide 14 13 6lowpan Node Architecture Sensor Node Hardware IEEE 802.15.4 (a,b) Fragmentation /Reassembly Adaptation Layer Commissioning & Bootstrapping Mesh Routing IP ICMP TCP/UDP Socket-lite API SNMP Mngmt Service Naming & Discovery Sensor App ND Optimization Slide 15 14 6lowpan Standardization Activities Rechartering Stage 1. Produce "6LoWPAN Bootstrapping and 6LoWPAN IPv6 ND Optimizations to define limited extensions to IPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] for use specifically in low- power networks. This document (or documents) will define how to bootstrap a 6LoWPAN network and explore ND optimizations such as reusing the structure of the 802.15.4 network (e.g., by using the coordinators), and reduce the need for multicast by having devices talk to coordinators (without creating a single point-of-failure, or changing the semantics of the IPv6 ND multicasts). This document or documents will be a proposed standard. 2. Produce "Problem Statement for Stateful Header Compression in 6LoWPANs" to document the problem of using stateful header compression (2507, ROHC) in 6LoWPANs. Currently 6LoWPAN only specifies the use of stateless header compression given the assumption that stateful header compression may be too complex. This document will determine if the assumption is correct and describe where the problems are. This document will be informational. Slide 16 15 3. Produce "6LoWPAN Architecture" to describe the design and implementation of 6LoWPAN networks. This document will cover the concepts of "Mesh Under" and "Route Over", 802.15.4 design issues such as operation with sleeping nodes, network components (both battery-and line-powered), addressing, and IPv4/IPv6 network connections. As a spin-off from that document, 6LoWPAN Routing Requirements " will describe 6LoWPAN-specific requirements on routing protocols used in 6LoWPANs, addressing both the "route-over" and "mesh-under" approach. Both documents will be informational. 4. Produce "Use Cases for 6LoWPAN" to define, for a small set of applications with sufficiently unique requirements, how 6LoWPANs can solve those requirements, and which protocols and configuration variants can be used for these scenarios. The use cases will cover protocols for transport, application layer, discovery, configuration and commissioning. This document will be informational. 6lowpan Standardization Activities Slide 17 16 5. Produce "6LoWPAN Security Analysis" to define the threat model of 6LoWPANs, to document suitability of existing key management schemes and to discuss bootstrapping/installation/commissioning/setup issues. This document will be referenced from the "security considerations" of the other 6LoWPAN documents. This document will be informational. 6lowpan Standardization Activities Slide 18 IETF RL2N BOF Slide 19 18 RL2N WG Charter: Overview Work Items 1.Produce use cases documents for Industrial, Connected Home, Building and urban application networks. Describe the use case and the associated routing protocol requirements. The documents will progress in collaboration with the 6lowpan Working Group (INT area). 2.Survey the applicability of existing protocols to L2Ns: analyze the scaling and characteristics of existing protocols and identify whether or not they meet the routing requirements of the L2Ns applications. Existing IGPs, MANET, NEMO, DTN routing protocols will be part of evaluation. Slide 20 19 RL2N WG Charter: Overview Work Items (2) 3. Specification of routing metrics used in path calculation. This includes static and dynamic link/nodes attributes required for routing in L2Ns. 4. Provide an architectural framework for routing and path selection at Layer 3 (Routing for L2N Architecture) Decide whether the L2Ns routing protocol require a distributed, centralized path computation models or both. Decide whether the L2N routing protocol requires a hierarchical routing approach. 5. Produce a security framework for routing in L2Ns. Slide 21 20 Interaction with other WGs 6lowpan: working on L2Ns over 802.15.4 MANET: we may be end up using some (adapted) MANET protocols if the WG think that they satisfy the requirements Other industry forums and SDOs. Zigbee, ITU, Bluetooth, Slide 22 Wireless HART Slide 23 22 Industrial Automation Background Very important functionality 60 million installed process control sensors 4 million shipping per year ~50% are smart today wired networks HART Most popular wired sensor network protocol HART 1: 1,200 baud digital comm over 4-20mA loops Wireless HART Ratified as a part of HART7 September 2007 802.15.4 based Announced vendors: ABB, Emerson, Siemens, Multi-hop Mesh networking SP100 wireless Draft standard in 2008 Adopted 6LoWPAN, but defining own routing, transport Wireless HART and SP100 are a hybrid of circuit and packet switched IEEE 802.15.4E WG created to standardize Slide 24 23 Examples of Data flows 1.Low frequency data collection 1/s to 1/hour; typically < 1/min Latency comparable to sample interval Typically 10kB 2.AlarmsSlide 25 ISA SP100.11a Slide 26 25 Intro to ISA100 ISA100 Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation and Process Control ISA100.11a - Wireless sensor and controls network - Utilizing 802.15.4 - DLL provides mesh network using hybrid CSMA and TDMA - Using 6LoWPAN/IPv6/UDPv6 and TFTP - Backbone router inter-connects DLL subnets Slide 27 26 ISA100.11 reference model DLL subnet Backbone Router System Manager Gateway (ALG) Plant Network Security Manager DLL subnet Slide 28 27 Routing to a Gateway on Backbone The SP100.11a network is a single link. Link local addresses can be used to reach any mote. Slide 29 28 Multi-floor building example with single DLL subnet Slide 30 29 Packet flow to the gateway with IPv6 Slide 31 30 Backbone Router Plant Network DLL subnet Security Manager System Manager G/W Backbone Router 2 Backbone Router 1 Transit Network ISA100.11a Network BB Binding update A A NS(A) multicast NS(A) unicast NA(A) : BR1s MAC @ NA(A): BR2s MAC @ A via BR1 A via BR2 Slide 32 IP-USN Research and Development in Korea Slide 33 32 Major Characteristics of IP-USN High Interoperability Seamless Connectivity to Internet (IPv4/v6 support) WiFi, Wireless Mesh, Ethernet, IEEE 802.15.4, RIP, OSPF High Reliability Automatic Faulty Router Detection and Network Recovery MAC-assisted End-to-End Transport Protocol (mTCP) Automatic State Restoration after Reboot Multi-Router Support High Scalability Multi-Router Interworking Scalable Tree-based Routing Protocol (HiLow) Mesh Routing Protocol Easy Configuration Automatic Neighbor Discovery IPv6 Autoconfiguration Plug & Sensing Capability Management SNMP-based Management, ping Web-based Monitoring and Management Slide 34 33 High Interoperability Seamless Connectivity to Internet (IPv6/v4) Support various interfaces WIFI, Ethernet, Wireless Mesh, IEEE 802.15.4 Support Internet standard routing protocol RIP, OSPF Interoperability test with KOREN 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 DWDM/OADM ATM Switch Router Gigabit Switch 35Gbps 2.5Gbps 155Mbps Slide 35 34 High Reliability Multi-Router Interworking Automatic Fault Detection and Network Recovery of 6lowpan routers and 6lowpan nodes Slide 36 35 Bootstrapping and Commissioning Protocol with Multiple Routers Slide 37 36 Sensor node list on the console of multiple routers Bootstrapping and Commissioning Protocol with Multiple Routers Slide 38 37 High Reliability (2) MAC-assisted End-to-End Transport Protocol (mTCP) Reduce redundant re-transmission with MAC support Server 6lowpan Internet Slide 39 38 High Scalability (1) Large scale sensor network design Wireless Subnet Wireless Subnet B Wireless Subnet D Wireless Subnet C Wireless Subnet A Slide 40 39 High Scalability (2) Scalable Tree-based routing protocol (HiLow) No routing table required Simple Implementation Robust 1-hop tree restructuring to link failures Short-cut routing support Slide 41 40 Easy Configuration DHCP support Automatic neighbor discovery (IPv6 address autoconfiguration, short address assignment, Application profile) Plug and Sense (PnS) Support Main technology in Web-based Sensor Service Portal Zero-Configuration to connect to the Internet and my Server Plug and Sense support in especially DHCP environment User Permission Management Slide 42 41 IP-USN Network Management System Slide 43 42 SNMP based Network Management 6lowpan 6LoWPAN Management Network Monitoring Network Status Monitoring PAN ID, Channel Network Size (Number of Nodes, IPv6 Prefix information) Topology Monitoring Network Topology Monitoring Neighbor Table Information Routing Table Information Sensor Node Management Node Information 16bit, 64bit, IPv6 Address Device type, Sensor type, H/W version S/W profile, OS, MAC/PHY, Adaptation version Battery status Slide 44 43 Web-based Sensor Network Management Management Configuration Management Topology Management Device Management Topology Registration Device Registration Fault Management Security Management User Management* Permission Management* Power Management** Performance Management* Accounting Management** Slide 45 44 Web-based Sensor Network Monitoring Sensor Data Monitoring Realtime Data Monitoring History Data Monitoring General Log Alarm Log Slide 46 45 IP-USN MIB (1/3) FileVariableDescription lowPan lowpanPanId PAN lowpanChannel lowpanRoutingAlgorithm lowpanCompression lowpanSupportExtended EUI64 LowPan Module LowPanRoutingTable Module FileVariableDescription lowPanRoutingTable lowpanRouteEUI64Address EIU64 lowpanRouteID Entry lowpanRouteDestAddress lowpanRouteNextHopAddress page 45 Slide 47 46 IP-USN MIB (2/3) FileVariableDescription lowPanNodeInfoTable lowpanNodeEUI64Address EUI64 lowpanNodeAssociationPermit Association lowpanNodeMaxChildren lowpanNodeBeaconOrder lowpanNodeSuperframeOrder lowpanNodeBattery ( 0x64 ) lowpanNodeHwVersion lowpanNodeOsVersion lowpanNodeRtEntryCount lowpanNodeNtEntryCount lowpanNodeMaxHopCount TTL lowpanNodeRole (0: 1: 2 : ) lowpanNodeIp6Addr IPV6 lowpanNodeShortAddress ShortAddress lowpanNodeAlive Alive LowPanNodeInfo Table Module page 46 Slide 48 47 IP-USN MIB (3/3) FileVariableDescription lowPanNeighborTable lowpanNeighborEUI64Address EIU64 lowpanNeighborPanID PAN ID lowpanNeighborNEUI64Address EUI64 lowpanNeighborShortAddress ShortAddress lowpanNeighborDeviceType Device Type lowpanNeighborPermitJoin PermitJoin lowpanNeighborLogicalChannel Logical lowpanNeighborValidated Validated LowPanNodeInfo Table Module page 47 Slide 49 48 Management with Commercial SNMP NMS System page 48 Slide 50 49 Web-based USN Management & Monitoring page 49 Slide 51 50 50 Design of IP-USN Router/Node Slide 52 51 6lowpan Node Architecture SNMP MngmtService Naming Sensor APP TCP / UDP ICMP Adaptation Layer IP Socket-lite-API IEEE 802.15.4(a,b) Sensor Node Hardware Fragmentation / Reassembly Commissioning & Bootstrapping ND OptimizationMesh Routing Slide 53 52 6lowpan Router Architecture Ethernet MAC PHY Wibro MAC PHY WiFi MAC PHY IPv4 & IPv6 Dual LoWPAN MAC / PHY Internet IP-USN Adaptation ND Proxy GARMA SSLP TA Slide 54 53 53 Specification of IP-USN Router HW SpecSW Spec Main CoreAT91SAM9260, 180MHz /32bitIP-USN Sensor Node Device Driver Memory16MB Serial Data Flash / 64MB SDRAMWiBro Device Driver Ethernet Port10/100Base-T 1 PortWiBro Connection Manager WiBro Module WiBro Module, USB Type USIM Card Slot WiFi Device Driver WiFi Module802.11 b/g, USB TypeUSB Host Device Driver ConsoleRS-232 1 Port Debug Serial Port RS-232 1 Port, Internal Power5VDC Input Battery NiMH 2200mAh Battery Pack Low Battery detection circuit Atmel Internal Watch Dog Dimensions167(W)X140(L)X35.5 (T) (mm) Slide 55 54 WiBro Specification Standards IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX / WiBro support IEEE 802.16-2004 & IEEE 802.16e-2005 PHY IOT ProfilesTDD, 8.75Mhz BandWith, OFDMA MIMO(2X1) MISO( 2 Receiver and single Transmitter) and H-ARQ RX Diversity Support for Mobile WiMAX / WiBro Frequency2.3GHz ~ 2.4 GHz Max. Throughput Downlink : 10 Mbps (max) Uplink : 4 Mbps (max) Host Interface InterfaceUSB2.0 High Speed or 4-Bit mode SDIO Interface ConnectorBoard to Board 60Pin connector page 54 Slide 56 55 Outlook of IP-USN Router page 55 Slide 57 56 Block Diagram of IP-USN Router page 56 Slide 58 57 WiBro page 57 Slide 59 58 PCB Layout of IP-Router WiFi Block MPU Block IP-USN Block Ethernet Block WiBro Module Block WiBro UISM Slot page 58 Slide 60 59 Service discovery with SLP(Service Location Protocol) Slide 61 60 SLP-based Service discovery Pervasiveness Time Static Discovery Service - X.500, LDAP Discovery in LAN - JINI, UPnP, SLP, Salutation Discovery in Large-scale network - Structured Architecture (e.g. DHT) Context-aware Discovery - Context-based ranking Semantic Discovery - Semantic representation & Matching Discovery in ad-hoc Network - Mobility, Minimizing cost page 60 Slide 62 61 Contents Standardization of Wireless Sensor Networks IETF, SP100, WirelessHART, ZigBee, IEEE 802 Overview IP-USN Research and Development