U2L5 - The Periodic Table

download U2L5 - The Periodic Table

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

    25-May-2015
  • Category

    Science

  • view

    369
  • download

    5

Embed Size (px)

description

Science Fusion PowerNotes - Grade 8 Unit 2 Lesson 5 - The Periodic Table

Transcript of U2L5 - The Periodic Table

  • 1. Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

2. Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table Indiana Standards Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 8.1.1 Explain that all matter is composed of particular arrangements of atoms of approximately one hundred elements. 8.1.2 Understand that elements are organized on the periodic table based on atomic numbers. 3. Get Organized! Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What are elements? It was once believed that fire, wind, earth, and water were the basic elements of all substances. Scientists now know there are many more elements. Some elements have similar properties. Others are very different from one another. Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 4. How are the elements organized? Dmitri Mendeleev first organized the elements by arranging them in order of increasing atomic mass. He observed that the properties were periodic, or in a regular repeating pattern. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 5. How are the elements organized? Mendeleevs arrangement of the elements became known as the periodic table. Henry Moseley reorganized Mendeleevs periodic table in order of increasing number of protons, or atomic number. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 6. How are the elements organized? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table What can you learn about an element from the periodic table? 7. Making Arrangements Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What information is contained in each square on the periodic table? Each square contains an elements chemical name, atomic number, chemical symbol, and average atomic mass. The atomic number is listed at the top of each square. Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 8. What information is contained in each square on the periodic table? The chemical symbol is an abbreviation for the elements name. The first letter of the chemical symbol is always capitalized, and any other letters are lowercase. The name of the element is listed under the symbol. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 9. What information is contained in each square on the periodic table? All atoms of an element have the same number of protons, but the number of neutrons can vary. The average atomic mass is the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. Average atomic mass is reported in atomic mass units (u). Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 10. How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? A zigzag line on the periodic table divides the three major categories of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals are elements that are shiny and conduct heat and electricity well. Elements to the left of the zigzag line are metals, except for hydrogen. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 11. How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? To the right of the zigzag line are the nonmetals. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity, and are often dull and brittle. Metalloids are elements that have some properties of metals and nonmetals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 12. How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? Each vertical column of elements is called a group, or family. Elements in a group are similar because they have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons participate in chemical bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 13. How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? Each horizontal row of elements is called a period. Physical and chemical properties are predictable from one side of the table to the other. Atomic size decreases as you move left to right across a period. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table 14. How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? Elements in the middle of a period are the most dense. As you move from left to right within a period, the atomic number of each element increases by 1. The lanthanides and actinides are placed below the table to allow the table to be narrower. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 5 The Periodic Table