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Tyttireeyopanishad Isavasyopanishad Aitareya Upanishad Kenopanishad Chilukuru Venkateswarlu

Transcript of Tyttireeyopanishad Isavasyopanishad Aitareya Upanishad ...

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Tyttireeyopanishad

IsavasyopanishadAitareya Upanishad

Kenopanishad

Chilukuru Venkateswarlu

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Tyttireeya, Isavasya, Aitareya and Kena Upanishads

© Chilukuru Venkateswarlu

Year : 2014

Copies available at :

SRI RAMAKRISHNA TAPOVANAM

Chennai – 600 032, Mobile : 9884708559

Website : sriramakrishnatapovanam.org

E-mail ID : [email protected]

Typesetting by : R. Anuradha Raghuram, Hyderabad. (9441186831)

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Dedicated to my foster parents

Sri Chilukuru PunniahSmt. Chilukuru Syamalamba

Sree Chilukuru Punnaiah son of Lakshmi Narayana born at

Pidaparru, Tenali Tq. He studied Vedas and Sastras. He died at an

early age. He had no children and hence he gave the power to his wife

to adopt a son for him.

Srimathi Chilukuru Syamalamba daughter of Jandhyala Sriramalu

born at Syamalambapuram near Kaikalluru, Krishna district. She has

adopted me as her son in 1945. She did my Upanayanam, marriage

etc. She brought me up affectionately. While I moved to Chennai to

pursue my career she came and stayed with me. Before her death she

went back to Vijayawada and died in our own house. I too have great

regard and love for my foster parents. I feel I am privileged to dedicate

this Tyttireeyopanishattu to my foster parents.

- Chilukuru Venkateswarlu

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BETWEEN YOU AND ME

Society is rotten and stinking

– It is our duty to protect and preserve

it. If our body fell sick it will not affect

the society. But if the mind gets sick, the

society gets rotten. Why?

Mind is the mother of all

desires. Even the waves in a sea might

stop but the desires in a mind will not

stop. Many more desires crops up even

before the first one is fulfilled. When the

desires did not fulfil, the man gets angry.

Anger breeds hatredness. Hatredness

breeds vengeance. Vengeance gives birth

to violence. Such a person will resort to

heinous crimes to fulfill his desires.

Greed overpowers mind and encourages

achieving his desires in all unrighteous

ways. The greed will not die even if he is

imprisoned. Why a man resorts to that?

Is it due to lack of love for his own

dharma and sadacharams? or does he

disregards to the laws of land? Or does

he lacks fear for the king (Constitution)?

Or is it due to the lack of devotion to the

god?

In olden days people strive

in gurukulams till they attain perfect

knowledge. Our puranas reveals us that

Rama and Krishna also entered in

gurukulams for knowledge. Even a

hundred years ago the grand parents

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used to make their kids to sit on their stomachs and teach them to

recite the morals from Neeti satakams like Vemana and sumati satakams

. They inculcate devotion in their tender minds with stories of Prahlada

and Gajendra. Thus they train their minds on Ethics on one side and

devotion on god on the other side. Oh! What a great solid system that

existed just before a century?

Now this system is disappeared under the guise of secularism.

Even grand parents do not know ethics and values of life. What can

they teach to their children? On the other hand they are questioning

“What gain my child benefit by learning time old morals? We want to

make him an actor or a doctor etc” In this manner even the parents

themselves are brain washing the child. While the Parents are dreaming

the future of their children they are missing natural love and affection

from their parents. As the parents are pushing their children to coaching

centres and for campus selection, in turn the children also are driving

their parents to old age homes when they are grown up. The undue

growth of old age homes should be an eye opener to the greedy parents.

Many Doctors, Layers, administrators politicians and many other

professionals are being produced in the above manner and ruling the

society. As a result ethical values are disappeared and jungle law

prevailed. There is no protection for a common man. Possession of

wealth, at any cost, is the order of the day.

These are all off shoots of mental sickness. They are not visible

to the doctors. Even Laws of the land also could not catch them. If one

in a million is caught, he is boasting without shame that he will come

out from the jail, like a cleaned pearal.

Unless the mind is controlled this disease can not be cured. If

mind becomes desireless it listens to sadbudhi. If it listens to sadbudhi,

chittam becomes pure and associates close to antahkaranam. (In fact

manassu, budhi, chittamu and Antahkaranam are all one and one and

to the size of an atom, situates in hrudayam).

Our society is built on Sanatana Dharma. Vedas are authority for

those dharmas. The great rishis took out the essence from Vedas and

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framed in the form of Upanishads, sastras and puranas. Those dharmas

were further simplified in the form moral poems, devotional stories

and the grand parents were taught to their kids at a very infant age.

Now that time old tradition disappeared. But it is not a difficult task for

the almighty to put it back.

In fact these thoughts are not mime. I am only an instrument, in

the hands of my guru Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa.

Thought the society is rotten and stinking, people did not lost

devotion towards God. The unending Qs of devotees at all temples is

an evidence of their devotion towards God. This element of bhakti

bhavana is enough to retreat the lost peace and hormoney in the society.

Is not a small seed brings out a huge banian tree? Now let us came to

the point.

In marketing terminology the term P.O.P (Point of Purchase)

occupies a significant place. Which means; normally a business man

keeps many more articles useful to his customers with a view of serving

him better. If a customer comes to buy an article, he buys some more

articles also useful for him. In the same way T.T.D Board also providing

several Savas to the Lord so as the devotees can avail a seva of their

choice.

For the first time I went to Tirumala to have a darshan of Lord

Venkateswara in 1945. At that time a road was laid and dedicated for

the service of devotees. In those days one bus used to come in the

morning to Tirumala and the same bus returns to Tirupati before sunset.

Devastanam used to provide us vessels freely and we used to cook our

own food. Hardly there were 2 or 3 special services were there apart

from dharma dersanam. Now the situation is different.

Devotees are waiting in Q complex between 5 to 20 hours for

darsan. Though they are confined in their comportments physically,

but their minds are not confined at the lotus feet of Lord Venkateswara.

Unless their mind is also made confined on god related matters, they

will not get Poorna Phalam.

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Keeping in view of the above, and as guided by my Gurudev

I brought out 50 titles from Ramayanam, Bhagavatam, Mahabharatam

etc in an abridged from not expecting 150 pages. I made an appeal to

the Board of Trustees to distribute those epics freely who are all

standing in Q complexes jas long as they continue the scheme of

annadanam. In case the devotees develop taste in Sanatana dharmas,

ethics and Sadacharams they may go for its originals and enrich their

knowledge.

In fact this is a divine cause. It is the duty of the god to propagate

Sanatana dharma among the people. T.T.D has enough funds to for

Dharma Pracharam at their command. In case they need more funds,

people will stand in Q to donate for this divine cause. That is why

Mahatma Gandhi advised “Choose the right cause, means follow”.

Human mind is like a balance with two pans. As they enrich purity

of their mind by reciting these epics, the worldly desires, greed and

other impure qualities will disappear. In other words the society which

is on the verge of rotting will comeback and start practicing its time old

Sanatna dharmas.

As instructed by my Gurudev I ventured to put this proposal

before the learned T.T.D managing committee. Rest Lord Venkateswara

will take care.

- CHILUKURU VENKATESWARLU

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Free Distribution of Other Publications

as Swamivaari Prasadam

1. The above books will be available in Hindi, Tamil and Kannada very soon!

2. These books are available under subsidised rates at all book stalls of

Ramakrishna Mutt.

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English

1. Sri Ramavatara Tatwam :

BalakandamAyodhya KandamAranya KangamKishkinda KandamSundara KandamYudha KandamUttara Kandam

2. Tyteereeyopanishad

3. Prasnopanishad

4. Isavasyopanishad

5. Kenopanishad

6. Mandukyopanishad

7. Kathopanishad

8. Mundakopanishad

9. Chandogyopanishad

10. Bruhadaranyakopanishad

11. Punarapi Jananam...

12. Sri Krishna - a Diplomat and Statesman

13. Sri Krishna Tatwam

14. Mabhabharatam :

18 parvas

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Contents

Dedicated to my foster parents . . . . . iv

Between You and Me . . . . . v

Tyttireeyopanishad . . . . . 1-49

Isavasyopanishad . . . . . 50-68

Aitareya Upanishad . . . . . 69-81

Kenopanishad . . . . . 82-107

Glossary . . . . . 108-122

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Tyttireeyopanidhad

This Upanishad belongs to Krishna Yajurveda. The name

Taittireeya is said to come from Tittiri (small birds, partridges). Once,

Vysampayana, the Guru, was angry with his disciple Yagnavalkya and

directed him to give back the Vedas which the former taught him.

Yajnavalkya vomited the Yajurveda taught to him. The other disciples

(rishis) took the shape of tittiri birds and swallowed the Veda. Another

story is, a Sage by name, Tittiri was specializing in this Yajurveda and

therefore, this Upanishad came to be named after him. This Upanishad

came to be known as tyttireeya samhita. But, there is no clear and

authentic basis for either story.

This Upanishad is divided into 3 parts called Vallis (i) Siksha valli

(ii) Brahmamanda valli (3) Bhrugu valli. Each part is again sub divided

into small parts called Anuvakas.

Siksha valli focuses on “Samhitopasana” and hence is also called

Saamhitee valli. Lord Varuna gives the Upadesha(explaining) of

Brahmamanda valli and Bhrigu valli. Therefore, these two parts

together is called “Vaarunee vupanishad”.

Brahmamda valli focuses on the attainment of Brahma Jnana in

the true genre of Upanishads.But, Siksha valli is more of the type of

karma kanda, and preparation for Brahmamda valli/

Bhrugu valli adopts the method of storytelling – to explain the

procedure for attaining Brahma jnana. Lord Varuna directs his son,

Bhrugu, step by step in to tapasya on various doors of Brahma Jnana

and finally into attainment of the same.

We will now proceed to Siksha valli which can also be called

seekshaa valli , as the first word denotes it.

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SIKSHA VALLI

Anuvakam-1

Slokam-1

May Mitra, Varuna, Aaryama, Indra, Bruhaspati and Vishnu (the

God with large feet) bless us with happiness and fortunes.

My salutations to the Brahma who is in the form of Vayu (air).

Oh Vayu! My salutations to you. You are the visible Brahmam to

me. You alone are the Rutam and Satyam.

May the Parabrahmam in the form of Vayu protect me and my

guru.

Om Santihi Om Santihi Om Santihi

Rutam means- the power which decides the permissible karmas

(and injunctions) in yagnas and similar rituals as laid down in sastras.

Sathyam means- implementing the permissible karmas or the

dharma of above rituals (called Rutam), through the power of speech

etc..

Rutam and Satyam are both seen in Vayu, the air, who is

represented as such.

The three santhis represent the removal of three obstructions

called thaapathraya. These are adhyathmika (Internal troubles, like

fevers, body pains, other physical and mental troubles); adhibhoutika

(troubles coming from our immediate surroundings & neighbours)

and adhi-daivika (acts of god like rains, cyclones etc).

The disciples pray for removal of all these three obstructions,

so that the instruction proceeds to its successful conclusion.

This is a prayer made by a disciple so as to enable him to

understand the teachings of his guru. He prayed Mitra, Varuna,

Aaryama, Indra, Bruhaspati and Vishnu who are primarily responsible

for the functioning of different organs of the body. Mitra protects the

proper movement of Prana; Varuna protects the proper movement of

Apana; Aaryama guards the function of eyes; Indra is bestower of

strength; Bruhaspati is the power of tongue and intellect; Vishnu is the

lord of consistency.

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When the functioning of all organs are perfect and consistent,

the disciple is able to grasp and digest the teachings of the Guru. Hence,

the prayer is made to all these deities before he commences learning.

Here, Vayu or air is considered as Brahma because it is the visible

Brahmam in the form of Pranam. That is why, it is described as visible

Brahmam.

Brahmam cannot be seen with our sense organs or Indriyas.

Since air is visible, and is vital for our survival, it is construed as

Brahmam. The path to Parabrahmam is always through Upasana of

the visible forces that keep us alive and give us the power to function.

A person who seeks the audience of a king has to seek the permission

of the guard keeping the security of the King outside the palace.

Vayu is also the embodiment of Rutham and Satyam as we have

seen in the prayer. Vayu pervades all over the world and is responsible

for all life. So, the disciple considered it as Parabrahmam and prayed

that he and his guru be blessed and protected by Vayu, so that the

instruction proceeds smoothly from the Guru to the disciple.

Vayu is divided into five parts.

1. Prana Vayu: Which we breathe in and out through nose.

2. Apana Vayu: Which pervades on earth and maintains

centre of gravity. In the human being, it is in the lower part

of the trunk.

3. Vyana Vayu: It pervades all over the body.

4. Udana Vayu: It has a tendency of traveling upwards. It is

especially said to become active, when the human being

dies, and it performs certain vital functions after death.

5. Samana Vayu: It spreads all over the space. In the Body, it

maintains balance of the body.

When Brahmam is one and it is the self itself, why this Upasana?

The Upasana of such external and internal forces of nasture (called

Devatas in the Upanishads) that keep us alive, healthy and in balance

is a must. It is a necessary step for progress in the absorption of the

teaching as well.

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Anuvakam-2

Slokam-2 :

This chapter deals with precautions and procedures to be

observed while learning Upanishads. While studying, Sadhaka must

not show either oversight or negligence. He must keep in mind the

following aspects. Siksha or teaching of Upanishads includes six

essential parts, apart from their text. These are (i) Varnam (ii) swaram

(iii) Maathra (iv) Balam (v) Saamam (vi) samthaanam

1. Varnam: clarity in pronouncing letters ‘a’ onwards. These

are the letters of Sanskrit alphabet

2. Swaram: care is to be taken in respect of

a) Udaattas= Acute accent with sharp tones.

b) Anudattas= Grave accent to be observed in reading Vedas.

c) Swaritams= Grave accent to be observed in reading Vedas.

Example: Samno Mitrasyam Varunaha. Here ‘no’ and ‘ru’ are

Swaritams. ‘mi’ is Anudattam. Rest are Udattams.

3. Matras: contain a) Hraswam b) Deergham c) Plutam. Matra

means 1/6 seconds. The letter that can be uttered in 1/6

seconds is called Hraswam. Deergham which takes double

or slightly more time of Hraswam. Plutam takes three or

more Matras time.

4. Balam :- The effort needed in uttering a letter

5. Saamam : Maintaining appropriate speed / slowness

without using too much or too low speed in uttering letters.

6. Samthaanam : Means speaking letters without DELAY.

Note: Vedas and Upanishads are to be taught by a learned guru.

The student is not expected to learn without Guru (say, from a book

or CD). Because the student has to learn with correct accent and

pronunciation and also observe the facial expressions from the guru

at the time of teaching. So I am leaving this chapter at this level.

[ Chilukuru Venkateswarlu]

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Anuvakam-3

Slokam-3 :

[This chapter deals with Samhitopaasana. It is usual that readers

apply their mind on superficial aspects of the subject of stufy. Their

mind is not inclined to go deeper into the text and meaning. For such

readers, an attempt is made to focus their attention through Samhita.

Samhita makes readers to learn all unknown knowledge from the

known knowledge - through Asrayas or Samhitas]

The disciple prays initially for bestowing fame and Brahma

Varchas (Brightness that radiates especially on the face but also from

other parts of one’s body, when the person has attained to the

knowledge of Brahmam) on both the disciple and the Guru. Since guru

already has the knowledge of Brahmam, he has nothing further to

acquire. So, the need is only for the Disciple, though his prayer is for

both.

Samhitopasana consists of five parts. 1. Adhiloka 2. Adhijyotisha

3. Adhividya 4. Adhi Praja 5. Adhyaatma.

Samhitha essentially means a composite sound coming from the

mingling of two independent letters.

But, here, it is not a mere combination of two letters of alphabet.

It is the interconnection between two seemingly unconnected entities

– which are really closely connected through a joining entity and the

joint itself is another entity which holds the two entities together.

Sadhaka needs to learn the ability to discern, understand and

do the upasana on the first entity, the second entity, the joining entity

and the joint itself – from a competent Guru. This process requires

other Sadhanas too, like Sadhana chatushtayam, as described by Adi

Sankaracharya, for acquiring thequalification needed for Brahma

Jnana.

Now, let us see the five Great Upasanas or five Great Samhitas.

1. Loka Samhita: Sadhaka must visualize the first or Poorva entity

as earth and the second (Uttara) entity as heaven. In between

these two is the entity of space, which is said to be the Sandhih

or Joint. Air (Vayu) is the connecting factor of all these in between

the poorva and Uttara lokas for worship.

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Such Upasana is to be learnt from a competent Guru. The Upasana

essentially focuses the vision of the disciple to see the totality of the

Samhita and then make him perform his worship on it

2. Jyotis Samhita: Here, The first(poorva) entity is Agni. The

second(later) entity is the Sun. Their joint consists of water. The joining

factor is lightning. As we see, the Agni on earth seems to have no

connection what so ever with the Sun in the sky. Likewise, water and

Agni seem to be opposites of each other. Lightning comes from the

skies to the earth. But, the Samhita says -With this knowledge of their

combination, one has to perform the worship. In reality, Sun is the

source of all Agni on earth and Agni cooled becomes liquid or water.

Lightning has relation with water (in clouds) and agni on earth both.

Such invisible inter-conenctions exist among all of them. They should

be understood and meditated upon.

3. Vidya Samhita: The first entity here is guru and the second

entity is the disciple. Knowledge is the common factor for both. The

joining factor is the modality of teaching. Vidya-Upasana is to meditate

on the combination of these four factors.

4. Praja Samhita: Praja means continuous line of succession.

Praja, in other words, is progeny. In this Samhita the former form is

mother. The later form is father. The bond between them is the child.

The factor holding all of them together is the process of srusti or

conception and delivery of the child. With this knowledge, one has to

worship or perform the Upasana.

5. Aadhyatmika Samhita: The former factor is the lower jaw.

The later factor is the upper Jaw. The bondage is in the form of speech.

The factor holding all these together is the tongue. Aadhyatmika

Samhita is to perform the Upasana understanding these linkages.

The fruits of practicing these Samhitas in the prescribed way

will be - continued and uninterrupted line of succession in the family;

all needed riches in the form of animals, food etc; and finally the

samhita practitioner will reach to the Heavens or Swarga loka with

his brilliant radiance (Brahma varchas) resulting from the study of

Vedas.

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Anuvakam-4

Slokam-4 :

[As we have seen so far, in the first chapter, Santi Patham was

recited. In the second chapter Siksha and in the third chapter,

Samhitopasana were explained. In this fourth chapter, the significance

of Omkaram is being explained]

The sound of ‘OM’ is the very essence of Vedas, the most

essential and the all pervading sound in the Vedas, which are immortal.

Eswara is the embodiment of this pranava sound of ‘OM’.

May the Eswara bless me with the Prajna (the wisdom) needed

for acquiring and retaining Atma Jnana. While the word used in the

sloka is Indra, in this context, it is to be understood as Eswara

May this body of mine be equipped well to acquire and posses

Brahmajnana. May my tongue always speak sweet words (May my

tongue never utter harsh words). May my ears be able to receive all

the teachings of my guru. May all my sense organs and organs of

action (Karmendriyas) cooperate to receive the teachings of my guru

on Brahmajnana.

Oh, the sound of Pranava (OM) ! Like the sheath for a sword,

you are the external cover for the Brahmam. Ordinary people cannot

see you. May you see to it that the Brahmajnana I received is protected

and enhanced. May you shield my character and buddhi to keep away

from dualities of love-hate.

A few mantras relate to Artha or wealth. The disciple is seeking

clothes, cows, sheep, food, water etc, and their steady growth after

they come to him.

One may wonder why wealth is required for a person who is in

search of Brahmajnana. Also, why is this Karma Kanda or Veda Poorva

Bhaga type prayers in the Jnana Kanda of Upanishads?

Wealth is an important factor in the four Human Goals or

Purushaarthas. For performing yagnas and virtuous acts, wealth is

needed. Also, once a disciple approaches the Guru and Guru accepts,

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the responsibility for taking care of him is on the Guru. Therefore,

Guru also needs wealth – to the extent needed for such purposes.

Wealth sought within the four walls of Dharma, for discharging the

needs of dharma is perfectly legitimate and does not bind a person to

them. The ancient sastras approve of this and say, there are two

legitimate uses of such wealth – Daana and Bhoga. First use is generous

distribution or Daana. Second is - personal enjoyment. If both these

are not done, such wealth faces Naasa or destruction. Thus, wealth

has only three end uses. Either it is distributed to the needy persons,

or enjoyed by the self; or else, it suffers destruction (in the form of

theft, fire and so on).

These mantras are chanted by the student who seeks good

health and Buddhi – for acquiring Brahmajnana from the Guru.

Now, the Guru is offering his prayer here :

As water flows downwards, as months get absorbed in a year,

May a large number of highly intelligent and devoted students who

are stable in Brahmacharya Vrath, who are peaceful, greed-less and

focused in studies, come to me from all over the country to learn this

Aatma Vidya.

May I become famous this way among people and people see

me as an excellent person among the wealthy persons also.

Just as water always flows down from different places to the

lower level places to finally reach the Sea – in same way, May all eligible

students seek me out and come to me for learning.

Why is the Guru offering such prayers seeking students? It is

ordained in Sastras that one who learns Vedic wisdom has also the

duty to teach it other eligible students. This knowledge must spread

to eligible students from competent Gurus.

Guru cannot deny this knowledge to any eligible disciple. But, of

course, disciple must be an eligible person who is stable in sadhana

chatushtayam. Others are not eligible for the teaching. They must first

practice sadhana Chatushtayam before approaching a Guru.

Now, when such large number of students come to him, and he

cannot deny them the teaching by him – the Guru needs enough wealth

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to support them totally for a number of years for which their studies

continue. So, he needs enough wealth and enough fame for this

purpose.

But, we must note that the wealth he is seeking is not money,

gold, diamonds, huge mansions etc. We must know that, almost

uniformly, all Gurus lived in deep forests. They shunned towns and

cities where others lived. For example, while Dasarath and his Son

Rama lived in Ayodhya, their Guru, Sage Vasishta always lived in deep

forests. It was so with almost all Gurus, with possibly rare exceptions.

Oh the sound of Pranava! For Sadhakas, you are like a home.

You, like the home, provide peace and comforts to the Sadhakas. In

the same manner May you stay in me as Aatma Swaroopam .

May you (Pranava sound-OM) enter into me and may I enter

into you. May I become sinless and pure, in you.

Unless one destroys sins he will not become pure and eligible

for moksha. Like, unless water is clear we cannot see the reflection of

moon clearly.

In the same way, may I be very clear and peaceful so that I can

always reflect the Atma swaroopam.

Anuvakam-5

Slokam-5 :

[ This chapter deals with the worship of Vyahrutis. Vyahruti means

mystical words such as Bhooh, Bhuvaha, Suvaha, Mahaha and so on,

which are associated with the performance of Vedic karmas. These

Vyahrutis are associated with mantras pertaining to yagna, gayatri,

pranayama etc]

Originally Vyahrutis known to people were three viz Bhooh,

Bhuvaha, Suvaha.

Mahachamasya Maharshi performed a great austerity or tapasya

and found the fourth Vyahruti called Mahaha. If Maha (or Mahaha) is

considered as the main (Trunk)body, the other three vhahrutis are

like its limbs. These three Vyahrutis are thus the limbs of the Brahmam,

which is Mahaha.

Here, Mahaha and Brahmam both indicate what is the Biggest.

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For the limited purpose of this sloks, Mahaha connotes Viraatpurusha

here as the first three lokas are considered as limbs of the Virat.

The worship of Vyahrutis is divided into four methods.

Worshipping lokas:

1. Pertaining worlds: The Vyahruti ‘Bhooh’ is to be meditated

on earth (Bhoolokam).

2. Pertaining to atmosphere: The Vyahruti ‘Bhuvaha’ is to be

meditated on atmosphere between earth and heaven.

3. Pertaining to heaven: This Vyahruti ‘Suvaha’ is to be

meditated on heaven.

4. Pertaining to Aditya loka: This Vyahruti ‘Mahaha’ is to be

meditated on Surya loka. Sun shines on all lokas. However this worship

also pertains to atmosphere.

WORSHIP OF DEVATAS :

1. Meditate on Agni with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhooh’.

2. Meditate on Vayu with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhuvaha’.

3. Meditate on Aditya with the Vyahruti of ‘Suvaha’.

4. Meditate on Chandra with the Vyahruti of ‘Mahaha’.

All splendors on earth increase because of moon. In moon itself,

the splendours improve from day 15 of the Fortnight.

WORSHIP OF VEDAS:

1. Meditate on Rig Veda with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhooh’.

2. Meditate on Sama Veda with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhuvaha’.

3. Meditate on Yajur Veda with the Vyahruti of ‘Suvaha’.

4. Meditate on Omkaram with the Vyahruti of ‘Mahaha’.

‘Om’ is added at the beginning and end, which amounts to

worshipping all Vedas. ‘Om’ is called as Brahmavedam.

WORSHIP OF PRANA :

1. Meditate on Prana Vayu with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhooh’.

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2. Meditate on Apana Vayu with the Vyahruti of ‘Bhuvaha’.

3. Meditate on Vyana Vayu with the Vyahruti of ‘Suvaha’.

4. Meditate on Annam (food) with the Vyahruti of ‘Mahaha’.

Since all beings are thriving on Annam, Annam is to be

worshipped.

Viraat Purushaa (the Brahmam who was at the beginning of

creation) is to be assumed and worshipped with the above sixteen

Vyahrutis. Namely : 4 Lokas (+) 4 Devas (+) 4 Vedas (+) 4 Pranas = Total

16 vyahrutis.

He who knows and performs Upasana on all the sixteen

vyahrutis will be performing the Upasana of the Brahmam as said

above. All Gods or Devatas will shower their gifts on such a person.

If the worship of Brahmam is done with these sixteen Vyahrutis,

the Upasaka truly realizes the shodasa kala purna Purusha or the

Parabrahmam. Such Upasaka can see him in all his created objects

which can be seen with the sense organs.

Anuvakam-6

Slokam-6 :

[In the previous chapter we saw four different types of

vyahrutyupasana. He who worships in the above manner, actually

worships the Viraat Brahmam.

To experience Brahmam with clarity, the Sadhaka has to infer a

dwelling place for the Parabrahmam preferably within himself or a

nearest, known place and worship the Brahmam there. Those right

places are clarified in this chapter.

Sadhaka must assume Parabrahmam in his own Hrudaya- Akasa

and worship. Hridaya – Akasa means the huge space within the heart.

Heart, here, is not the physical heart performing blood circulation

functions. It is the heart where we see, hear, smell, touch and taste

and imagine everything. That unseen area within us is very huge like

the sky. Everything can fit into it. It is in that space that we contemplate

on the Para Brahmam also. He is to be understood there as Manomaya

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(one who fills the mind with wisdom), one who is immortal, one who

is hiranmaya (extraordinarily lustrous). This visualization of the

Brahmam in the vast space in the heart is important. Those who have

done the vyahrutyupasana and the ‘OM’kaaropasana in the earlier 2

chapters can do this effortlessly. The process is a linear process from

each earlier chapter to the next one; and those who have NOT DONE

the earlier upasanas will find the later Upasanas beyond their

capability.

There is a nadi (nerve) called Sushuma. It starts from the heart;

passes through the soft palate (in the upper jaw beginning, between

the food and wind pipes), enters the brain and breaks into the skull.

The Upasaka will go out through the skull. This way, he goes out, and

gets absorbed in the Agni of the Bhooh vyahruti; in the vayu of the

Bhuvaha vyahruthi; in the sun of the suvaha vyahruthi and in the

Mahaha of the Viraat Brahmam vyahruthi .

That upaska, who has become one with Viraat Brahmam as

above by merging with the four vyahrutis, becomes the Brahmam

and gets hinto his original kingdom. He becomes the king of all the

minds, all eyes, all ears and all tongues. In other words, he becomes

the controller of these powers of thought, sight, hearing, speech and

so on.

He becomes the Brahmam, who is as huge as the space (sky);

who is the truth himself, who is the mind of total joy, totally peaceful

and absolutely immortal.

The Guru , having described the Brahmam and the Upasana to

attain to that state, is now asking the Disciple, you are fit for this

Upasana and therefore do perform this Upasana.

Anuvakam - 7

Slokam-7 :

[In the previous chapters, the Sadhaka has learnt the worship

of Brahmam with vyahrutis (speech, voice, mystical word etc) as Aatma.

In this chapter the worship of Brahmam is indicated with bhoomi and

five other paanktams or yagnas. The universe of paanktams is

Brahmam, which is the self in the form of Aatma. The person who

worships it, will attain to Hiranyagarbha in the form of Viswaroopa.

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Hiranyagarbha is also known as Prajapathi which means he is the first

person in the creation]

The Paanktams (yagnas) are of two Varieties. 1. Bahya Paanktams,

2. Aadhyatma Paanktams.

Bahya Paanktams are three. 1. Loka Paanktams 2. Devata

Paanktams 3. Bhoota Paanktams.

Aadhyatma Paanktams are three. 1. Vayu Paanktam, 2. Indriya

Paanktam, 3. Dhatu Paanktam. Let us see their details now :

Bahya Paanktams:

1. Loka Paanktam= Prithivi (Earth), Atmosphere, Heaven,

Directions (North, South, East, West), intermediate-directions

(NE, NW, SE, SW).

2. Devata Paanktam= Agni, Vayu, Sun, Moon, Stars.

3. Bhoota Paanktam= Water, Medicinal Herbs(Oshadhis) Trees

(or total vegetation), Grains, Akasa (space), Aatma (Aatma here means

Virat ; Purusha)

Aadhyatmika Paanktams :

1. Vayu Paanktam= Prana, Vyana, Apana, Udana, Samana.

2. Indriya Paanktam= Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mind, Speech, Skin.

3. Dhatu Paanktam= Skin, Flesh, Nerves, Bones, Fats.

From this, the Sadhaka or Upasaka has to understand that the

entire universe is filled totally with Bahya and Aadhyatma Paanktams.

Beyond them there is nothing else. In other words, the composite

Swaroopam (original nature/truth) of all these Paanktams is Brahmam.

So, the Upasaka must worship Brahmam through the Upasana of these

Paanktams. This implies that - Aadhyatmika Paankta Trayam is filled

with the Bahya Paankta Trayam - which means both are one.

Since the entire universe is filled with Paanktams, whoever

worships these Paanktams, such worship is as good as worshipping

Brahmam. Such a Upasaka becomes Hiranyagarbha himself.

The Upasaka must identify the Jeeva in Aadhyatmika paanktha

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Trayam. But, He is also dwelling in the universe filled with Bahya

Paankta Trayam. Both the universe and the Jeeva are Paanktams only

which means the nature of Jeeva or universe is one and the same.

Whoever worships such a Virat Purusha also becomes Virat Purusha.

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Anuvakam-8

Slokam-8 :

[Omkaram is immanence which means Para Brahma Swaroopam.

All Sabda Swaroopam is spread by Omkaram which means all Vedas

and Sastras are a part, parcel and form of Omkaram. Does Omkaram

have the power of giving the fruits one who cants it desires ? One

need not have such a doubt! People who worship Salagramam as

Devata (Vishnu) Swaroopam are gaining the fruits of their worship. In

similar manner, those who assume Brahmam in Omkaram and

worship, they will also get their desired benefit. Now we will see the

greatness of Omkaram as follows]

In this chapter, the method of worshipping Omkaram is narrated.

Omkaram is Brahma Swaroopam This means all the created beings nd

objects are Omkaram.

Omkaram reveals succession. In Sanskrit Om is used for

Anukaaranam. If anybody asks “Have you committed this act?”, you

will get the answer as Om. “Will you do this act?”. You will get the

answer as Om. This is called as Anukruti Bodhakam.

This Omkaram is extensively used in performing yagnas and other

vydika karmas. This Omkaram itself makes Devatas to hear the mantras

which we recite. “Om Sravaya” means “oh Agni!

In offering Havis in Yagnas, it is said – “the time is ripe to offer

havis (offerings through Agni). So, May you arise Devatas”.

Saamagaana commences with Omkaram. The Hothaas (those

pouring havis into the Yagagni) commence their Sastrams with “Om

Sam”. The word ‘Sastrams’ means Stotra Ruks without a song like

melody. Adharvya expresses his acceptance and further

encouragement with Omkaram as “Om Damodha” (An expression of

happiness). Brahma permits rithviks to commence by saying “Om

Proksha”. Here Brahma means the chief Rithvik who gives permissions

for every Yagna Kriyas.

In this manner Om signifies Anukarana or acceptance. Omkaram

is used in several occasions with several meanings. [The priests who

perform yagna are called by different names such as Hota, Adharvya,

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Brahma, Ruthvik]

A brahmin must learn Vedas commencing the studies with

Omkaram. Guru also must commence his teaching with Omkaram. In

this manner, all those karmas which are performed with Omkaram

certainly yield good results. Therefore Parabrahmam also is to be

worshipped as Omkaram.

Anuvakam-9

Slokam-9 :

[Some think that worship alone leads the Sadhaka to moksha.

Why should then, Sadhaka perform Srauta, Smarta karmas? To remove

such doubts, in this chapter, the highly beneficial impact of these

karmas in worshipping Brahmam are clarified. It is emphasized that

vihita karmas must be followed]

Rutham, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam are all necessarily to be

worshipped. These are ideal karmas to be done by all Sadhakas.

[Rutham= Srauta Smarta karmas as prescribed in Sastras.

Swadhyayam= Reading by himself. Pravachanam= Teaching to the

disciples.]

Satyam, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam are necessarily to be

worshipped.

Tapas (various types of penance & meditations), Swadhyayam,

Pravachanam are necessarily to be worshipped.

Damam, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam are necessarily to be

worshipped. [Damam means control of external organs]

Samam, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam are necessarily to be

worshipped. [Samam means control on internal organs] ;Note :-

Pronounce Sa, as in Satire.

Agnihotram, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam, are necessarily to be

worshipped.

Worshipping guests (Athithis), Swadhyayam, Pravachanam, are

necessarily to be worshipped.

Respecting relatives and friends, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam,

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are necessarily to be worshipped.

Having children, Swadhyayam, Pravachanam, are necessarily to

be worshipped.

Having sex in the ruthu period with one’s own wife,

Swadhyayam, Pravachanam, are necessarily to be worshipped.

[All the above are to be necessarily followed because they all

contain yagna and yagas which falls under Srauta karmas. Worshipping

guest, marriage and others are Smarta karmas. All these Karmas are

necessary to be followed.

Swadhyayam and Pravachanam are given a prominent role in all

these vihita karmas (advisable duties). Swadhyaya implies constant

study and remembering by the self. Swadhyayam makes one thorough

with the intricacies of the subject. This means, initial learning from Guru

must be augmented subsequently through Swadhyaya. Unless one has

such thorough knowledge, one cannot have the fruits of that

knowledge, nor can he competently teach his own disciples.]

An Acharya by name Sathya Vachasu who belonged to the

Rathithara clan, has clearly stated that truthfulness is the most

important vrath and duty, for worship for all people. He gave primacy

to truth and truthfulness. It doesn’t mean all others are not important.

Each Rishi emphasized one aspect.

In the same manner, the great rishi, Taponithya, the son of

Purasisti had affirmed the importance of Tapas, Chandrayana and other

Vratas in worship.

Rishi Naakaa, the son of Mudgala Maharshi had affirmed that

Swadhyayam and Pravachanam are very essential in any worship.

Swadhyayam, Pravachanam, Tapasya are stressed in each case –

for rutham, sathyam, Tapas, sama, dama, agnihotra, agni karmas, athithi

pooja, and all other Karmas.

The names of Maharishis given here make us understand their

character and the value they assigned to a particular factor in their

life. Sathyavachasa means a Truthful person. Taponithya means one

who did tapasya every day of his life. Purasisti means one who was

trained in all Sadhacharams ( traditional habits advised by ancient rishis)

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by his parents. Mudgala= The person who learnt the meanings of

Sastras and enlightened. His son is Moudgalya]

Anuvakam-10

Slokam-10 :

Trisamku Maharshi stated as follows:

This Samsara is like a tree. I am the creator of this Samsara.

[Samsara= worldly life with all dualities, Janmas and rebirths].

I am Brahmavetta or one with knowledge of Brahmam. (none

other than Paramatma)

My glory is as high as the peaks of the mountain. I am the purest

like the Paramathma. I am the Purest Aatma (Amruta) tatvam in the

Sun. I and the Sun have the same Aatma tatvam in both of us. I am

resplendent, I am the purest and I am the highest Paramatma.

Aatma is immortality and Amruta tatvam.

I have no death and I am the divisionless and partless whole.

Splendor and lustrousness is myself. I am changeless..

This is the Vedanta teachings of Trisamku Maharishi. This is what

the Rishi is affirming and indicates his enlightened status. He has

become a Brahma Jnani and looks at all creation as the Brahmam or

creator himself.

[These mantras are meant for and highly useful in Japam. Japa

is necessary to acquire and retain knowledge and achieves Chittha

suddhi which is essential for Moksha. One who keeps a pure mind

through Processes like Japa acquires Brahmajnana with little effort.

That is why these mantras are said in this chapter]

Anuvakam-11

Slokam-11 :

This chapter talks about the duties of the disciples who have

learnt the Knowledge so far imparted by the Guru. Before one attempts

to know the Brahmam, one has to learn the vihitha karmas or advisable

duties prescribed in Vedas and Sastras.

This chapter starts with “After teaching / narrating the Vedas”.

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By performing yagnas one should destroy one’s sins. By

acquiring jnana, one will attain liberation or moksha. This is what

Sastras say. The person whose heart is purified with vihita karmas,

attains Chitta Suddhi and is eligible to acquire Aatmajnana with ease.

[After teaching Vedas to his disciples, the guru teaches this chapter

to his disciples who are about to leave his Gurukulam or Ashram.

Guru imparts this sound advice to his disciples before the disciples go

out and enter the world to practice their dharmas]

While in real life, the disciple comes across many difficulties and

obstacles in practicing his duties and customs, he must approach

nearby knowledgeable Brahmins and get clarifications on his doubts.

However he should perform his duties like an undeterred hero. He

should always fix his mind in dharma. He should conduct himself

without any partisan attitude. His duties and customs are as follows.

1. Speak truth.

2. Follow the path of dharma.

3. Do not neglect or forget Swadhyaya.

4. Pay appropriate Guru Dakshana- of things that the Guru

may like and find useful to him.

5. Marry with the blessings of the guru and be a good

Gruhastha.

6. Have children through the dharma pathni.

7. Take care of your physical body(and mind).

8. Enhance your wealth in Dharmic ways without neglect.

9. Do deeds useful to others with your wealth

10. Do not neglect Swadhyaya and Pravachanam.

11. Do not Neglect the worship of Devatas.

12. Do not neglect the Pithru Karma and Sraaddha Karma of

ancestors.

13. Worship and serve mother, father, and guests like gods.

14. Don’t involve in any blemishful activities (Nishiddha

Karmas). Always perform Vihitha Karmas approved by

Vedas.

15. Even if elders and Gurus commit some blemishful activities,

you must not commit such acts. You should always follow

the right customs.

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16. When you come across a wise and respectable Brahmin,

serve him and listen to his teachings with devotion.

17. Make gifts and dakshina with devotion and bakthi. Make

such gifts within the limits of your means.

18. All donations are to be made with humility, adoration and

with your good wishes for them. Even friends and relatives

are eligible to receive such gifts.

19. Whenever you get any doubts about the Sastras, Karmas

etc – consult competent, wise, compassionate Brahmins

nearest to you for clarification. Do as they say and as they

do.

20. Likewise, when you have doubts about how to deal with

guilty persons and sinners, consult such (aforesaid

Brahmins) and do as they tell you and as they do.

This is what is your duty. This is what the Guru tells you now.

This is the essence of Vedas. This is the secret of Vedas. This is the

Guru’s Hitabodha. Therefore do adhere to all these teachings without

fail – so says the Guru to the disciples leaving the Gurukulam after

completing their education.

[The above teachings of guru are to be taken as the teachings of

Paramatma.]

Anuvakam-12

Slokam-12 :

May Mitra, Varuna, Aaryama, Indra, Bruhaspati, Vishnu bless us

with happiness. My salutations to Brahmam in the form of Vayu. Oh

Vayu! I keep you in my mind as the visible Brahmam. You are the

truth. I pray you as truth and as Rutam. You have protected me and

my guru in learning Brahma Vidya without any obstacles. My salutations

to you.

May the Aadhyatmika, Aadhibhautika, Adhidaivika, Taapams

(Obstacles and difficulties) dissolve.

Om Santi Santihi

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Harihi Om

End of Sikshavallee

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ANANDAVALLEE – BRAHMAVALEE

SANTI PATHAMU

Harihi Om

Slokam:

Parabrahmam may bless and protect me and my guru. May the

Parabrahmam take care of me and my guru.

May Parabrahmam bless us with the power to attain Brahma

Vidya. May the knowledge of Upanishad make us splendorous.

May the knowledge we are acquiring help us to understand it

(Braahmam) very well.

May envy never enter between us, the disciple and the Guru.

May the Aadhyatmika, Aadhibhautika and Adhidaivika, Taapams

rest in peace.

The second valli – Brahmamanda valli – comes after the disciple

has learnt samhitopasanas, vhyahrutyupasanas and paamktha

brahmopasanas in the Sikshaa valli. The Sikshaa valli is basically a

preparation for Brahmamanda Valli. In this valli, the quintessence of

Upanishadic teaching, namely, Brahma vidya, is being taught.

May no obstacles take place while teaching (By the guru) and

receiving (By the disciple) this Nirguna Brahmhopasana. You protect

me if I do not understand what my guru teaches me out of my

ignorance or if I misunderstand.

Anuvakam-1

Slokam-1 :

[In Sikshavalli, it is through Upasanas normally found in Karma

kanda of Vedas that the worshipping of Aatma was taught. Vedas advise

such upasanas and other karma kanda for the purpose of chittha

suddhi, the purification of the mind, which is essential for acquiring

jnana.

Since name and form of a visible power are at the core of

Vyahruttis, ignorance is not destroyed through them completely. This

ignorance or non-knowing of the Brahmam is Avidya. Hence, in

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Ananadavalli, the worshipping of Brahmam who has no name and form

is taught. The destroying of Avidya itself is the benefit from acquiring

Brahmajnana. Destroying Avidya directly results in realization of

Aatma. To prepare the Sadhaka to move from the visible to the non-

visible, from known to the unknown, from form to the form-less,

initially, Vyahrutis were taught and now, worshipping of the nameless

and formless Parabrahmam is being taught. In other words the path

was paved to attain chittha suddhi first, which is essential for moksha

in Siksha valli. Ananda valli takes on further and destroys Avidya

completely, giving the sadhaka the benefit of Moksha or Brahma vidya.]

He who realizes Brahmam attains moksha, which means, he

himself becomes Brahmam. Satyam, Jnanam, Anantam are the three

other names of Brahmam.

He who attains to Brahma Jnana, realizes Brahmam in (the cave

of) his heart and he enjoys the fulfillment of all his desires. [Param

means Moksham or Para Brahmam]

From Brahmam, was born the space or Akasa. Akasa means the

Space or Soonyam. From Akasa, Vayu is born. From Vayu, Agni is born.

From Agni, water is born. From water, Pruthivi (Earth) is born.

[Sabda or sound is the characteristic of Akasa, which is the

repository of all sounds. Akasa provides space or place for all objects

and beings. Vayu has the characteristic of Touch or Sparsha. This touch

or Sparsha characteristic is the characteristic of Skin in beings.]

Vayu also is born from Brahmam, through its immediate parent,

namely Akasa. Brahmam is the kaaranam (cause) and Akasa is the

Karyam (effect). Likewise, now, Akasa is the Kaaranam and Vayu is

the karyam.

What is available in Kaaranam alone can be derived by the

Karyam. Nothing else can come to karyam – other than what

kaaranam can give to it. In that sense, Space also derives all

characteristics from Brahmam and is therefore Brahmam in itself. So

also, Vayu, derives from sky, who derives from Brahmam – and

therefore Vayu also is Brahmam only.

In like manner, Agni, water and Pruthivi are all Brahmam only.

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Agni derives all characteristics of Sabda or sound (from sky), Sparsha

(from Vayu) and Roopam (from Agni itself) which is visibility whereas,

Akasa and Vayu are formless.

From Agni Brahmam, Jalam is born. For Jalam or water, the subtle

guna is Rasam or taste. Jalam acquires Sabda, Sparsha, roopa and, in

addition, the characteristic of Rasa. From this Jala Brahmam, Pruthivi

(earth) was born. The subtle nature of Pruthivi is Gandham or smell.

Therefore Pruthivi acquires Sabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa and, in addition,

the characteristic of Smell (Gandha).

From this Pruthivi Brahmam, Oshadhees (Herbal medicines) were

born. Oshadhees also incorporate vegetation, grains etc., The ancient

wisdom is – all vegetation is medicine for some problem of the beings.

From Oshadhees, Annam (Food) is born. From Annam, sperm is born.

From sperm, Purusha is born with hands, legs and other limbs. Not

only Purusha but all creatures are created only with Annarasam. In

this way from Parabrahmam to Purusha Brahmam or Jeeva Brahmam

are evolved.

In this manner, our body is formed with Pancha bhoothas. Hence

it is called as Paancha Bhouthika Sareeram. Wherever an empty place

exists in our body, it is the Akasa there. In the same manner Vayu,

Agni, water and earth are all available in the Paancha Bhouthika

Sareeram. All these Pancha bhoothas have subtle characteristics or

gunas.

Those organs in the body that enjoy the subtle gunas and

knowledge about Pancha bhoothas are known as sense organs. The

subtle gunas of Pancha bhoothas are as follows. Akasa for speech, Skin

for touch, Eyes for form (roopam), Tongue for Rasam(taste), and Nose

for Gandham(Smell). In this order first pancha bhoothas are formed,

from them, the Oshadhees, from them the Annam (food), and from

Annam, the Purusha are created.

Now the organs of Purusha and its form are being explained to

us. Annam has transformed itself into sperm and became the cause

for creating all beings. Jeeva enters into mother’s womb. His head,

right hand, left hand, trunk with a tail are formed. This resembles

more or less a bird or a fish. Hence, while Purusha is described, these

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limbs only are mentioned.

The Purusha’s body is drawn like a picture. In that picture,

Purusha’s head is first formed. From there, his right hand forms, like

the right wing of a bird. Left hand forms like the left wing of a bird.

The trunk of a body is Aatma, or its physical representation. Below the

naval a long and strong tail is drawn, equal to the two legs of the

purusha.

The above description is the physical body of the man. The human

organism can also be described in terms of the five sheaths, or five

kosas, with which it is formed and forms a cover over the Aatma. The

outermost layer visible to us is called Annamaya Kosa, because it is

formed from Annam or food.

Within this Annamaya Kosa, pranamaya kosa exists; within

pranamaya kosa, manomaya kosa exists, within Manomaya kosa,

vijnanamaya kosa exists and within that, the Anandamaya kosa exists,

and within that, the self (Aatma) exists. These are explained later in

detail.

We can learn more about the Brahmam from these mantras.

Brahmam means Sathyam (truth), Jnanam(consciousness), and

Anamtam(infinite). These three are not adjectives of Brahmam but

they are the Brahmam; they are different ways of looking at Brahmam.

They are the definition of Brahmam. Brahmam is same as Satyam,

which is the same as Jnanam and which is the same as Anamtam.

Question: Brahmavetta attains moksha and absorbs in Brahmam.

If that is the case, are there two entities? How can we say that Aatma

and Paramatma are one and the same? Is it not contradictory? A story

is narrated to clarify this doubt.

Ten people were traveling together. They all crossed a river by

swimming across the same, as there was no boat. After reaching the

other side, they wanted to make sure whether all of them have safely

crossed the river or not. All of them stood in a line and one of them

came out of the line and counted all in the line (except himself, who is

not in the line but is counting).

Then, another man came out and counted, again leaving himself

out. This way, all of them counted and found that only nine have

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reached the shore. But who is the missing TENTH person? That they

could not find! They started weeping for the missing and unknown

tenth person. A wise man was passing through that side, saw their

plight and asked them the reason for their grief. They said they were

ten before crossing the river but now they were able to count only

nine. They were unable to locate who is the tenth person that drowned

in the river. Then the wise man first assured them that nobody has

drowned and the TENTH man was in fact available. They felt happy at

this declaration, but wanted him to show the tenth man. The wise

man asked all of them to stand in line and counted all the ten of them

to their satisfaction. He explained to them, how each of them was not

COUNTING HIMSELF. This was out of ignorance of the existence of

the self – that they were counting all else. Thus, their ignorance

disappeared and they felt wiser and happier that none of them

drowned in the river. The moment Avidya (Ignorance) disappeared,

they attained knowledge. This is so for all of us. We do not know our

self and we do not count our self. Once we know our self, we become

wise; we realize the self or the Brahmam and thereby we attain to the

Brahmam, who is none other than our own self. Now, let us know some

more details about the Koshas, which act as a cover for Aatma.

Brahmam is nameless, formless and has no characteristics at all.

He is nirguna. So experiencing Brahmam is not possible ordinarily,

with the five senses and the mind that we possess. For the same reason,

it is difficult to visualize the Aatma and Paramatma and their non-

dual nature. This can only be experienced with the specialized

knowledge called Brahmajnana or Brahma Vidya. To know such subtle

matters, it is necessary to teach in a subtle way only.

We can easily identify Annamaya kosa, which is our Gross Body;

but we cannot so easily visualize the other bodies, which are subtler

than the Gross body. We cannot experience the Aatma which is covered

by all the five sheaths, and is the subtlest of all. Therefore it becomes

necessary to acquire the knowledge of Annamaya, Pranamaya,

Manomaya, Vignanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas. To make it more

clear, let us look at the following example.

On Vidiya (the 2nd day after amavasya, the no-moon day), the

moon appears as an insignificant, small curve in the sky. Since it is so

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thin on that day, it would be better to see this thin moon by focusing

through another object, like, in between two tree branches or sub-

branches. In the first place, the onlooker will look at the tree, then at

its branches, then at its sub-branches and then at its leaves, and finally

at the moon, in between those leaves.

In the same manner let us concentrate on the Annamaya Kosa

itself and try to see it as the Aatma. Once this identification is fairly

complete, we can move to the Pranamaya kosa and assume it as Aatma.

Now, both Annamaya and Pranamaya kosas look like Brahmam to us.

When this concept of Aatma moves from one Kosa to another Kosa, it

slowly fixes its concentration on Brahmam, deep within all the five kosas.

For reaching the Aatma, all the above Kosas act as steps for the

sadhaka.

We can see from another related perspective. Jeeva has three

bodies – called the Gross, subtle and causal bodies. The physical body

is the Annamaya Kosa. That means it is associated with the

Karmendriyaas or organs of action .

Subtle body: This lies within the Gross physical body. In this

subtle body Pranamaya, Manomaya and Vignanamaya Kosas reside.

The inner rudiment of the body: This Kaarana Sareera is

responsible (cause) for the formation of physical and subtle bodies.

Hence it is known as Karana Sareera or Causal Body.

Even when the physical and subtle bodies sleep, the Kaarana

Sareera is awake and is shining inside. But, Avidya (Ignorance) or lack

of knowledge of self is the reason for its innocent Aananda or shining.

This Kaarana Sareera itself is Ananadamaya Kosa. In one sense, all the

Pancha kosas (and Sareera thraya) are also Brahmam only but in

another aspect, they are not Brahmam,– because, they are covered

with Avidya.

Though the worship of Anna Brahma, Prana Brahma, Mano

Brahma, Vignana Brahma are explained in Ananadavallee, the main

object of Upanishads is to attain the Parabrahmam.

Anuvakam-2

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Slokam-2 :

All the creatures on earth depend on it and are attached to it.

They are all created from Annam. These creatures continue to live on

Annam only. After their lifetime, they dissolve back into Annam itself

(Pancha bhoothas).

Since Annam was born first, it has become the Kaaranam for all

the beings. So, for all beings, Annam is the cause (kaaranam) of their

birth, the reason to live and finally, the reason for their death. For all

beings Annam is the medicine that relieves hunger, thirst and other

needs. He who has this knowledge of Annam and worships Annam as

Brahmam, will receive all types of Annam as much as he needs. This is

called Annabrahma Swaroopa Upasana.

Annam was born first. All other beings (bhoothas) were born

later. Since it is consumed as food by all the bhoothas , it is named as

Annam. Annam itself is also eating all the bhoothas. For this reason

also, it is known as Annam (and as annadam, as we will see later). Thus,

it is like a cycle that all bhootas eat Annam and Annam also eats all

bhootas.

The Pranamaya (Kosa) lives within the Annamayakosa (as its

Aatma). The Pranamaya Aatma fills the Annamaya kosa fully. As the

balloon is filled with air, this Pranamaya Aatma is also having its head,

hands, trunk, tail and appears like a Purusha.

In this Pranamaya Koas, Prana vayu is the head. Vyana Vayu is

right side or right hand. Apana Vayu is its left side or left arm. The

trunk is the samana vayu. Udana vayu is its handsome tail.

All these Kosas (bodies) are used here to first make visible the

Brahmam inside them. We are eliminating each Kosa by saying it is

not Brahmam, but the one that is inside it is. It is like climbing to the

roof by its steps. At each step, we say it is not the roof. Finally we

reach the roof. Finally we attain the Brahmam.

Prana Vayu= The air we breathe in with the nose.

Vyana Vayu= when the breathe is stopped, it keeps the prana

inside.

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Apana Vayu= It pulls all the weight downwards or towards the

bhoomi.

Samana Vayu= which spreads in the Akasa inside the body.

Udana Vayu= which travels upwards and helps at the time of

death.

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Anuvakam-3

Slokam-3 :

All Devatas, and Indriyas inside the body function, based on Prana.

This is applicable for humans and all other creatures. This means that,

because of Prana only, all of our organs are working. Therefore Prana

Vayu is the life for all beings. That is why worship or Upasana of Prana

is said to ensure longevity or long life. If Prana leaves the body of a

creature, that creature dies immediately. This means that – whoever

worships the Pranamaya Aatma or Pranamaya Brahmam who resides

inside the Annamaya Aatma or Annamaya Kosa, will have long life.

Here long life is normally said to be hundred years. Whatever

characteristic one wants to improve in one’s own self, he may aspire

for that Guna and worship the Brahmam, and he will be blessed with

such effective Gunas or characteristics.

Manomaya Aatma resides inside the Pranamaya Aatma.

Manomaya Aatma is responsible for all Sankalpas and Vikalpas. It is

also known as Anthakaaranam (conscience).

Yajur Veda is the head, for manomaya Aatma. Rig Veda is the

right side. Sama Veda is the left side. Adharvana Veda is the tail.

Brahmamam (or aadesam or orders) is the trunk.

[The mantras of Yajus (details of the performance of sacrifices)

have no restriction of number of Paadhas or Aksharas. They end with

words like ‘Swaha’ while performing yagnas and are more effective

than the Rigvedic Ruks or prayers. Therefore Yajus is said to be the

head. All the mantras pertain to the mind. If these mantras are repeated

again and again, the repetition is called Japam. Manasa Japam (Silent

prayer) is prescribed in many Vedic karmas]

Anuvakam-4

Slokam-4 :

Mind, speech and other organs have no power to reach

Brahmam, but come back to their owner unsuccessfully.

But, only those who worship Brahmam and attain to him will

become fearless.

Manomaya Aatma resides in Pranamaya Aatma. Inside the

Manomaya Aatma, Vignanamaya Aatma also resides and pervades all

over Manomaya Aatma.

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[We learnt that Manomaya Aatma is itself Vedaatma. When the

Vedarthas are fixed in mind, which remains fearless and undeterred,

such a steady buddhi or intellect is called as Vignana. Learning the

meanings of Veda is different and retaining all that knowledge firmly

in mind is different. The latter is very important. Such a firm Intellect

is of the nature of Anthahkaranam. Vignana Aatma is he who decides

by such a firm Vignana. The yagnas and other Vedic rituals are

performed by Vignanamaya only]

He who attains such a Nischayatmaka buddhi (intellect with a

firm conviction) in Veda vihitha karma, develops great Sraddha which

is very important for Sadhakas. This Sraddha in the Vignanamaya

Aatma is very important for sadhaka like the head. [Sradha means

implicit faith in Sastras, in learning such Sastras and faith in practicing

them. ]

For this Vignanamaya Aatma, Rutham is on its left side. Rutham

means the prescribed course of conduct as said in Sastras

Satyam is on its right side. Here Satyam means performing by

speech and actions, of what is said by Rutham.

Yogam means, a state in which a yogi has withdrawn the whole

of his consciousness. Yogam also is Aatma. Puccham means the tail

which implies that, Mahat enables one in Yoga to stand firmly. Maha

tatvam means Hiranyagarbha. This Hiranyagarbha was born first and

all others came later. Therefore, Hiranyagarbha also is treated as

Aatma.

Anuvakam-5

Slokam-5 :

Vignana – which means vijnanamaya Kosa performs yagna and

other Veda-prescribed karmas. This means – only the possessor of

such Vignana performs Vedic and other prescribed vedic (worldly)

karmas.

Because he alone retains all the knowledge that is said in Vedas

with firm conviction, such a Vignani is Vignana Brahma. Since Vignana

Brahma was created first, Indra and other Devatas worship him. That

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is why they are rich in Vignana.

While worshipping this Vignana Brahma one should ignore

Annamaya and all other Kosas. The person who worships Vignana

Brahma exclusively, all his sins are destroyed and he will attain to the

form of Vignana Brahma himself.

[What is the basis for destroying all sins? When we have

attachment to the body, we do all karmas. Because of karmas, sins

come to the doer. If he does not have any attachment to the body and

feels he himself is Vignana Brahma, from where the sins can come

and attach to him? This means that, he destroys his sins also along

with the body. He enjoys himself being the Brahmam]

Vignanamaya Kosa is different from Vignana Brahmam. While

one is the sheath for the lower kosa, vignanna Brahmam is the Aatma

swaroopam controlling the vignana, and sadhaka can attain to such

Vignana Brahma. Anandamaya Kosa is the inner level sheath to the

Vignanamaya Kosa. This Anandamaya is also a form of Purusha.

[Here Anandamaya is not Paramatma. He is also a Jeeva like

Annamaya etc. Anandamaya means he who is enjoying bliss]

For this Vignanamaya kosa, Priyam is the head. Priyam means

the feelings of affection which Sadhaka gets while seeing his near

and dear ones and things which he likes much. Modam is its right

wing. Here Modam means - happy feeling, when Sadhaka possesses

the things which are Priyam to him. Pramodam is its left wing. This is

also another form of happiness, which Sadhaka feels when actually

enjoying the things of priyam nature and others also can see this in

him. Anandam is when the karta, the possessor, the karma, the one

which is enjoyed, and the karma, the act of enjoying become all one.

Here, there is no OTHER THING, which you enjoy. Everything is You.

This joy is Anandam and it is Aatma. This Anandam is much superior

to the expression of happiness described earlier. This is the tail for

the Brahmam.

The emphasis here is that the whole world arises from Avidya

or Ignorance. This Avidya is divided into the pancha kosas in us. And

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they cover the Aatma – that is us. The Aatma is the reality covered by

the five kosas of Avidya.

Anuvakam-6

Slokam-6 :

Whoever says that there is no Brahmam is as good as not living.

Because he doesn’t accept Vedas and the dharmas that are instructed

in Sastras, which act as the ladder for reaching the Brahmam. In other

words he is an atheist or Naasthika.

Whoever believes in Brahmam is living. Because he accepts

Vedas and its Dharmas to reach Brahmam. He practices Purusharthas

and thus he is a theist or Asthika.

Anandamaya kosa is Aatma for Vignanamaya kosa , because

Anandamaya is residing in Vignanamaya and pervading it totally.

Anandamaya is the nearest to Brahmam and the thinnest of the kosas.

Very little separates it from Brahmam. Yet, it is also Avidya and

therefore a sheath by itself within which Brahmam resides.

Now the disciple may possibly entertain some doubts. They are

to be clarified to him.

1. If someone is not a learned person and hence does not know

Brahmam, will he attain moksha after his lifetime? Will he reach the

abode of Brahmam or not?

2. Will a learned person who understood the Brahmam, attain

moksha , after his life time here, or not?

Before we answer these questions let us decide whether

Brahmam is residing here or not. Brahmam is described as Satyam,

Jnanam, Anantham. If this Brahmam does not reside in a being who

else is breathing all the time and then leaving the Prana. Who is

responsible for the creation and living of all bhoothas? If an object is

produced, there must be a cause which is responsible for its creation.

For instance if there is a tree, there is a seed that is responsible for

the tree, because tree cannot be created from nowhere. So we have

to accept that there is a causal factor, and that only is described as

Brahmam. The soil is inanimate whereas the seed has consciousness.

Which means there is a desire in it to sprout and become a tree. The

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desire is not lifeless. For the other two questions the answer is dealt

with in the next chapter.

Brahmam is one and alone. He made his sankalpa to become

several. For this purpose, Brahmam did tapasya and acquired

proficiency of creation. With that proficiency, the creation was made

with movables (animate) and immovables (inanimate). He created all

beings based on their karma phalams and he himself started to live in

them; which means, he who created and he who lived in all the

creatures is the Brahmam himself.

[While Brahmam was alone, all the beings were (absorbed) in

himself. He wanted to become several means he wanted to bring them

out, all the beings that are living in himself. In the beginning all the

beings were absorbed in himself whereas with his Sankalpa, he brought

them out and started living in all beings. Jnana is this thinking of

creating the beings. The created beings were placed in Desa (Place),

Kala (time), Naama(Name) and Roopa (form) wheel, based on their

karma phalams, and all the beings were ordained to enjoy day and

night]

Having created the animate and inanimate creation, he started

living in those beings. In other words before the creation he was alone.

After the creation also he alone was living in all the beings. He alone is

living in the hearts of all beings and from there he is watching, hearing,

learning, thinking, and acting in many ways. Behind all of our actions

and experiences, the real experiencer is the creator himself.

Having entered into his own creations, Brahmam became – (i)

Sath (or, moortham- which means, earth, water and fire which are

visible); (ii) Amoortham (vayu and Akasa, which are not visible)

(iii)Niruktam (definable in terms of place and time) (iv)Aniruktham

(Nor definable like niruktam) (v) Nilayam (support place, like earth,

water and fire) (vi)Anilayam (without support like Akasa and air) (vi)

Vijanana (Beings with intellect) (vii)Avijnana (lifeless things

(viii)Satyam(here, it is vyaavaharika Satyam, not absolute) and

(ix)Anrutham (means here, Prathibhasika Satyam). In other words –

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Brahmam is everything that is. For that reason only, Brahmavettas

defined Brahmam as Satyam.

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Anuvakam-7

Slokam-7 :

Now the questions of a disciple is being answered.

Before the creation, there was only Brahmam without form or

name. That formless and nameless Brahmam only – expressed himself

(or created himself) in the form of all beings with several names and

forms. In other words, Brahmam, in the form of Jagath, is the “self-

created” one and therefore, he is known as ‘Sukrutam’. Sukrutam

means self made.

Brahmam was born all by himself. He only is the source for the

Ananda in the Jagath. Those who attained his Ananda Swaroopa are

also attaining Ananda. If that Ananda Swaroopa is not residing in our

heart, who is doing the breathing in us? The body is eating and drinking

and acting in many ways because of Brahmam only. Who is enabling

this inert body to do all these deeds? It is Brahmam only.

Hence we have to agree that Brahmam exists. This Aatma or

Brahmam alone is keeping all lokas in comfort. The Sadhaka who firmly

believes that he and Brahmam are one and the same will have

absolutely no fear. The Sadhaka who learns that Brahmam is invisible,

is without the body, is without any changes, and is without the need

for any support is not afraid of Brahmam, especially because, he knows

that Brahmam is one without a second and he himself is a part of

Brahmam and is therefore Brahmam himself.

The Sadhaka gets entangled in fear if he differentiates himself

from Brahmam or Paramatma. In other words if one thinks that there

is someone else who destroys all the creation, that thought will land

him in fear.

1. The Sadhaka who realizes that he and the Brahmam are

one and the same will not have any fear and hence we will

be entitled for moksha.

2. A Sadhaka who looks at Brahmam as a different entity from

his own self will entangle himself in the cycle of birth and

death. Hence he will not be entitled for moksha.

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3. A Sadhaka who feels that he is separate from Brahmam

cannot be out of fear; and therefore, he also is not entitled

for moksha. In other words, unless one fixes his mind in

Advaita, he will not be entitled for moksha.

4. All Jeevas experience both Ananda (joy) and Bhaya (fear).

Both these emanate from outside the Jeeva and therefore,

from the Brahmam only – until, one realizes that one is

himself the Brahmam. Then, fear disappears totally.

Ananda does not come and go. One himself becomes

Ananda.

Anuvakam-8

Slokam-8 :

Because of the fear of Brahmam only, wind is blowing; Sun and

Moon are rising and setting in a disciplined way; and Devatas like

Indra, Agni, Yama and others are working in a disciplined manner to

carry out their duties without fail. Though all of them are Devatas,

they are working in a disciplined manner because of fear of Brahmam

who is above all of them. In a different way, we can say, because

Brahmam is the Antaryami in all these forces, these forces

automatically remain disciplined.

To understand the reason for the fear of Brahmam who is

Ananda himself, one has to learn more about the Brahmam who is

also Ananda Swaroopa. This Anandam is not worldly happiness.

Worldly happiness is like a small bridge between one grief to another

grief. The small patch of bridge in between is the worldly happiness.

Whereas Ananda of Brahmam is bliss which is eternal.

It is repeatedly said that the bliss or the eternal Ananda is eligible

for those who - 1. Perform the vihita karmas prescribed in Vedas,

thereby purifying their Minds. 2. Those who follow good practices and

habits (Sadhachara). 3. Those who have no desires.

Brahmamanda is of the highest, un-describable variety of

Aananda. But, below that level, we can differentiate several levels of

Aananda.

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We have many worldly pleasures in this creation.

1. A human being, who has noble goals, good power of

sankalpa to achieve them, strong enough for his aims, one

who is well versed in Vedas etc, well behaved, and in the

best of youth, if he also becomes the emperor of the earth

– his Ananda, called the manushya, let us say, it is one unit.

2. There is a Mid-category between humans and a category

of Devatas called Gandharvas. These Manushya-

Gandharvas enjoy Ananda of a hundred times superior

nature compared to such best human being.

3. The actual Deva Gandharvas (born as such) enjoy hundred

times more Ananda than Manushya-Gandharvs.

4. The human ancestors who, by their Great Karmas, have

attained to some superior permanent Lokas – enjoy hundred

times more Ananda compared to Deva-Gandharvas.

5. The Ajaanajaas (a class between pitru Devatas and Devatas)

enjoy hundred times more Ananda compared to Pitru Devatas.

6. The Karma Devatas, who have achieved the status of Devatas –

enjoy hundred times more Ananda, compared to Ajaanajaas.

7. The actual Devatas (by their birth), enjoy hundred times more

Ananda, compared to Karma Devatas.

8. The King of Gods, Indra, enjoys hundred times more Ananda,

compared to other Devatas.

9. Deva Guru, Bruhaspati enjoys hundred times more Ananda,

compard to Indra.

10. Prajapati (Virat Purusha) enjoys hundred times more Ananda

than Brihaspti.

11. Hiranya Garbha, who pervades the entire vyashti and

Samashti srushti, and is also called Soothratma, enjoys

hundred times more Ananda than that of Prajapatis.

12. Here stops the comparison, because upto this level, Ananda

goes on rising, but, at all levels, it is FINITE. The next level is

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that of Brahmam, who is Ananda himself, and is infinite.

13. All this comparison is given as an illustration that there are

higher and higher levels of Ananda that a Human being is

capable of achieving by his efforts to realize Brahmam.

14. What happens, when a Sadhaka realizes Brahmam? His

Ananda becomes absolutely limitless. Reason is – he himself

becomes Ananda, The whole of Ananda resides in himself, and

as himself, and it flows to all the above levels as described.

15. Those sadhakas, Who keep aside their superior and

inferior qualities and identify totally with Satyam, Jnanam

and Anantam and completely realize that they and the

Brahmam are one and the same, they will leave this world

transcending the Annamaya Aatma., which dissolves in

Pranamaya Aatma, which dissolves in Manomaya Aatma,

which dissolves into Vignanamaya Aatma; and finally, the

Vignanamaya and Aanandamaya also dissolve and fix in

Brahmam. In this manner, gradually the dualistic thinking

dissolves totally and the Jeeva is absorbed in Brahmam.

Anuvakam-9

Slokam-9 :

We are trying to understand and know the Parabrahmam who

is Satyam, Jnanam and Anantham with the help of our mind and speech

powers. Speech can reveal anything only about tangible and limited

things. It can give limited explanations about their characteristics, in

order to identify them. Mind also can imagine and think of limited

entities and not of Ananta Brahma. So, how can we know about the

unlimited Brahmam? Our speech and mind will just return back to us,

failing in their attempt to reach or explain Brahmam. Speech and Mind

have limited capabilities and they also come from the Brahmam. They

cannot therefore know their creator who has given their powers to

them. Their Powers extend to the rest of the Universe, but not to their

creator and benefactor. They can know things which are knowable to

them. Not to the one which knows them and is their activator.

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Therefore, Brahmam is said as – “avaak-manasa Gocharaha”.

He is unknowable through speech and Mind.

Jnanam is above the speech and mind. So Jnanan has no fear to

reach Brahmam. Nothing can infuse fear into those who have realized

Brahmam, because their earlier dualistic thinking was born out of

Avidya (ignorance) and it is now no more there in them.

If there is another one, a second, that can be a cause for fear. If

only Brahmam is there, and that Brahmam is myself, where is the

cause for any fear.

For the one not yet realized of this, virtues and sins become a

cause of fear. The ignorant one will repent, why did I not commit

virtuous acts, before this death? Why did I commit sinful acts? He will

imagine the sufferings that he is going to suffer in the hell and repent.

Virtues and sins, good and bad acts, however, do not touch or

affect a Jnani, who has realized the Brahmam. Why? He understands

that both virtues and sins lead to grief only for the ignorant person.

[After enjoying the sinful karma phalam he has to undertake another

birth. In the same way, he can enjoy virtuous karma phalam also, but,

after that, he has to take another birth. The birth always ends up in

grief. A Jnani will realize this and he will keep away from both of them]

Ananda Swaroopa is above all dualities like sin and virtue, life

and death etc. The person who realizes Brahmam will strongly believe

that the virtues and sins are powerless on him. As the boiled seeds

cannot germinate, in the same manner his virtues and sins also do

not give him another birth. This secret is said in this Anandavalli portion

of this Upanishad. All his actions arise out of Jnanam and from his

realization of the Brahmam. Hence, their fruits do not come back to

him.

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BHRUGUVALLEE

Anuvakam-1

Slokam-1 :

Bhrugu went to his father Varuna and requested him to teach

Brahma Vidya. Varuna said Annam (food), Pranam (Prana vayu), eyes,

ears, mind and speech are all the instruments , or the Doors, through

which one can have knowledge of Brahmam. Varuna also told Bhrugu

that – “that from which jeevas, or beings, take birth, that because of

which these beings continue to live, and in which these jeevas dissolve

on their death – that, verily, is the Brahmam. Realize that Brahmam

through tapasya ( great meditation and penance).

Varuna here has indicated the sequence of –annam, pranam,

eyes, ears, mind and speech – which he considers as DOORS to

Brahmam. But, the final advice is – do Tapasya and find Brahmam.

Bhrugu is now going to adopt the same sequence for finding the

Brahmam through tapasya.

Anuvakam-2

Slokam-2 :

Bhrugu performed great tapasya, focusing on the Annam (food)

and understood Annam itself as Brahmam – as Annam is responsible for

the Birth, growth and death or dissolving of all Jeevas.

All grains, plants and vegetation do come out of earth, and they

become the food. From Annam itself all creatures are born, either

directly or in a sequence of modifications. From the same Annam, all

creatures grow and at the end, all the creatures die and get absorbed

in Pruthivi itself, to become annam again. So Bhrugu realized that

Annam was the Parabrahmam.

But, these characteristics were not enough to satisfy Bhrugu.

Annam did not satisfy the three criteria of Satyam, Jnanam and

Anantam by any method. So, he again had the same doubt as earlier

and asked his father, “who is Brahmam”.

But, Varuna tells him, – know the Brahmam through Tapasya.

He is knowable only through such Tapasya.

This time, Bhrugu makes tapasya on Pranam.

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Anuvakam-3

Slokam-3 :

After his deep tapasya on Pranam, Bhrugu realized that Prana is

Brahmam because all living beings are born from and are surviving

only on Prana. They lived in Prana and they are finally absorbed in

Prana.

But, while prana satisfied these criteria laid down by Varuna,

prana also did not satisfy the criteria of Satyam, Jnanam and Anantam

which are the embodiment of Brahmam. Prana is also not

consciousness, which the Brahmam is.

So with this doubt, he went again to his father and asked him to

teach, who is Brahmam. Then, Varuna again replied - do tapasya and

realize Brahmam. Bhrugu again went back and performed tapasya,

this time on Manomaya.

Anuvakam-4

Slokam-4 :

After tapasya, Bhrugu realized that Manas or mind is the Brahmam.

He discarded his earlier notions that Annamaya and pranamaya were

Brahmam.

Infact, all bhoothas are taking birth from the Manas. Because of

Manas only, they are living and because of it only they are dying. So

the reason for the creation of all beings is Sankalpam (desire) which

emanates in the mind. Because of Sankalpa, Prana is entering the body.

Even the desire of having children is also generated from Manas.

Therefore, Manas is responsible for birth. That means, it is the real

force behind birth and creation.

Having arrived at the conclusion that Manas is Brahmam, Bhrugu

again had doubts on his conclusion. An implement can never be

independent. It is wielded by someone else. So, manas has some other

master. So Manas is not Brahmam. All worldly activities are being done

by Manas. At the time of death, all Indriyas are entering the Manas.

That means, Indriyas stop working. So Manas is an absorbing factor.

Manas, like other Indriyas, is itself working like an instrument. Therefore

it is not independent and not Brahmam.

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With this doubt, Bhrugu again went to his father, Varuna, and

asked him – who is Brahmam. Again Varuna told Bhrugu, do tapasya

and realize the Brahmam.

Anuvakam-5

Slokam-5 :

Bhrugu did tapasya this time on vijnanamaya and realized that

Vignana was Brahmam. All beings are born from Vignana, grown up

with it and because of it; and finally get absorbed in Vignana.

Vignana is yagnam. For it, there must be a karta (doer). This

karta will have Kartrutwam, which means the feeling that, “I did it”.

Kartrutwam leads to Karmaphalam and Klesam (pain) whereas

Brahmam has neither Kartrutwam nor pain.

So Vignana cannot be Brahmam. [Vignana leads to action, action

leads to the birth of the body. that way Vignana creates beings. In the

same way it can cause destruction by way of wars etc. since Vignana

has Kartrutwam, it cannot be Brahmam. Vignana also does not satisfy

the criteria of Satyam, Jnanam and Anantam, to qualify for the status of

Brahmam]

Vignana means “ Deep knowledge of Veda and fixing the mind on

it”.

Bhrugu discards Vignanamaya also now because of this

reasoning.He goes back to Varuna with his original question – who is

Brahmam. Varuna again asks him to go and do Tapsya, to realize the

Brahmam.

Anuvakam-6

Slokam-6 :

Bhrugu again did Tapasya, this time on Anandamaya and realized

Ananda as Brahmam because all the creatures are born with Ananda.

They live with Ananda and they are always desiring for Ananda to

absorb in it and dissolve into it. This skill of mastering Ananda is called

Bhargavee Vaarunee vidya. One who masters this is said to get oneness

with Paramathma .

But, this ananda keeps coming and going and therefore cannot

be Brahmam which is permanent and unchanging. This Ananda is

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obviously not Anantam. It thrives on Avidya and not on Jnanam.

Therefore, Bhrugu feels Aanandamaya also is not Brahmam.

In this manner Bhrugu understood from his father that he tried

to realize Brahmam starting from Annamaya to Pranamaya to

Manomaya to Vijananamaya to, finally Ananadamaya Aatma. The

person who realizes that Ananadamaya Aatma is also not Brahmam

by his tapasya will really achieves oneness with Parmatma and

becomes Brahmam.

Why is AnandaMaya kosa not Brahmam?

It also has vikaras or changes and therefore, it is not Satyam. It

thrives on Avidya and not on Jnanam. It is also limited and not

Anantam. But, this realization gives the Sadhaka huge benefits and is

therefore called Bhargavee Vaarunee Vidya – a skill taught by Varuna

to his Son, Bhrugu.

But, is that all that the Sadhaka needs to know? The Upanishad

tells us certain important Sadhanas etc from the seventh Anuvakam

below :

Anuvakam-7

Slokam-7 :

(i) Food should never be criticized or abused. This is an

important Vrath or sadhana for the Brahmopasaka. To

achieve Brahmajnana, Annam is an important instrument

or Door, as stated by Varuna, the father of Bhrugu. So

Annam is very important and Sadhaka should never blame

the food. Brahmavettas view this Sadhana as a Vrath.

Actually, everyone in India is taught from Childhood to first

pray the food and then consume it as Brahmam’s prasada.

It is first made as naivedyam or Arpana to Brahmam,

signifying that all belongs to Brahmam. Then, it is taken

from Brahmam as Prasada, a benefit given by Brahmam’s

grace and then enjoyed. This is built into Indian culture

and should be practiced by all homes.

(ii) This body exists in Prana. And Prana also exists in the body.

Therefore, one type of Annam exists in another type of

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Annam. So Prana also is Annam. This body and Prana both

are Annam for each other. Since they both are

interdependent they are also becoming Annaadam.

Annaadam essentially means- the efficiency and ability to

enjoy the desired thing.

He who knows this and worships Annam and Pranam also as

Annam becomes well established in it and will have abundance of

Annam, Annaadam, children, cattle, and other wealth. Abundance here,

means – sufficient for all of his needs.

Anuvakam-8

Slokam-8 :

Annam should not be discarded and wasted. That is also a Vrath

for the Sadhaka. Water also is Annam. Agni is Annaadam, the ability to

consume Annam.

Agni is ingrained in water and in turn, water is ingrained in Agni.

Each of them is Annam for the other and each also becomes annaadam

for the other.

[The water (and Annam also) that we take are digested because

of Jatharagni, the fire in the Belly. So Jalam is Annam. Jatharagni is

Annaadam. Water also is the source of Jatharagni or the fire inside

the food sack. One is Agni for the other, and one is also food for the

other. Because of Agni, water comes out in the form of sweat and

water consumes the heat and reduces the Agni. In this manner water

and Agni- are both Annam and Annaadam for each other. That means

they are interdependent on each other]

Whoever worships with this knowledge gets sufficient Annam

and other needs. He becomes a good Annaadam. The person with this

knowledge will have Brahmavarchas and becomes a glorious person.

Anuvakam-9

Slokam-9 :

Why a man should acquire more Annam? He has to secure his

needs for himself, for his guests, for his family and others. How to

secure food? It should be secured in a righteous way.

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For a Upasaka, and Brahmavetta, land is Annam. Akasa is

Annaadam. Actually, Akasa is on the Bhumi, while Bhumi also is on

Akasa. Each one is becoming a support for the other. This means,

Bhumi and Akasa are Annam for each other and annadam for each

other both. They are thus inter-dependent on each other.

Those who worship Pruthivi and Akasa in this manner, with this

knowledge, will get sufficient Annam, wealth etc. He becomes a good

Annaadam as well. He shines with Brahmavarchas and becomes

glorious.

Anuvakam-10

Slokam-10 :

As explained in chapter-9, those who worship earth and sky must

also respect their guests by providing food and shelter to them.

Worshipping guest is an ancient, continuing Indian tradition. To pursue

this objective, one has to secure as much food as needed for these

objectives in a righteous way.

The benefits of worshipping guests is stated as below.

One should worship the guest as a god. In whatever manner, at

whatever timings, and with whatever thoughts, we serve a guest that

same treatment, we, as the host, will get back the same honour in his

same or the next birth even from our childhood. Worshippng Gust

like as God who has come to us is the Sathvic Guna way of serving

Food.

In case, a guest is accommodated with hesitation and with a

feeling of compulsion, such a host will get sufficient food and wealth,

but only at his middle age in his next birth. This is the Rajasic way of

serving food. In case, one refuses to offer food to a guest and finally

gives some alms with a heavy heart, such a person will get food at the

end of his life in next birth, with great difficulty. This is the tamasic

way of treating a guest with food.

Now, we must imagine what will befall that person, who does

not offer any food to any guest in his life time!

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Anuvakam-11

Slokam-11 :

In this chapter we are taught the way in which we have to assume

Brahmam and worship.

Yogam means = Getting to posses what we are not possessing.

Kshemam means = Protecting what we already have secured.

How to worship Brahmam at all times, in all places and in all

actions?

In speech, we must always speak of welfare of all (or, the Good

of all) and see Brahmam in it.

In Inhalation and exhalation, Prana and apana, we must assume

Brahmam as possessing (Yogam) and securing (kshemam). Yogam

and kshemam generally connote that we receive God’s blessings as

Yogam and we keep it as Prasada or kshemam.

We must worship all actions performed by hour ands seeing in

them Brahmam all the time.

We must worship Brahmam as the power of movement in our

legs.

We must worship the excretion process in the anus as Brahmam.

The above are Upasanas pertaining to our body – or adhyathmika

Upasanas. Now will see adhi-daivika Upasanas- pertaining to acts of

God.

We must see Brahmam in the form of our happiness and

contentment in the rains that come.

We must see the strength of Lightening as symbolic of Brahmam

and worship Brahmam in it.

In olden days cattle was considered as wealth. By sacrificing their

wealth in yagnas, people achieved glory. We must worship Brahmam

in the cattle wealth and their glory for us. Basically, these are all stated

to emphasize that Brahmam is the giver of all wealth forms and it all

belongs to him.

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We are benefited with the light from stars (including sun and

moon). So we must worship Brahmam in the light from all of them.

We derive Ananda from the birth of the children and we are

relieved from the parental debt of our ancestors. Children originate

in the organs of reproduction. Therefore, the process of reproduction,

the organs of reproduction, and the children they give must all be

worshipped as Brahmam.

Akasa is a great source for Upasana. We have to assume Akasa

as Brahmam and worship Akasa. It can be worshipped as Brahmam,

as Mahat or as Manas –each of which gives different fruits of worship.

It can also be worshipped as the memory power, as Namaskara power,

and so on.

It can be worshipped straight as Brahmam, which makes the

Upasaka a brahmajnani. It can also be worshipped as the weapon of

destruction of the Brahmam, in which case, the enemies will get

destroyed.

In the worship of Akasa as Brahmam, the fruit (phalam) is

Brahmam itself. By worshipping Brahmam in this manner, the

worshipper is becoming Brahmam.

Anuvakam-12

Slokam-12 :

The Aatma in Purusha and the Aatma in Sun are one and the

same.

The Sadhaka who has worshipped Brahmam in this form, after

his death, will transcend Annamaya, Pranamaya Manomaya,

Vignanamaya and Anandamaya Aatmas and becomes one with

Brahmam.

He can go on travelling all over the different worlds, singing the

Saamagana (the song of Saama Veda) as “ This is the wonder! I am the

purest, liberated swaroopa Aatma, myself. I, the paramatma is myself

the Annam, I am also the Annandam, I am also the bhakta, I am the

composite form”.

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I am the Hiranyagarbha who prevailed even before this creation

with form and formless state. Whoever feeds me, who is the Annam

to the needy persons, I will become the source of that Annam for him.

Because I am the Annam and the centre for Amruta Tatwam.

Whoever eats without feeding others, I will eat such a person.

I am the winner and destroyer of all lokas. My brightness is as

bright as that of the Sun Whoever worships me, understanding all

this greatness of me, as Brahmam, he also becomes a jeevan-mukta

(liberated before death) much like me.

This is the end of the Upanishad.

Here ends the Bhruguvallee amd the Taittireeya Upanishad.

Uttara Santi Pathamu

Om Santihi Santhi Santihi

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Isavasyopanishad

This Upanishad starts with the mantra of ‘Esavasyamidhagum

Sarvam’. It is for this reason that it is called Easopanishad or

Easavasyopanishad. This belongs to Sukla Yajur Veda and finds a place

in the vajasaneya samhita in it.

Depending on the time of their creation, historians say that

Tyttireeya, Bruhadaranyaka, Chandogya, Itareya, Kauseetaki are the most

ancient Upanishads.

Eesavasya, Katha, Swetashwatara and Mandookya – are said to be

later Upanishads.

The mantras in Easavasyopanishad reveal to us the reality of the

Aatma in us via a vis the Brahman in the Universe, as there is always a

confusion about these entities.

This Upanishad, like most other Upanishads, is mainly intended

to remove our ignorance (avidya) and pave the way for realizing the

Self or Aatma.

The Upanishad finally reveals to us that Aatma and Paramatma

are one and the same, though we tend to mistake one with the

individual self and think it as different from the cosmic self.

There are eighteen mantras in Easavasya. Though the Upanishad

is small, its contents are highly valuable for the Sadhaka / Seeker of

this divine knowledge.

Let us try to learn in a simple way what is revealed in these

eighteen mantras.

1. Teaches about Easa, which means the Brahman.

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2. Karma is recommended for those who are conscious of body.

3. Condemns ignorance and highlights its adverse effects.

4-5. The reality and the Nature of Aatma.

6-7. The state of a Jnani who does not differentiate.

8. One who has realized the Aatma and is Established in it.

9. Condemning the performance of Karma and worship - one

without the other.

10. The fruits of karma and worship.

11. Fruits of Coordination of karma and worship.

12. Worship of Vyakta and Avyakta separately.

13. The results of the above worship in Mantra-12.

14. Co-ordination of Vyakta and Avyakta.

15-16. Prayer of the worshiper to show him the path.

17-18. Prayer (Worship) of a person to the God of Sun and to the

God of Agni .

Santi Paatam

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

The Paramatma is complete and infinite (Poornam). So is the

Aatma (Or Aaatman), which also is poornam. From the Paramathma,

which is poornam, is born the Aatma, which is also Poornam by itself.

After the Aatma is born out of Paramathma, the Parmathma still

remains poornam.

Poornam is also called Paripoornam or sampoornam, and means

complete in all respects. In the context in which it is used in this Santi

Paatam, it also implies Anantam or Infinitiy.

Para Brahmam, which is the supreme entity is Anantham (infinite)

and Paripoornam (complete).

Aatma (which guides the body-mind complex of the Individual),

is also Anantham and paripoornam.

From the Para Brahmam, which is paripoornam, comes the Aatma,

which is also paripoornam in all respects.

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After the Aatma emerges from the Parabrahmam, both Aatma and

Parabrahman still remain infinite and complete.

Thus, both the Para Brahmam and the Aatma are complete and

infinite individually and together.

With the pure knowledge that arises in the self when Aatma is

realized, the individual comes to know that Paramatma and Aatma

are one and the same.

Therefore, it is said that Aatma and Pramathma are both

Anantham (Infinity), Satyam (Eternal truth), and Jnanam (Absolute

wisdom).

At the time of Pralaya, all mortal bodies are dissolved totally and

they disappear into para Brahmam.

Individual consciousness also merges into Para Brahmam and

becomes one with it. After and before Merger, they both are complete

and infinite – which means, they are both poornam, individually and

together.

We see a rope and mistake it as a serpent. When we go nearer

and examine it, we come to know that it is not serpent but only a rope.

Once that illusion or ignorance leaves us, we realize the fact that it is a

rope. Real knowledge removes the illusion (or ignorance) and makes

us know that it is only a rope and not a snake.

Out of ignorance, we assume that all the world that we see is

Poornam. At the time of Pralaya, this world merges into the real

Poornam which is the Parabrahmam and becomes one with it.

Therefore what then remains is only the Poornam which is Paramatma

(or Para Brahmam).

At the end of the Santi Paatam “Santihi” word is repeated thrice.

This is to remove the Taapaas (or Taapams) of three types from us.

Taapa in this context, means difficulty or obstacle. The three Taapaas

are,

1. Adhibhoutika = problems which come from other living beings.

2. Adhyatma = Problems born within us like physical and mental

Diseases etc.

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3. Adhidaivika s= Calamities like Earthquakes, famines etc, which

come from super human or natural forces – which are considered as

acts of God.

Mantra-1

The world is always changing. May everything in this world be

filled with the Paramathma! May you experience everything in this

world in this manner always. May you not seek (or covet) the wealth

of others.

All movables and immovables on earth are created by

Paramatma. They do not and cannot belong to any one individually.

This thought is an illusion. None that we think we own, comes anywhere

with us. They stay wherever they are – except in our imagination.

Even when we die, they stay where they are and do not bother about

us at all.

If we realize this fact, we are release from this illusion. We will

then keep away from all the attachments to such things. Let us not

envy others because of their wealth. After all, whose wealth it is?

Neither theirs, nor ours.; all the wealth belongs to the Paramatma.

When we fixed our mind on it, we will not find any difference

between our individual self and the Para Brahmam. As such we will

not feel any deep attachments to any such things and we will not have

envy others for their wealth / other possessions.

We now understand that that all movables and immovables

belong to Paramatma.

However they are all basically engulfed in Avidya or ignorance.

So, we see them in different names, forms and actions. The waves and

the ocean are one and the same. All the qualities of ocean are there in

the waves. When a wave subsides, it merges back into the ocean. In

other words, it loses its identity. In the same way, our attachments

towards the spouse, children, and wealth are all like waves in the sea

of Para brahmam, and must be relinquished so that we keep the

totality of Para Brahmam in our view. Then, we come out from their

bondage.

In this manner we should save ourselves from Avidya

(ignorance) and stop running run behind wealth. Wealth doesn’t

belong to anyone.

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If we can think of the entire creation as our own self and see

ourself in the entire creation, we will not suffer from any attachment

towards any such impermanent wealth. Since entire creation belongs

to Paramatma it is better to do all acts without desire and attachment.

It is better to remain satisfied with what we have.

Mantra-2

As you desire to enjoy the worldly attachments, you can live for

a hundred years too, performing the desirable (or scripture-specified)

actions and duties only, and deriving their fruits. For living in such

worldly attachments and actions, this is the way, and there is no other.

These permitted karmas do not create bondages.

This mantra speaks of the person, who wants to live a life of

worldly attachments and actions.

For him karmas, which are desirable, and are scripture-permitted,

are proposed. In other words he is not to take the path of Jnana, for

which, he is not yet fit. He is to live performing the scripture-prescribed

course of actions.

Those who choose this path of karma, may pray for living

hundred years by performing such scripture-ordained Karma like,

yagnas and yagas. By this prayer, such person does not get attracted

to prohibited karmas, as said in Vedas.

The earlier Mantra was meant for one who seeks the eternal

wisdom of Upanishads. But, this Mantra is suggested for a person

who has not developed the spirit of detachment as yet.

How to differentiate between the two paths?

The difference between the karma and a Jnana path is distinct

and clear. It is not impossible to develop a spirit of detachment. In this

Mantra, it is said that the person, whose mind is inclined towards

karma, has to continue to live, performing the scripture-specified,

desirable karma and avoid the forbidden (Nishiddha)Karma.

In Mantra.1, it was said that the entire universe is filled with

Paramatma. One must see the Paramatma in everything and must not

be confused and lured by the forms of wealth around. One must keep

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away from the bondage to such wealth forms and protect himself

from such bondage.

Karma also acts as an instrument to know the reality of Aatma,

when one confines himself to the prescribed, vihita karma or desirable

karma. Such persons do karmas to become pure and sinless and

unattached to any bondages.

The aspirant of Jnana who strongly desires to relinquish

ignorance must however assume, “I am the Brahman, I am changeless

and I am permanent”. The difference between these two paths is

explained in the next Mantra.

Mantra-3

This Mantra says that - the worlds or places of abode (lokas) of

the daemons (Rakshasas) is engulfed in the deepest darkness. Those

who kill their own self are also thrown into such daemonic lokas.

Here, the deepest darkness represents the state of deep

ignorance (or avidya). The darkest lokas (or worlds) belong to the

asuras or Rakshasas who reside there.

Asuras means Rakshasas or the enemies of the Gods (the Suras).

But,, we must not go by this plain, external connotation of the terms

asura, loka etc.

Those who are in deepest darkness means and implies those

who are in Ajnana or Avidya. Those who do not know the existential

(eternal) truth of the oneness of Brahman are represented as the

people in deepest darkness.

Those who do not have the faith that Aatma and Paramatma are

the same oneness are said to be in ignorance. Even if they are Gods

(Devaas), if they do not have this knowledge, they are in deep

ignorance.

These ignorant persons, who do not know their Aatma are akin

to those who have virtually killed themselves. Self killing means not

knowing the self in body or mind. They are in darkness (Ignorance)

of their own self, so long as they do not know Aatma (or Aatman).

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Mantra-4

Aatma is motionless. Yet, it is much faster than the mind. Aatma

is just one single entity.

The Indriyaas can never reach to it. Even while being motionless,

Aatma moves faster than all others. It is far faster than all moving

beings and things. Because of the Aatma’s presence only, the Prana

can make all other organs of the body and mind function well.

The Mantra talks of many apparent yet not real, contradictions

here. It says that Aatma is motionless and it also says that it is faster

than the mind. These two statements superficially appear to be

contradictory. But if we realize that Aatma and Paramatma are a single

entity and all pervading, we understand that they are at all places.

Wherever Mind goes, Aatma is already present there, much before

the mind. In fact, it is always present everywhere.

Prana is moving in all organs of the body and giving them the

needed energy to perform their functions. But, Prana can do so, only

in presence of the Aatma, which is the cause of the energy of Prana

itself.

When Aatma is present, prana will be moving about in the body

and all other organs will function.

Because of Aatma only the Vayu in Antariksham (atmosphere)

in the form of Prana Vayu enters in all living beings and make them to

function.

Aatma itself keeps the power of Prana in the Vayu that is inhaled

and makes all living beings retain their consciousness. This

consciousness is necessary for all living beings to act in Pravrutti marga

(worldly way).

Mantra-5

Aatma is both motionless and moving. It is far away and very

near too. It is inside everything, and also outside everything.

This is another beautiful Mantra which explains the seemingly

contradictory nature of Aatma.

It reveals some more fascinating features of Aatma – which

outwardly seem contradictory.

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Aatma is motionless and at the same time, it moves faster than

all other things. It is far away but is also very near. It is inside all

beings; but, it is also outside of all the beings.

This contradiction can never be easily understood by avidya

(ignorance) and it is always known to the Jnani.

Aatma and Paramatma are one and the same entity. It is all

pervading, which means, it is everywhere. There is no place where it

is not present. When Aatma is inside the body, it is said to be inside.

But, when body dies, it is seen outside. But, all the time, it is both

outside and inside.

Also, since it is available at all places, wherever the mind goes,

Aatma is already present there. It is there where the mind (or any

moving object) starts its journey, and it is already there where the

mind reaches. So, it is non-moving; yet it seems to be moving. It seems

to be far away; yet it is also very near. It seems to be only inside us;

Yet it is also outside us.

This is our impression. But, the only quality of Aatma in reality

is – it is at all places, all the time.

For Jnanis it is easily accessible and cognizable whereas, the

ignorant persons cannot realize its presence and proximity for any

number of births.

Mantra-6

One who experiences all beings in the self, and the self in all

beings, cannot hate (dislike) any being.

In this mantra the state of a person who is a Samadarsi is

described.

He sees his inner self and the cosmic self in the same way.

Such a person who sees all creatures in himself and himself in

all creatures will not hate anyone.

Samadarsi is the Jnani who sees himself everywhere in all beings

(bhootas) and all beings everywhere in himself. Because of Jnana, he

does not differentiate between himself and others.

He does not keep any mental reservations, bias, phobias or other

weaknesses. The very same fact is also stated in Bhagavad Geeta

(5-18) about the Jnani. “He will not differentiate between a brahmin,

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a cow, an elephant, a dog and the person who eats the dog’s meat.

Such a person is said as Pandita or Jnani”. Such persons are known as

Samadarsis.

Mantra-7

For the person (or Jnani) who has realized that it is the Aatma

which has replicated itself as various bhootas (Beings) in the world,

how can there be any likes, longings and sorrows?

The Jnani who has attained Aatmajnana and knows his true nature,

looks at all bhoothas as his own self. Such a person is devoid of Avidya

(or ignorance), likes, illusions and grief.

Only a Samadarsi can keep away from such mental ailments such

as illusion, longing and grief.

The Jnani who knows that he is in all bhoothas will not have any

likes and desires. As a result he will not have either ignorance or grief,

which are the products of ignorance.

Mantra-8

Such a Jnani has understood the deeper significance of

everything and every being. His mind is under his own complete

control. The whole existential wisdom is his already. He is his own

controller and does not belong to any one. He only reaches to the

Paramatma, who is effulgent, without form and shape, total and

complete in himself, undivided and, absolutely pure and sinless.

Aatma is all-pervading like the Aakasa (Space). It is pure and

without form and shape (bodyless). Aatma is also Sinless and

blameless and has total control on the mind functions. The one who

has realized this is the Jnani.

Such a Jnani transcends birth and death. Avrana means complete

in itself; Asnaaviram means partless or undivided. The Jnani reaches

to such Paramatma, who is effulgent, formless, complete in himself,

divisionless in himself and above all pains and pleasures.

Paramatma is Swayambhoo, which means, he is born by himself.

All the creation, moving and non-moving, are under his control. He

regulates all functions in a disciplined manner. None can violate his

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dictates and discipline. Paramatma is likened to a Kavi, meaning, a

poet. Like Paramatma for the creation, Kavi acts as a creator for the

world of words. Thus, like a poet, he has created the Sabda Prapancham.

Like a human, he also made it as Artha Prapancham.(world of things)

Mantra-9

Whoever participates in and adores Avidya (or karma performed

in ignorance), falls into the deepest darkness. Whoever participates

in and pursues vidya (knowledge without karma) also drowns into

greater darkness.

In this mantra, worship of action (without knowledge) and

worship of knowledge (without action) are explained. It says that both

action and knowledge pursued one without the other, are insufficient

and leads to the continuation of life and death cycle incessantly.

They both are to be coordinated and performed together in such

a manner that both yield the right fruits to the seeker.

Those who worship Avidya (karma without understanding /

knowledge) invariably get into sorrow and pain in this life and life

after life and they sink lower and lower. This is what is meant by

‘immersed into darkness’.

Those who worship and pursue vidya (knowledge without

action) also get into pain and problems.

Gita advocates performance of karma, knowing where it leads

us. Likewise, Gita advocates acquisition of the right Jnana, even while

making the manas (mind) purer by the right karma and making it fit

for receiving the light of knowledge constantly.

This means that the right mix of both, i.e., performing right karmas

and pursuing right knowledge as prescribed in sastras is necessary.

Then only the sadhaka reaps the right fruits of his actions and

knowledge.

Mantra-10

The fruits of pursuit of vidya (knowledge) are of one kind. The

fruits of pursuit of avidya (Karma) is of a different kind. Great people

(Rishis) of the past explained their nature and it has been heard from

them like this- says the Guru.

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Upanishadic text is usually very brief and when a disciple goes

to a Guru, the Guru explains the Upanishad and clarifies all doubts

raised by the disciples. These are of course explained in greater detail

in other scriptures like Brahma sutras and Bhagavad Gita.

Karma or action performed without the requisite knowledge

always results in pain and suffering, not only in current birth, but in

future births too. It is well explained in the Gita and other scriptures.

Karma leads to three immediate results. (1) Duhkha misritatvam

(2) Bandhakatvam (3) atruptikarathvam. There is another result too,

which is called adrusta phalam. Every karma performed with a motive

and with kartritva bhavana gives a result which cannot directly be

linked and seen as the result of that particular karma.

There is no karma, which gives only happiness. All actions bring

pain and suffering also in varying degrees, along with some happiness

or other result. Every karma also creates a habit and binds the karta

to it. He is tempted to do that sort of karma again and again. No matter

how many times the karta does similar action, he will never feel totally

satisfied. He will feel discontentment to some level at least. These three

qualities are invariably found with the result of every karma –

performed with karthrutva bhavana (meaning, I am the one doing it –

for so and so result).

Most karmas also have a positive or negative motive, which

classifies the karma under dharmic or adharmic (Punya or paapa)

category. Now, this motive leads to an adrishta phalam, which will

come to the karta later on. One may get unexpected profits or losses

or accidents or diseases and so on at unexpected times, by such

motivated actions. The karma phalams are accumulated as sanchita

karma, and one has to carry it along with him even to next birth.

All this means, every karma leads the karta into problems and

deeper darkness of unhappiness.

What about the one who pursues and worships knowledge –

without action. It is still worse. Karma is a necessary ingredient to the

pursuit of knowledge, because, right knowledge comes only when

mind is pure. Mind becomes pure only by right actions. Else, knowledge

produces huge ego in the individual –which leads him into greater

problems than what avidya leads him into.

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Vidya and Avidya both lead to bondage individually. Neither of

them will lead to liberation and Paramatma. Even those who go to

Devalokam (Heaven) and Pitrulokam (the heavenly place for ancestors),

will have to return to earth after exhausting their punya phalam.

Thus, we find, Vidya gives one type of results and Avidya gives

another type. So, how should one view these two – vidya and avidya?

The answer comes next.

Mantra-11

One who pursues both karma and knowledge in the right mix

and understands both in the right mix, he transcends mortality through

karma and achieves immortality through vidya (Knowledge).

This Mantram says that - the samanvayam (coordination) of Vidya

and Avidya in the right mix is the right answer to the seeker who faces

the dilemma stated in previous Mantra..

The person who practices both in the right mix and right manner,

will transcend death through Avidya (mind purifying Karma, known

through knowledge), which would have otherwise bound him to life

and death cycle.

Performing mind purifying karmas and then, seeking vidya (or,

worshipping) with such purified mind leads to immortality or divinity

for the seeker.

Therefore, performing karmas and seeking vidya (or

worshipping) are both equally important to reach the goal.

Both Vidya and Avidya are the realities of Paramatma only.

Therefore both must be worshipped with same respect and devotion

in the right mix..

Mantra-12

Whoever worships the Paramatma as avyakta (Niraakaara)

submerges in great Darkness. Whoever worships Paramatma as

vyaktha (Saakaara) fall into greater darkness.

In this Mantra, both Sambhooti and Asambhooti (Vyakta and

Avyakta) worship methods are rejected. Those who worship

Asambhooti (Parabrahmam in niraakaara way), fall into great ignorance

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or darkness. Those who worship Sambhooti (Para Brahmam in

saakaara form) also fall into furthermost darkness.

Sambhooti= The Created form which has birth and death and all

other dualities. Worship of any such form and shape creates an illusion

of worshipping the ultimate reality, due to worship of Hiranyagarbha

with name and form.

Asambhooti= That which is not born, which is Paramatma

(Satswaroopam) which has no birth and death and such other dualities,

which is also known as Avyakruta Prakruti.

The essence of the above two mantras is the same. Performing

prescribed karmas for purification of self and pursuing knowledge

with purified mind, both simultaneously and together, is stressed

earlier.

In this mantra, it is explained further with a specific example.

When someone worships the formless (niraakaar) Brahman, he really

does not know whom he is worshipping. He has no knowledge of the

Brahman at all.

Likewise, one who worships only the idols (Saakaar, the almighty

with some form and shape), without seeing the Brahman therein, he

also does not really understand what he is worshipping.

Therefore, both of them are in darkness. Then, what is the way-

out and what is the best form of worship? The answer comes in the

next mantra.

Mantra-13

The worship of the almighty in some form and shape – gives the

Upaasaka (Worshipper) one type of result. Worshipping the formless

Brahman gives a different type of result. This is what the ancient Rishis

tell us.

In this mantra the results of worship of the Vyakta and Avyakta

forms is further clarified as above

The vyakta form worship does have a result. The avyakta form

worship also has a result, but an entirely different one. The ancient

Rishis, after great observation, thinking and realizing, have

communicated this difference to their disciples.

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By worshipping Sambhooti, the one with form and shape, earthly

results will flow. Here, usually, there is also a desire and demand in

the Upaasaka. This arises clearly out of the seeker’s ignorance.

By worshipping asambhooti form, results of a different variety

come. They also keep the worshipper in darkness as he cannot retain

focus on his worship. So, let us see, how a combination of both work

for the Upaasaka.

Mantra-14

That upaasaka (seeker, worshipper) who worships the formless

Brahman and also the almighty with any form and shape in a suitable,

harmonious mix and realizes the true nature of Brahman through

them – transcends death through the worship of the vyakta form, and

attains to immortality through his worship of the avyakta form.

In this Mantra, the need for a suitable combination of both

methods is emphasized. Vyakta is Hiranyagarbha. Avyakta is Prakruti.

Whoever knows both, will win over the death easily, attain divinity

(immortality) and dissolve himself in the infinity.

The ultimate result is to attain Taadaatmyam (merging with the

infinite) with the help of human action and resources and with the

blessings of almighty. This is what is said in Vedas also. Land, cattle,

gold and others are said to be human resources. Devotion, worship

and others are said to be divine resources.

As we can recall, it was said in the seventh mantra that, the Jnani

will see all living beings in himself and himself in all living beings.

Worshipping with desire and without desires is also a point to

talk about. Usually worship of form and shape is with desires and

with greater ignorance. But, niraakaara upasana requires great

knowledge of the Brahman, even if there is no earthly desire. Else, it

is not very fruitful and will lead to similar or greater ignorance.

Hence, this Mantra clarifies to us that both of them are needed

to purify the mind and realize the Brahman.

This path is further clarified in the next Mantra. Surya is

Satyaswaroopa and is Para Brahmam. In the human, he himself is

situated in the right eye. By worshipping both as Satyaswaroopa and

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perform all prescribed duties one will attain the knowledge of Aatma.

The seeker should also worship and ask for the knowledge of Aatma

even at the time of death. The way of prayer is clarified like this, further

in the next Mantra.

Mantra-15

The Mantra is actually a prayer to the God of Sun.

The seeker says – Oh God of Sun, the Truth is totally covered by

the dazzling screen of gold (rays of Sun). I am a truth-abiding seeker.

O God of Sun, remove from my eyes, the screen of earthly treasures

which is covering the eternal truth. Let me see the eternal truth covered

by this screen, O God of Sun!

The Sadhaka must pray in this manner for the knowledge of

Aatma. In the next Mantra also, the prayer continues.

The face of Satyaswaroopa (Aatma) who is in the God of Sun, as

we see him in the day time sky each day, is covered with

Hiranmayapaathra.

This means a dazzling screen covering the reality of Aatma,

though the word by itself means, a vessel of gold.

“Oh Aditya! I, the Satyavrata, request you to kindly remove this

dazzling cover and enable me to see the truth (the existential, eternal

truth) – says the seeker. Here, the seeker affirms, I am the disciplined

follower of the truth, thereby implying that he is eligible for this favour

from the Sun God.

‘Satyadharmaya’ means and implies that the sadhaka performs

karmas as prescribed in Sastras and adheres to the vow of truth.

The Sadhaka has so far learned the truth of how Vidya and Avidya

and vyakta-avyakta aradhana differ from each other; and he is now

firmly aware of the wisdom of how to adhere to the eternal truth.

With the Sun God’s Grace (light), his ignorance or Agnana is

removed. He is seeing Satya Surya in front of him. Surya is obviously

a Satyadharma follower and the Sadhaka also a Satyadharma follower.

To enable the Sadhaka to see the existential truth with clarity,

He seeks from the God of Sun now to remove the cover of

Hiranmayapaathra or the dazzling screen of gold.

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In other words the sadhaka is requesting the God of Sun to

withdraw the splendor of his dazzling Sun rays. The Hiranmayapaathra

is really the sadhaka’s own Ego or ahankaram in the form of Vyashti

(individual) and Samishti (whole) differentiation. If the Sadhaka removes

this differentiation from his mindset, the Vyashti bhedam will go. This

process is made clearer in next Mantra.

Mantra-16

The sadhaka’s prayer is continuing in this Mantra too as follows:

Oh Surya! You are the Poshaka, the one who takes care of and

protects me. You are protecting the whole world. You travel alone.

You are Yama, the ruler. You absorb everything. You are the son of

Prajapati.

Kindly reduce the severity of your Great rays, withdraw them to

some extent and also reduce the brilliance of your bright form.

Kindly enable me, thereby, to see your auspicious form.

It is to be understood here that the God of Sun has graced the

sadhaka and granted his request.. This is made clear by the further

words of the sadhaka.

The seeker goes further in his prayer and says as follows :

By your grace, I am now able to see your great, splendorous

form. I now find, that the truth residing in you, the God of Sun is also

my own Self !

I see my own self in you, O God of Sun – says the sadhaka, with

the realization of the Aatma pervading both himself and the Sun God.

I am the one in you, means I am the same Aatma, as you are.

The Purusha in Surya mandala, Bhooh, Bhuvaha, Suvaha, and all

other Vyahruttis has them as its organs.

Therefore purusha has a visible form. That is why it is named

and addressed as Purusha. Because of Purusha only, the intellect and

Pranas are retained in the beings. All this implies that Purusha is my

own self.

Ekarshi, Pooshana, Yama, Surya, Praajapati are all different names

of Surya. The Sadhaka has realized that the Aatma in his own self and

the Aatma in Surya are one and the same.

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He who protects is known as Pooshana. Sun God looks after and

protects everything on earth and is therefore called Pooshana. He is

called Ekarshi because, Sun travels alone in the high skys. Since he

declares and decides dharma and adharma of all beings he is also

known as Yama. Since he keeps every living being in action, he is known

as Surya. He is the son of Prajapati; so he is also known as Praajapati.

Since the Sadhaka has no feeling of duality now, the Sadhaka’s

prayers are now complete.

Mantra-17

This Mantra is really an address by Sadhaka to himself, at the

time of leaving the mortal body, that is, the time of death.

He says – Now, my body will burn away and become ash. The

prana from this body will leave it and merge with the infinite, deathless

Prana in the universe.

Therefore, O my manas (mind)! Remember now, all that I (the

mind) have done in my life.

The body will turn into ash and merge with the earth or prithivi.

The prana will get absorbed in the limitless Hiranyagarbha.

But the mind was responsible for all Sankalapas and Vikalpas.

Now at least, it must remember what all it did in the life time of the

Sadhaka! The time is ripe for it to remember all those Sankalpa Vikalpas

which are the memories since childhood till now.

Now, why this prayer, at the time of leaving the body? This is

emphasized here for awakening all other Sadhakas about the mind’s

activities during the life time and keeping them on the right path all

the time.

In fact, most Gurus insist on dying every day to the past

(mentally), so that every day begins with freshness and new life. This

means, before ending each day, one must ask his mind to recall all

that it has done during the day and correct his course wherever

necessary, for the life from then on.

Omkaram is said to be Para Brahma, Satyaswaroopam. Hence the

Sadhaka can pray with Omkaram before he ends the day, or when he

finally ends his life. Till then, he is in a state of bondage.

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The body has fastened him so far; and it is now offered to flames.

The prana is merging with the universal prana. Therefore, there is no

more work left for the Sadhaka.

But, what should the Sadhaka keep in mind each day of his life

before the death? We find the answer in the next which is also the last

Mantra of this Easavasyopanishad.

Mantra-18

The Sadhaka now prays to the God of Fire, the Agni, as follows :

Oh Agni! You are aware of all the karmas that I performed. These

may be good karmas such as yagna, yaga and others or even Bad

karmas.

Kindly lead me in a good path to avail the karma phalam or the

results of my actions, which have matured in this life as my Prarabdha.

Kindly destroy all of my sins and keep me away from the sinful

path.

I pray to you and submit my obeisance to you, O God of Agni!

This is obviously the prayer of the Sadhaka to Agni God.

Agni is called Viswa Saakshi or the universal witness. That is

why, many spiritual karmas keep Agni as witness. This includes

marriages, Yaagaas and many other rituals.

In all these rituals, similar prayer as in this final Mantram of this

Upanishad are repeated.

We always request the God of Agni to lead us in the best and

most ethical way so that the prarabdha karma phalam will aid us in

leading a spiritual and virtuous life and lead us towards realization of

the self.

The belief is that - When Agni is made the Saakshi or witness, he

burns in us and forces us into righteous path whenever we stray into

sinful path.

When some one’s words are doubted to be lies, he is asked to

take a vow with Agni (burning Camphor) on hand.

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All these practices flow from the prayers in these Upanishads.

Just as we witnessed the Brahman in the Sun God in the previous

Mantra, here, we are actually witnessing the same Brahman and

offering prayers to him through the God of Agni.

These practices are as valid, purposeful and result oriented even

today – as they were in the Upanishadic days.

May we all follow the path that this Easavasyopanishad lays down

for us!

Uttara Santi Paatamu

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

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Aitareya Upanishad

This Upanishad has been taken from Rig Veda, Itareya

Brahmanam, second Aranyakam, chapters 4, 5, and 6.

In this Upanishad, the first chapter deals with creation. The

creation of Indriyas, their presiding deities, the creation of Annam

(Food) etc. are described.

The second and third chapters describe the true knowledge and

non dualistic doctrines and the true nature of Aatma with examples.

Three births of a man is described in a heartwarming and beautiful

manner.

Chapter-1

Santi Patham

1-1-0

May my words follow my mind! May my mind support my

speech! May words reveal what my mind wants to express! May my

mind also think in the manner and in support of my speech! [It

expresses the desire to have coordination and synchronicity between

the mind and speech. If the coordination between the two fails, it

amounts to untruth]

Oh Paramatma! Kindly grace me with your appearance! Oh my

speech and my mind! For my sake, kindly bring the Vedas to my

memory! May the knowledge I acquired not leave me! Let me have

their memory forever! In reciting the sastras, may make day and night

into one! In other words, May I recite sastras without break, whether

it is day or night! I shall tell truth only, through my speech! Ihqall tell

truth only, through my mind also. May the Para Brahman protect me!

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May the Para Brahman protect my guru! May Para Brahman may

protect me and my guru!

May the three sorrows or taapaas called Aadhyatmika,

Aadibhautika, Adhidaivika cool down and be in total peace!

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

May there always be peace, peace, peace

KHANDAM-1:

1-1-1 :

The order of the creation: Aatma, through its power of samkalpa

or thought, created the worlds. Before that creation, the worlds with

present forms and names existed only within and as, Aatma. There

was nothing other than Aatma before Aatma created the worlds. Aatma

only, made the samkalpa to create the worlds.

1-1-2 :

Aatma only created the four worlds called Ambhas, Mareechi,

Mara and Aapah. The world of Ambhas is on the other side of the

Dyulokam. Heaven is the support for the loka of Ambhas. Mareechi is

the loka below the Dyulokam. Below Mareechi also is the loka of Mara

or Bhoolokam. This means Mara or Bhooloka has the characteristic

of death. Therefore, Death is the nature of all the creatures in this

loka. Below the Bhooloka or earth is the Aapoloka (or the world of

water). Since it is being received by the lokas at the bottom of, it has

the name Aapoloka. Though all these lokas are created by pancha

bhootas their names are made based on their special nature and

specific gunas.

1-1-3 :

The creation of Loka Palakas: Aatma thought further in this

manner “I have created the lokas. Now I must create protectors for

all these lokas. Otherwise these will be destroyed.” Thinking in this

manner, it took the primary bhootha of Water and from it, created a

human form with all Indriyas. This means, the Aatma created the Virat

form in this manner with Water or Aaapas as the main ingredient.

This human-like form itself is known as Virat Purusha.

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1-1-4 :

In this mantra, the creation of Indriyas and their presiding deities

is described:

Paramatma, keeping in view the Virat Purusha, which was initially

in the form of a Pinda, performed tapasya on it with his Samkalpa.

This means that, he desired to bring out a purusha form, from that

pindam. With his sankalpa (tapasya) the pindam broke like an egg,

and the mouth of the virat purusha came out from it; from that mouth,

speech came out and from that speech (presiding deity), agni was

born. From the holes of his nose, which were created later, prana

was formed and the power of breathing in and out took shape. This

means that, from the breath, the power of smelling also took birth.

The vayu for breathing was born with that. After that, globe-like eye

structures were formed in the virat purusha’s face. From those globe-

like eye structures, the sense of seeing and the complete external eyes

were born. From these indriyaas called eyes, Aditya (Sun God) was

born. After that two indriyaas of ears were born for the Virat Purusha’s

pinda and from them, all the directions were formed.

After that, the indriya of sense or skin was formed. From that

skin, were born the romas (hair) to enable the touch sensation in the

Virat Purusha. From the sense of organ of touch of the Virat Purusha,

oshadhis (Meedicines) and herbals were formed.

After that, the heart was formed for that Virat Purusha. From

that the hrudayam sense organ, or the mind was born. From that

mind organ, the moon was born.

After that, the naval organ was formed for that Virat Purusha.

From that naval, Apanam was born. From Apanam, Mruthyu was born.

After that, the male sex organ (Jananendriyam) was born to that Virat

Purusha. From that Jananendriyam, semen (with sperm) was formed.

From that semen with sperm, its presiding deity of water was born.

[Here it is to be noted that the creation was started with water

and the withdrawal of all creation through pralayam also happens

through the water]

In this manner from virat Purusha, his organs and the presiding

deities of those organs were created.

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KHANDAM-2:

Ch.1-2-1. In this manner, Agni and other presiding deities fell

into this ocean, which means the ocean of water containing Avidya,

karma, kaama, grief etc – in which are ever present diseases, old age

and death, which swallow the beings from life. This ocean is an endless

ocean. There is no place in it for anyone to take rest. All these are

created with sensual pleasures and their resultant waves of sin which

are all temporary.

The Paramatma then created hunger and thirst for that Virat

Purusha. All presiding devatas of the Indriyaas then asked Paramatma

“We are all hungry. Therefore, please provide us a place to sit and eat

our food. Provide us proper place to live”.

[If hunger and thirst are unavoidable even for the Virat Purusha,

in the same manner these are unavoidable for the devatas presiding

over the Indriyaas and are born to the virat Purusha. They therefore

need food to quench their hunger and thirst. But all Indriyas, though

hungry and thirsty, they are not all of the same nature. So, their Annam

also has to be different and their place of enjoyment also has to be

different]

1-2-2 :

On hearing the devatas’ request ,Paramatma produced a pindam

in the shape of a cow, from the waters. Devatas said that it was

insufficient for them. Paramatma again created a pindam in the image

of a horse from the waters. Devatas again said that, that too was not

sufficient for them. [Here it is not sufficient means that it is not

convenient for them to sit and eat their food comfortably. So they

wanted a better and comfortable place and method to eat]

1-2-3 :

Then, Paramatma created another image which resembled the

virat Purusha form itself. Devatas were happy with that image. That

image truly like the Purusha form. They felt it was the most appropriate

and beautiful form. That form was also what the Paramatma created

for himself.

Paramatma then directed all the devatas to enter into that form

and settle down in their respective places. The Devataas called that

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form as Sukrutam which means, a form made very beautifully; it was

indeed a great and a good deed. Paramatma made that form as

Sukrutam; and it is doing good deeds even to this day. This image was

created by Paramatma with his mystic powers.

1-2-4 :

Agni who is the presiding deity of speech entered into the mouth

of that form (Sukrutam). Vayu entered in the form of Prana into its

nostrils. Aditya (Sun) entered in the form of sight into its eyes. The

deities of all directions entered into the ears of that form of Sukrutam.

Vegetation, grains, trees and other Oshadees formed as the hair on

his skin. Moon entered in the form of mind into his heart. Mruthyu

devata entered into the Naabhi or Navel , in the form of Apana Vayu.

Water entered in the form of semen (with sperm) into the

Jananendriyam of that person.

1-2-5 :

All the devatas thus entered into their respective places in the

Virat Purusha and settled down. The only two remaining ones, without

a place or protection to live were the hunger and the thirst. They both

requested the Paramatma “Kindly show us also a proper place to settle

and live in the Virat Purusha”. Then, Paramatma told them, “I will make

you both a part and parcel of all these presiding deities. As a result,

whichever deity receives oblation (to satisfy hunger and thirst), in

that oblation, you (hunger and thirst) will also receive a share each

time”. This institution was created by Paramatma which is even now

the same as what we are seeing.

[When the eyes feel hungry, they try to see good sceneries and

their hunger and thirst are thus satisfied. When the ears feel hungry,

they satisfy their hunger and thirst through hearing pleasant words

or music etc. In this manner, the hunger and thirst of all organs were

satisfied by Paramatma]

KHANDAM-3:

1-3-1.

Then Paramatma thought within himself “I have created Indriyas

and their presiding deities. Now I have to create Annam (food) for

these lokas and loka palakas (presiding deities)”.

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This is necessary because, Paramatma has also added hunger

and thirst to them and they need satisfaction.

1-3-2 :

Thinking as above, Paramatma now, made samkalpa (decision)

and desired to create Annam for the presiding deities and therefore,

meditated again on water. As a result of his meditation, a frozen,

solidified form came out from the waters. That form was capable of

supporting the moving and non-moving entities. That was Annam.

1-3-3 :

The Annam that was created by Paramatma saw the devatas

and started running away from them because of its fear of death. This

was because, the Devatas were the intended eaters of the Annam.

The Purusha created by Paramatma tried to stop the Annam with the

power of his speech. But he could not stop it with the power of his

speech.

[If he could stop the Annam with his speech on that day, even

today we could satisfy our hunger by merely saying the words

“Annam(food)”. However since the Adi purusha could not succeed

that day, we are also not able to procure Annam and satisfy the hunger

by just the speech power]

1-3-4 :

Then, the Adi Purusha tried to stop and take the Annam with his

power of Prana (power of smell) in his nostrils. But he could not

succeed in this too. Had he succeeded in taking food with his breath

power at that time, now, we would be able to satisfy our hunger by

merely smelling annam. That was not to be.

1-3-5 :

Then, the Adi purusha tried to stop and take the Annam by eyes.

But he could not succeed in this too. Had he succeeded in taking food

with his power of sight of the eyes at that time, now, we would be able

to satisfy our hunger by merely seeing the annam. That also did not

happen.

1-3-6 :

Then, the Adi purusha tried to stop and take Annam with the

ears. But he could not succeed in this too.

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1-3-7 :

Then, he wanted to catch and eat Annam with his skin. But he

could not succeed in this too.

1-3-8 :

He thought of catch and eat Annam with mind. But he could not

succeed in this also.

1-3-9 :

He wanted to catch and eat the annam with his Jananendriyam

or sex organ but in this also, he could not succeed.

1-3-10 :

In this manner Adi Purusha again tried to catch and eat Annam

with the Apanam. He could succeed in taking in the food with this

Indriya of Apanam only. From then onwards Annam is caught and

taken in by only the Apana Vayu. The Vayu that we breathe inside is

Apana Vayu. The same Apana also catches and takes in Annam from

then onwards. Hence Apanam is the real bhokta (One who eats) of

the annam. But the Bhokta is not Aatma.

1-3-11 :

Paramatma thus created the pindam with all indriyas and their

presiding devatas which are all depending on Annam. Then, he began

thinking of what use, this pindam with all Indriyaas and annam was

going to be, if he was not there in it?

[When there is a town and there are people living in it, then the

town also needs a ruler. Otherwise the town will become very unruly

and all confusion will be created. In the same manner, if Para Brahman

or Aatma does not exist in this body, all that he has created will become

waste. If so, in which of the two ways, should he enter into this purusha?

This was what the Para Brahmqan was thinking]

He also thought “If the speech, the smell, the touch, the thought

and other powers can all function by themselves and perform their

duties such as speech, breathing, touch and memory power

independently and by themselves, then, what role shall I play in such

a body?” I must be there in this Purusha.

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But, of the two ways available, from which way shall I enter into

the body of the purusha? The first way part is from the foot and the

second way is from the head.

1- 3-12 :

Paramatma thought of all this, broke the skull and entered into

all the indriyas of the purusha. That way of entering was called

“vidruthi” and is the superior way of entering into the Virat Purusha’s

body. That is the reason why people apply oil on the skull so that it

reaches all indriyas in the face such as eyes, nose and ears. In the same

way if head-bath is taken, it amounts to taking bath for all indriyas.

“Vidruthi” is the way to have the darshan of Paramatma. Therefore, it

gives great joy or ananda. Therefore, it is also known as Nandanam.

After entering into the body, Paramatma resides in it in three primary

places. All the three places are different types of dream places or

Swapna sthanas. One is the Netra sthanam, called as Jagrat Avastha or

waking state.This is this wakeful world. Second is the kantha sthanam,

called as Swapnavastha – or the Dream world. The third is the hrudaya

sthanam, or the sushupthi sthaanam – or the deep sleep state

1-3-13 :

In this manner, the Paramatma entered into the body of the

Purusha and became part of all pancha bhoothas or indriyas. He

resides in them as though, he says and feels like “I am seeing, I am

hearing, I am smelling, I am comfortable and so on.” In other words, the

formless Paramatma has now possessed a form and acts as Jeeva. This

Jeeva, with the help of guru, acquires wisdom (Jnanam) and comes to

know that, there is no one in this body, except himself. He knows now,

“Who else is there in the Purusha, except me? I have seen and

experienced this purusha. This purusha is Poorna (complete)

Brahman”.

In this manner, by getting wisdom from Guru, the Jeeva gets out

of all the delusion and becomes one with the Paramatma.

1-3-14 :

For this reason, the Paramatma is called “Idamdra” and is famous

in all the worlds by that name. The Devatas like to be indirect

worshippers and therefore they like to worship with this name.

Therefore, they, knowing the Brahman well, also call the “Idamdra”

by the name “Indra”.

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The sum and substance: Para Brahman is responsible for

creation, rule and destruction of all lokas. He is Sarvagna (Omniscient)

and Sarvaamtaryami (Omni-present). He started creating all worlds

from Aakasham onwards and all the remaining objects without the

help of any external objects. After that, he created all living creatures.

He then entered into all those creatures so that they could recognize

each other. After understanding all these happenings with the help of

the guru, the Jeeva could now see himself in all. He recognized the

fact, “Aham Brahmasmi” or “I am myself the Brahman”. So Para

Brahman is himself residing in all creatures. Except Para Brahman,

there is no one else in this world.

Prior to the creation, there was nothing except Aatma. He himself

spread all over like the vast sky (aakasham). In his statement that, “I

have experienced the Para Brahman; I am myself the Para Brahman”,

the entire internal secret of all creation is simply revealed.

In this manner the creation of all lokas is described in this

chapter. In substance, the true knowledge of Brahman alone is goal

of all life.

Chapter-2

KHANDAM-1:

Ch-2-1-1.

The Purusha in one sense means a human Male. In another sense,

it covers any human being. The human being is having three types of

birth. In the form of semen with sperm it takes birth in the body of a

man. This semen (with sperm) is the essence of the man collected

from all indriyas of his body and is in the form of lustrous essence or

tejas. The man is retaining it in himself and growing the ‘form’ of his

Aatma in himself. The semen with sperm that is germinated in his

body is finally deposited by the man in the woman’s body and is thus

creating the pinda. In this manner the semen with sperm is transferred

from within himself in to the body of the woman, which actually

becomes the first birth of the man as his own son.

[In this manner the man is re-producing himself in his wife in

the form of the fertilized sperm. That is why, the sruti says in respect

of the putra as, “Aatmaavyputranamasi.”]

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2-1-2 :

This sperm that is deposited in the woman, will also beget all the

indriyas like a man or woman. The pregnancy will not gave any great

hardship to the woman because all the indriyas that the pinda forms

for itself will become similar to her own indriyas and also identify

with her different indriyaas.

The woman starts protecting and growing the pinda that has

entered into her body from her husband’s body, with appropriate food

and other comforts. This is all the process of the first birth of the

human.

2-1-3 :

Till the child is delivered, the woman will protect and grow the

child in her womb. After she delivers the child, the father will perform

all Samskaras to the new born child, such as Jataka karma. In other

words the father is performing all such Samskaras for himself or his

own form in his son. In this manner, by producing children and grand

children through the children, the world and humanity will grow. The

second birth of the human really is the receiving of all samskaras

from the father, after the human comes into this world following the

delivery from the mother’s womb.

The relative roles of the father and mother are stated here in

his evolutionary process.

2-1-4

The father’s Aatma itself is re-born in the form of the son. With

the Samskaras performed on him, the new child becomes the

representative for his father. After that, the form of the father’s Aatma

in the Son grows further and he goes away from there to another

place to enjoy his karmaphalam. This way, he is taking his third birth,

away from the father and the mother. This going away is like the leech

leaving one live being to catch hold of another. This is thus the third

birth of the human being.

Thus, we find, the Jeeva goes from father’s Garbha (semen with

sperm), to the mother’s womb and from there to the physical world,

where the father performs Katakarmas etc – giving him a new birth.

From there he goes away again, which is his third birth. The births

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are over now and death comes, which leads him into a father’s garbha

again. This cycle of “punarapi jananam punarapi maranam, punarapi

jananee jathare sayanam” continues until the jeeva attains pure

consciousness or the true knowledge, which will be talked about in

coming mantras.

2-1-5 I

(Vamadeva) learnt all the secrets of the birth of all devatas (Like

speech and its presiding deity the agni) while I was in my mother’s

womb. Before getting liberated from the cycle of birth and deaths,

I had entered several births which were binding me like iron chains.

I broke away from all those strong chains which were binding me,

with the help of this tatwa Janana (wisdom of the true self) and pierced

out from them like an eagle. Vamadeva felt all this and said so, while

he was lying in his mother’s stomach.

The example of Vamadeva is cited in this Mantra. He learnt the

secrets of all deities controlling the indriyaas even when he was in

the mother’s womb. How did he do it? Was there a Guru for him in

the womb? For this, there are other indicators in other scriptures.

Someone who has progressed a certain level in Jnana or Yoga Path,

retains that knowledge in his next birth also, and starts his journey

on this path from where he left it off in previous Janma. Lord Krishna

also says this in his Gita Message.

2-1-6 :

Vamadeva thus realized that the Aatma itself is the Brahman.

He, after fulfilling all the desires of this physical world of the indriyas,

left his physical body to reach the abode of Aatma. The abode of Aatma

is beyond all Indriyas and the joys there are also beyond the indriyas.

With this Aatma Jnana, Vamadeva having realized all these joys of the

world of Aatma, became Jeevan Muktha.

This Mantra gives the example of the great sage, Vamadeva, a

realized being, as proof of what happens when all the desires are

completely fulfilled, which implies, one has become absolutely

desireless in the process. A totally desire-less person becomes Jeevan

Mukta.

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Chapter-3

KHANDAM-1:

3-1-1 :

What is that Aatma that we are worshipping or that, which we

trying to worship? We are always seeing both the cause and action.

Which of the two – the physical doer and the causal factor - is the

Aatma?

Which is that Aatma because of which the living being or the

Jeeva is able to see, hear, smell and discriminate between sounds, and

also between tasty and tasteless things? What are its characteristics?

We seem to discern two Aatmas in this body. One is the

instrument (Indriyas) which is divided into several forms. With the

help of that instrument, the man is seeing, hearing, tasting and

discriminating but that is not Aatma. The one who is the real seer, or

the real witness who is experiencing all external things through the

indriyas is the Aatma.

A person has lost his eyesight in the middle of his life. He is still

able to remember all those objects which he has seen when he had

the eyesight. In the same manner he is able to recognize the person

by hearing his present sounds (or speech) and by tallying them with

the ones he had heard from the same person when he had the power

of hearing. Unless the original seer or witness in the body is one and

the same, one cannot enjoy such power of discernment from different

experiences of the past now. So all the indriyas of hearing, seeing,

touching, smelling, discriminating etc are not Aatma. But only the

witness, seeing through all of them is the Aatma.

In this Mantra, the importance of the witnessing is stressed. One

must go beyond the world of indriyaas, dis-identify with them and

become identified with the real witness who gives the indriyaas their

power and who really is the experiencer of everything

3-1-2 :

In human beings, the tejas or the lustrous essence is what we

call as the heart or the manas. That itself is the consciousness or

Chaitanyam. That alone is the ruler.

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Vignanam (wisdom), pragnanam (knowledge of all

brahmandams), medha (mind), drushti (Power of seeing), dhruti

(courage), mati(thought power), maneesha (Humaneness), all mental

ailment in the form of sorrow, smruti (remembrance), sankalpam

(decision making), kratu (Sacred rites), praanam (Life force or vayu),

kaamam (desire), other desires arising out of touch sensation etc are

all the names for that same pragnanam.

3-1-3

This Aatma in the form of prajnanam itself is Brahman.

Hiranyagarbha (also called Indra), Prajapati (Or Virat Purusha,

the one who is Saguna), the presiding deities of Indriyaas like Agni

were all born from the same Aatma.

This Aatma is in the form of pragnanam itself. This prajnanam

itself is all the devatas like Agni, Prithivi, pancha bhootas, horses, cows,

elephants, humans, birds etc. This itself is also all the creatures born

from the wombs, from the earth, from the eggs and from the sweat. It

itself is in the form of immovables like trees. In this manner, all lokas

are only pragnanam. Pragnanam itself is the place into which all lokas

get withdrawn.

So Pragnanam is the Brahma. This mantra is considered very

important as it contains the Mahavakya, “Prajnanam Brahma,” which

defines the Brahman as Prajnanam, or objectless, pure, consciousness.

But, the Mantra calls everything that we see and experience as only

Prajnanam. In other words, it says, there is nothing other than

Prajnanam. All that we experience are fleeting and impermanent and

they exist against the permanent back drop of Prajnanam, which is

Brahman.

3-1-4 :

Vamadeva reached the abode of Brahma which is beyond the

world of Indriyas, in the form of the chetanatma or pure consciousness.

He fulfilled all his desires in the heaven and became immortal. He is

immortal.

Uttara Santi Patham

(same as first santi patha at the beginning)

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

May there be peace, peace,peace

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Kenopanishad

Kenopanishad comes from the root word Kena, which means – by

whom. Kenopanishad belongs to the talavakara Brahmana of the Sama

Veda (9th chapter). Therefore, it is also called Talavakaropanishad.

Another name for talavakara Brahmana is Jaimini Brahmana.

This Upanishad seeks to answer one of the most common

questions that arises in human mind. In the human body, various parts

like sense organs(Jnanendriyas like eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin)

and organs of action (karmendriyas like tongue,hands, legs etc ) are

functioning in various ways. Many times, we, as individuals assume

that we are the Karthas ( responsible for) making them work. Is this

really so?

Note : Tongue as tasting organ (rasanendriya) is a jnanendriya but,

when it talks, it is a karmendriya (vak-indriya).

Are these organs really functioning under our orders and our

control? A little, thoughtful search tells us that they are neither working

autonomously (independently), nor are they obeying the mind of the

Individual. There is a power beyond the body and mind, which enables

them to function as they do. What is that Power?

Kenopanishad has 35 Mantras divided into 4 parts (called 4

khandas). Like every other Upanishad, Kena also starts with a Santi

Mantram (or Santi Paatam), which has 2 Mantras.

Upanishadic teachings are all called Mantras and not slokas.

Part.1 has 9 Mantras + Part.2 has 5 + Part.3 has 12 + Part 4

has 9 = Total 35. The Santi mantras are additional.

Some explanations will be in order before we proceed into the

Upanishad.

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All actions performed by us are divisible into three types.

(1)Kaayika Karma (Actions performed by Body); (2) Vaachika Karma

(Actions performed through words); (3) Maansika Karma (Actions of

the Mind). Mind-body complex enables us to perform all these actions.

Mind-body complex, as we know, takes birth, grows, decays and dies.

It comes totally from the pancha bhoothas (Space, air, fire, water and

earth). The pacha bhoothas are themselves inert and therefore, their

product, the mind-body complex is also inert. So how is all the

movement and all the action in us happening?

Being a product of the pancha bhoothas, the body-mind complex

also is always seeking affinity with the same in the outside world. All

sensory organs and organs of action explore the outside world only.

They have no capability to turn inward and explore the power which

enables them to function.

All of our actions and their fruits have three draw-backs or

Doshas.

(1) Dukha Misritatvam : Whatever we attain in this world is

invariably filled with certain element of sorrow. Nothing

that we get in this world is all happiness and comfort. In

attaining, in maintaining, and in finally losing what we had

attained – at all stages, there is stress and sorrow.

(2) Atruptikarathvam : All things that we attain – leave some

element of dissatisfaction in us. There is nothing in the

world, that gives us total satisfaction and only satisfaction.

There is no such thing.

(3) Bandhakathvam : All things that we attain in this world –

also create BONDAGES to us – and they bind us to

themselves, in terms of time, effort, concentration, money

and so on. We may feel, we own them – but in reality, they

own us too. Our money, our house and everything else –

do not come with us – but we have to guard them all the

time.

This means – that nothing that we achieve is an unmixed blessing.

Therefore, the effort of the Upanishads is to know that which is free

from all these Doshas. That is known as the Brahman.

Every Upanishad also tells us the utility of its teaching to us and

how we can attain to it. Kenopanishad explains beautifully how

Brahman can be known, and what benefits flow to the seeker.

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But, Upanishadic teaching requires every seeker to become a

devoted disciple and ardently pursue the method given – to achieve

the supreme Goal. This devoted pursuit is a must for success. Readers

are therefore humbly advised to keep this in mind and make their

effort a success.

Kenopanishad also prescribes at the end of part.4, the Sadhanas

needed for the disciple. The Tapas mentioned therein simply implies

“sravanam, mananam, Nidhidhyasanam”, which means, listening to the

Upanishad, constantly remembering it, and frequently meditating on

its meaning – until it becomes an ingrained part of him. One must start

practicing the precept during such Tapas.

Now, we will move into the Santi Paatam.

SANTI PAATAM

Mantra.1 : May we , the Guru and the Disciple, be both protected

(by the Brahman ). May we both be taken care of, in our needs. May

we both strive with great (upward mobile) energy. May our study

become fruitful and giving us the light of wisdom. May we never give

rise to any ill-will between us.

Mantra.2 : May all my organs be strong and energetic! May my

tongue (Vak-Indriya), my prana (life energy), my eyes, my ears and all

of my sense & action organs (Indriyaas) be strong and energetic.

Brahman, who is eulogized and brought to our knowledge by the

Upanishads is our everything. May I not deny him. Likewise, may the

Brahman not deny me. Let there be no denial for me from the Brahman

nor shall there be any denial from me. That Brahman (Same as Atman)

whom I seek, and who is eulogized by all the Dharmas in the

Upanishads, may he be always in and with me.

“Om, May there be peace, peace , peace. “.

Each of the above two mantras end with this seeking of peace

three times. And, it is preceded by the word, Om. Om is the sound

which signifies the Brahman in sound form. The ancient scriptural

saying is, “Om, ithyekaksharam Brahma”. This one sound called OM, is

Brahman. We are seeking from this Brahman, three types of peace.

Our peace is usually disturbed by three types of obstacles. The

first is Adhyathmikam - caused by physical and mental problems and

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diseases. The second is Adhi-bhouthikam, which is caused by living

and non-living things around us. The third is Adhi-daivikam, caused

by the powers of nature ( like fire accidents, floods and so on). All

these peace-less states, also called “taapaas” – are sought to be

overcome through this mantra.

In the Upanishads, Brahman and Atman are terms that represent

the same supreme entity – and are used inter-changeably. There is,

for all practical purposes, no differences between the two and all

Upanishads use the two terms in the same meaning. Rarely, for

convenience sake, some people use Brahman for representing the

Brihat – the all pervading form, while Atman is used to represent the

same Brahman in the individual consciousness.

All Upanishads describe and explain the nature of this supreme

entity called Brahman in different ways. The Upanishads use the ancient

Gurukula method of teaching, in which the Guru teaches the disciples,

while the disciples ask questions and seek to get their doubts clarified

by the Guru. It is a Question and Answer type of dialogue between the

teacher and the student that goes on in any typical Upanishad and the

same is true of Kenopanishad as well.

Part (Khanda)-1

1. The disciple is initiating the dialogue with a deep, searching

question to the Guru as follows :

By whom is the mind empowered in performing its actions

and thoughts ?

By whom is the primary prana Energy empowered to move

about and perform its functions in us?

By whom is the power of speech enabled in us?

By whom is the Power of seeing (Eyes) and listening (ears)

enabled in us?

Which Deva (God) enables them and makes them do their

work ?

These are fundamental Questions that arise in the mind when

we seek to understand ourselves. Though only eyes, ears and the

speech organ are specifically mentioned, the question, by implication,

includes all sense organs (Jnanendriyas) and organs of action

(Karmendriyas).

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We know that - we see with eyes, hear with ears, talk with the

tongue and think and feel with the mind. We know that life energy

travels in all parts of us.

Where from do these organs get these wonderful Powers? Who

gave them these powers?

The external eye is only a carrier of external information to the

mind. But, wherefrom does it get this power?

The vision centre in the mind is the real sense organ of vision,

not the external eye. Where from does the vision centre in the brain

get its power to absorb, synthesize and assimilate the visual inputs?

By themselves, all these external organs and their connected

mind-centres are all inert and have no individual capacity to do what

they are doing. So, it is natural for the disciple is to seek to know the

real power which enables them to do what they do.

The disciple’s question has deeper sub questions. Eyes can see –

but their power is limited to seeing; but, that too, within a certain range.

Ears can hear – but their power is limited to hearing, and even that,

within a certain upper and lower limits. All human organs have such

powers, with such limitations. They can’t do the functions of other

organs, nor can they function beyond their limits. For instance, eyes

can’t hear and ears can’t see. The mind-centres for each organ are

inert piece of mass, which, by itself, has no power to do anything.

Therefore, the disciple is troubled by the thought – which power stands

behind them and make them do all those wonderful things that they

do.

From whom do they derive their powers? This is the question.

The disciple is deeply interested in knowing how his body and

mind function, and the power behind their functioning. He is not

interested, as yet, about how the whole world functions, how all other

beings function and which power links all their functions. He is

interested in the microcosm, not in the macrocosm, as yet.

Adi Sankaracharya says that the first quality required of the

seeker of Upanishadic wisdom is – nitya-anitya- viveka vichara. The

seeker must be intent on acquiring wisdom that is of everlasting value;

and he must not be going after things of temporary value.

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Organs are given to us, but they go away in time. Mind is given. It

too will go away some time. These organs have some power which is

useful. But, they are impermanent. The Power which enables these

organs to perform their actions – is however likely to be permanent,

and is constantly behind all individuals and all organs.

Which is THAT POWER which is permanent and which enables

all these organs, including the mind, the sense organs, the Life energy

etc in us perform their functions?

Mantra 2

That power is Atman, which stands as the ear of the ears, mind

(manas) of the mind, speech power behind the power of speech, and

prana (life energy) of the prana. The really awakened person

understands this truth, stands aloof from the sense perceived world,

and attains to immortal status.

The disciple’s question is answered here by the Guru in a subtle

way. He says, the ear is not the real power of hearing in us. There is

another ear behind our ear – which is the real power of hearing behind

our physical ear (and the hearing centre in brain), which bestows the

power of hearing on the ear and enables it to function as the hearing

organ. The same is the case with all other organs, including the prana

and manas.

That power is the ATMAN, which, the awakened and conscious

individual comes to know. He becomes unattached to worldly activity

and attains to immortality. While all of our organs are of inert (achetana)

nature, Atman alone is the chetana nature that governs all of them.

Like the same electricity expressing itself as circular movement

in the fan, linear movement in the train, light in the bulb and heat in

the heater, so also, Atman expresses itself as the ear behind the ear,

eye behind the eyes, prana behind the prana and speech behind the

speech organs.

Once this realization dawns on a seeker, his mortality associated

with the mortal body-mind complex ceases and remains in his immortal

state.

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Mantra 3

Eyes cannot travel to it and see it. Speech cannot go and talk

with it. The mind too cannot reach to the Atman. Therefore, we do not

know how and what the Atman looks like. How to explain the Atman to

others also is unknown to us.

The Guru states very honestly in this mantra that Atman is beyond

the cognizing capabilities of all sense organs and the mind.

He also confesses that as Gurus, they also are unaware of how

to explain its nature in words etc – which cannot reach to the Atman.

All of our knowing and learning comes from the inputs that the

five sense organs carry from external world into the mind and through

the mind which synthesizes the inputs, arranges them in a form familiar

to it.

Therefore, what the eyes cannot see, the mind also cannot see.

What the ears cannot hear, mind also cannot hear. So is the case with

all sense experiences. For the external object, the eyes are the SEER.

But, for the eyes, the mind is the seer. All knowledge travels from

external world into the mind through these five sense organs.

Mind can of course make its own permutations and combinations

out of this knowledge. But, in case of the ATMAN, the mind also is totally

powerless to understand it. What eyes cannot see, ears cannot hear

and mind cannot understand, how can the tongue explain? Our

instruments being limited to these only, we cannot know the atman

through the mind or the sense organs for this reason.

What we cannot know through them, we cannot explain to others.

The Guru admits his incapability to explain the atman directly – in terms

of the knowledge and experience gained through the five senses and

the mind.

Mantra 4

This Atman is entirely different everything that is known to us. It

is also different from(and superior to) all that, which is unknown to

us. About this Atman, we have heard from our ancient Gurus, in this

way (which the Guru is going to explain in future Mantras).

There are many things in this world about which we know in

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many ways. This includes things in the external world, as well as our

own body-mind complex. But nothing of these can compare in any

way with the Atman.

There are also many things in this world, about which we do not

yet know. The distant stars, Galaxies, the world of viruses, bacteria and

such other things of the macro and micro levels of the world are

unknown to us.

We need to understand here that – when we say, “they are

unknown to us”, it implies that we do not know them YET. Not that

they are totally unknowable; just that they are unknown to us now

and so far.

Atman, the power behind all these known and unknown things,

is completely different from all of them. It is also far superior to all of

them.

The Guru says, we have heard of Atman in this way from our

ancestors, the ancient Gurus. The Guru will explain what they have

heard from the ancient Gurus in subsequent Mantras.

This implies that – there is no knowledge that is available to our

senses and the mind – to reach the ATMAN. Atman is neither the known

nor the unknown and the unknowable, from the sensory perception

view.

But then, is there a way to know it? The Guru explains this in

next Mantra.

Mantra 5

Atman is that -which cannot be expressed and explained by the

Power of speech, but that which illuminates and explains the speech

power itself. Here, that which we adore and prey (through the power

of speech) is not Atman. Know this to be the truth.

In Mantra.4, Guru has emphatically stated that that we cannot

know ATMAN through the sense instruments and the mind. In Mantra.5,

he explains another aspect of ATMAN.

Atman is that about which speech cannot either express or

explain; but by which speech itself gets explained. This means that, the

power which enables the speech power to function on the tongue is

Atman.

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We use the speech power to worship; but that which is

worshipped through such speech power is not Atman.

Upasana, or, worship, needs some understanding. We adore the

faculties of our senses. We love the senses, treasure them, and if we

lose them, we become sorrowful. This is also a sort of worship.

In this process, we worship the power of our senses and mind,

assuming that their power is purely theirs. We seek to enhance their

power through such prayer.

In reality, they are inert by nature and have no power of their

own. The power through which they gain their faculties is not

understood through the senses or the mind. Therefore, that, which is

worshipped through them is not BRAHMAN.

Worship may be done of any objects outside, which the sense

faculties perceive. That too is not true worship. Whatever is worshipped

with the sense faculties, is therefore, not Brahman.

The same concept is further explained in the Mantras below :

Mantra 6

Atman is that - which cannot be cognized by the Mind, but through

the power of which which Mind itself gets cognized. That which is

worshipped here (by the mind power ) is not Brahman. Know this to

be the truth.

Mind functions only through the senses, but, it has some

synthesizing, interpreting and imagining power based on the sensory

input. But, Mind cannot reach out to the Brahman and know it. It is

beyond its capacity.

On the other hand, it is the Atman, which cognizes the mind and

everything else in the world through the mind. We know the existence

of mind itself because of the power of Brahman which is acting behind

the mind.

Mind is itself a worshipper. But, what mind worships is not

Brahman. Mind can never know the Brahman, which is far beyond its

capability to know. Therefore, that which is worshipped by the mind

is not Brahman. Know that- that through which the mind itself becomes

known to us – is the Brahman – says the Guru.

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Mantra 7

Atman is that, which cannot be seen by the eyes; but, that by the

power of which, the eyes can see the world. That which is worshipped

here (by the eyes) is not Brahman. Know this to be the truth.

As in the earlier case, Eyes can see the external world. But, it

cannot see the Atman. Atman is the power which sees through the

eyes and gives it the power of seeing.

We use our eyes to worship and adore – but what we worship

thus is not Brahman. It is far beyond the capability of eyes to see and

comprehend. So, what is worshipped by the eyes, know that, that too

is not Atman.

Mantra 8

Atman is that which cannot be heard or known by the ears but

is that through which the ears and the power of hearing are

themselves known to us. What we worship through the power of

hearing is not the Atman. Know this to be the truth.

Explanation : All sense organs are inert by nature. This includes

ears too. It gets the power of hearing from the Atman. It is Atman who

is functioning through the Ears.

Ears also, are used to worship, through the power of hearing.

What is worshipped through the power of hearing of the ears is not

the Brahman, because, Brahman is beyond the capability of the ears

to know. The ears cannot reach and understand the source of their

Power – as in the case of other sense faculties.

Mantra 9

Atman is that - which cannot be understood through the Power

of Prana, but that through which the prana itself gets its power and

through which the Atman functions (as the power behind prana). What

we worship through the power of prana also is not the Brahman, Know

this to be the truth.

Prana is used in the sense of inhalation and exhalation, or, breath;

It is also in the sense of the life energy that the breath carries into and

out of us. It is also through the same breathing process that mind

knows all smells of the objects. In essence, this Mantra speaks of the

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power of Prana energy. Prana here is used essentially to signify the

life energy which travels in and out through the breath.

For lack of appropriate word in English, it is preferable to use

the word Prana itself. That which cannot be understood and taken in

through prana; but that through which, the prana itself gets its power

of traversing throughout the body and infusing life into all cells of our

body ; know that as the Brahman, says the Guru.

In summary, this first Part tells us that – the faculties of the senses

and mind which we experience and which we tend to adore and

worship as those of the senses are not really theirs. That which we

worship outside through the senses and the mind – also is not

Brahman.

Brahman is that because of which and from which the senses

and mind derive their respective powers.

We cannot see, hear, touch, smell, inhale, or express (through

speech) – this Brahman, as Brahman is beyond our sensory capability

to experience .

In this part, the Upanishadic rishis have used two types of logic

to explain the Atman (or, Brahman, which is the same). First is – Not

this..Not this…Not this.. This is the process of negation of what is not

Brahman. Whatever the senses and mind can experience directly is

not Brahman. Whatever we pray and adore through them is also not

Brahman. This has been emphasized through this logic.

The second logic is – this is… this is…this is.. This is the affirmative

logic. This logic says that – that power through which we experience

the senses, the mind and their sensory and thinking faculties – that

power which gives them these respective powers – that is Brahman.

Is this enough for us to understand the Brahman? No. Therefore,

the Guru’s instruction continues further in the part.2

Part -2

Mantra 1

The Guru says : If you think that you have known the Atman

clearly, what you have known is but very less. Therefore explore this

among the Devas (Gods) much more, to know more and more about

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this. The Sishya replies,”I think, I have understood the Atman”.

The Guru has explained the nature of Brahman (or Atman) to

some extent in Part.1. But, he knows that explanation is insufficient to

understand the Brahman. So, he clarifies instantly that – if you think

that you know the Atman well already, it is a mistaken impression. You

know very little, at this point of time. He also advises that the disciple

must explore the nature of Brahman among the Gods much more.

Why so? Man has very limited powers – of his senses and the

mind. The Guru has emphatically said earlier that these powers of the

senses and mind are not theirs really. The Power behind them and

through which we come to know them is the Atman. That atman is

beyond the cognizing capability of the senses and mind.

Having said that, the Guru exhorts the disciple to look at the

superior powers of the Devas (the Gods). Perhaps he may know a

little more about the Brahman from them.

But, the Sishya says , I think, I already understood the Brahman.

Here, the Guru is trying to remove the common illusion that this

or that Deva (or God) is the Brahman. This is not the case. One needs

to explore more deeply into the powers of these Devas, and what

they actually perform.

Whoever has a limited duty to perform – also will enjoy limited

powers, even if such powers may seem very vast to us. How can that

Deva be the Brahman, who is behind all the powers that exist, and

from whom all powers are derived.

If one says “I know the Brahman very well”, it obviously means,

one knows too little of the limitless Brahman. To erase such

misconceptions, therefore, one needs to study the Devas much more

closely. No Deva (God) has totality of powers or responsibilities. No

Deva is the power from which all other powers are derived, since

each God himself has limited Power.

Delve deeper, and deeper.... is the advice of the Guru, to the disciple

who says, I think, I have known Brahman.

This process is the typical vedantic, process of sravanam,

mananam and Nidhidhyasanam. The disciple must “ Listen, memorize

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and meditate” on each concept and idea taught by guru. This must

continue until the idea becomes a subconscious knowledge and then

transcends that level too.

Mantra 2

I do not assume that “I know Brahman”. At the same time, I do

not also assume that “I do not Know”. I know (to some extent and

some level )and I do not know beyond that, at the same time. One who

knows this, knows the Brahman.

This is typical of the upanishadic explanation. It is the highest

teaching of its kind. Explaining Atman needs to negate all misconceptions

and affirm all positive ideas – to drive home a concept into the disciple.

Guru himself admits that he is not assuming to know the Brahman.

At the same time, he says, I am also not assuming – not to know the

Brahman at all. He explains that it is difficult to affirm or deny the

knowledge of Brahman. One who understands this intricacy. I know

and I do not know – both flow from the mind, which cannot know the

Brahman. But, the Atman also can express only through the mind. The

Atman is the knower but it is the mind which says it knows or does

not know. This intricacy needs to be known very clearly. The one who

knows this clearly understands Brahman.

The process of knowing or understanding Brahman continues

further in next Mantra.

Mantra 3

He who do not know – knows. But he who knows – do not know.

Persons who (say that they) KNOW – are not knowing. Persons who

(say that they)do not know – are getting to know!

Explanation : The process of knowing itself is to be understood

before we can understand this.

Jnaatha means the knower. Jnanam means the knowledge. Jneyam

means, the thing that is known. When these three come together –

knowing happens and knowledge happens.

This process is true for all worldly matters. People can get to

know everything through this process – except the Brahman.

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The power of Jnatha in us that of Brahman. All senses and the

mind are outward looking – and they can know only the world outside.

They cannot know the power behind the Jnatha in us, which is much

deeper behind the mind itself.

When the Jnaatha, Jneyam, and Jnanam disappear completely,

there is NOTHING to be known, there is no knower and no knowledge.

Then, there appears the Brahman, who is the power behind all the

three.

If people are well-learned in the worldly knowledge, they are too

much immersed in the knowing process as above. In that process,

they will know worldly matters – but they will never know Brahman.

Those who know – thus do not know the Brahman.

But, those, who give up this process to know the worldly matters,

and turn inward, towards the power that drives the Jnatha in us, in

them, the world disappears from the mind, and the Brahman appears.

Thus, those who do not know – come to know the Brahman.

To reiterate the point - People who know the world well – get

deeper into the world, but they will not search for Brahman there and

will not know the Brahman at all. Those who do not seek to know the

world, but seek to turn inward to know the Brahman, may not know

worldly matters, but, they only stand a chance to know Brahman. This

is the seemingly intricate and contradictory position in the Mantra.

Mantra 4

He who experiences the Brahman (Atman) in every chetana state,

he only has known the Brahman. This is the definite conclusion. Such

a person gets his powers (and energy) from the Atman. He attains to

immortality through this Brahmajnanam (knowledge of Brahman).

The term Chetana state is to be understood. At the individual

level, one has three states of consciousness – Jagrut (waking), swapna

(Dream), sushupti (Deep sleep) states.

These are all one’s states of consciousness, in which one receives

“Pratibodha” at different levels. In all these states, one must be able to

experience the power of Brahman acting from behind him. Whoever

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can experience this in all the three states is the one who truly knows

Brahman.

There is also another connotation for the term”Pratibodha” in

the Mantra. We receive the pratibodha ( or conscious inputs) through

every entity which we see, hear or otherwise experience in this world.

We must be able to see the Brahman in every such input received by

us from the Universe. One who does that knows the Brahman; he

becomes free from this mortality cycle (achieves immortality) because

of this Brahmajnanam. He derives all his energy from the Brahman

now.

See not the actor, the action or the acted-upon – but see the

power that is behind all the actors, actions and the acted-upons.

Whatever happens – happens because of the presence of the

Brahman everywhere all the time. All power comes from that single

source. All actions, all modifications (or Vikaras) of human mind, all

changes in the cosmos occur because of the unseen presence of

Brahman.

What is immortality and how is it attained? Do we find anybody

known or unknown – whom we find with his body and mind living

forever? Immortality does not lie in the Body and mind or in keeping

them forever.

Immortality is the knowing of the Brahman. Once this knowing

occurs, the cycle of births and deaths cease, and the individual self

achieves immortality from this cycle of Births and deaths.

Who knows Brahman? Is it the mind? Is it the sense organs? No.

Neither. When the Individual self transcends the mind, body and sense

organs, the transcending process itself leads the self into the Brahman.

What happens when we know the Brahman thus? The

explanation comes now.

Mantra 5

If the Atman is realized here and now, we achieve the eternal truth

and divinity.

But, if Atman is not realized here itself, the greatest loss to us occurs.

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One, who realizes ATMAN here and now, see and experience the

Atman in every life form around them.

Consequently, their attachment with the perishable world dissolves

and they attain to immortality.

For the Brahma Jnani, the realized one, all Karma dissolves. He

sees the Brahman everywhere, in all life forms., including himself. That

is why Lord Krishna says in Gita that – the Jnani must be able to see

himself in all life forms and also see all life forms in himself. It flows

from this Upanishadic statement.

This clearly means that Brahman is all pervading. Brahman is

everywhere – in the self and in all else. This realization must remain

ingrained deeply, at all times and all places – for the Brahma Jnani, the

one who knows Brahman..

Ignorance is- seeing the separateness of all beings. Wisdom is -

seeing their oneness.

Part -3

The essence of Kenopanishad is presented in this part in a story

form. It is immaterial to us whether this is just a story or whether this

actually happened. Similar incidents can be seen in many epics too.

Here is the story :

Mantra 1

Brahman brought the Gods (Devas) a great victory. But, the Gods

assumed it as their own victory and were rejoicing with great pride

that this was their victory and it was their power which brought the

victory to them.

This is typical of human beings as well. Gods are mentioned as

an example only here. We, the human beings, also assume that all good

things happening to us are because of our efforts. We are also unable

to see the supporting power behind our seeming achievements.

Mantra 2

Brahman, having seen this, appeared in the form of a Yaksha

before them. The Gods were greatly perplexed, who the yaksha was.

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When we confront a huge obstacle, or any big problem, we also

feel perplexed. It is then that we realize that everything is not in our

own hands. When the huge form of an unknown Yaksha appeared

before the Gods, they also were perplexed on the Yaksha’s identity

Mantra 3

The Gods asked Agni, the god of fire, to ascertain who this Yaksha

was and come back. Agni agreed to do this.

Agni is an example here. All Gods and all Human beings are

subject to the same ignorance – until the wisdom of Brahman dawns

on us.

Mantra 4

Agni went to the Yaksha for knowing his identity. But the Yaksha

asked Agni, the fire God, who he was. Agni proudly replied, “I am Agni,

I am the Jataveda, the all-knowing”.

This is the height of pride. Agni claims to know everything, though

he does not know the Yaksha before him.

Mantra 5

The Yakhsa asked, “what Great Power have you?”. Agni, the fire

God replied, “ I can burn away anything on earth”.

Agni’s experience was that he can burn away anything. He had

never cared to think, wherefrom he got that power.

Mantra 6

The Yaksha placed a blade of Grass in front of Agni and asked

him to burn it away. Agni tried his best to burn it but found it beyond

his power. He therefore turned back, went to the Gods and told them

that he could not know the identity of the Yaksha.

Agni who could burn anything in the world, could not burn a

blade of Grass, without the Grace of Brahman. But, he did not know it

– until this moment. When he knew his powerlessness before this

Yaksha, he even forgot the purpose for going to the Yaksha, went back

to Gods and told them that he could not know this Yaksha. But, what he

knew now was his own helplessness and powerlessness before this

Yaksha.

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Mantra 7

After this, the Gods asked Vayu, the God of air, to go and ascertain

the identity of the Yaksha. Vayu agreed for this and went to the Yaksha.

Same as for Agni.

Mantra 8

Vayu went to the Yaksha for the purpose. But, the Yaksha asked

Vayu, “who are you?” Vayu replied proudly, “I am Vayu, who moves in

the sky.”

same as for Agni.

Mantra 9

The Yaksha asked,” what power have you?” Vayu replied, “I can

lift and move anything on earth anywhere”.

Same as for Agni.

Mantra 10

The Yaksha placed a blade of grass before Vayu and asked him

to move it. Vayu approached it with all his force but he could not

succeed in moving it. Then, he returned back to the Gods and told

them, :I could not find who this Yaksha is”

Same as for Agni.

Mantra 11

Then the Gods requested Indra “Oh Indra! Please go and ascertain

who that Yaksha is”. Indra agreed and went speedily towards the

Yaksha. By the time Indra went to the Yaksha, the Yaksha disappeared

from there.

This time, it is for the King of Gods to go and ascertain the identity

of the Yaksha. He goes, but the Yaksha disappears, making him much

more perplexed. It is now time for teaching the King of Gods the reality

about the power behind the powers of all Gods.

Mantra 12

In the same sky where the Yaksha stood earlier, Indra now saw

Uma, the daughter of Himavantha, shining with great beauty and

brightness. Indra asked Uma, who the Yaksha was.

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Indra needs a Guru now to explain to him about the Brahman,

who the Yaksha actually was. Brahman does not himself become the

Guru for Indra to explain himself to the king of Gods.

Fortunately for Indra, the Greatest sakthi, Uma devi appears

before Indra and is going to be Indra’s first teacher on Brahman, the

Power behind all powers.

Here ends the 3rd Part. The very first sloka in this Chapter makes

it very clear that it was Brahman who brought the Gods a Great Victory.

The Upanishad does not detail what the victory was and against whom.

Usually, the Gods are always at war with the daemons (Rakshasas).

Gods are usually considered as the Protectors of the world and the

daemons are the destroyers.

It was Brahman who had given Great powers to the Gods to

discharge their respective responsibilities. But Gods forgot this basic

truth and started rejoicing at what they thought was their own great

victory. Is this not what we, the human beings frequently do? Power

blinds the eyes of any one, including the Gods. But, when Gods, the

protectors of world, indulge in it, this could turn out to be evil for the

world. So, Brahman wanted to teach them the lesson they need. He

appeared as Yaksha in the sky before the Gods.

Who is a Yaksha? Yaksha also is a variety among Gods. But, Gods

found this Yaksha entirely different and unknown to them. They

wanted to know him. Agni and Vayu are the most famous and most

Powerful among Gods, and they go and try to find who the yaksha

was. The Yaksha wants to see their power first. Agni fails to burn and

Vayu fails to move the Blade of Grass put before them by the Yaksha,

even though they claim great powers to burn and move anything on

earth.

As the saying goes, not a blade of grass moves without the will of

the Brahman. Not an ant bites without his order.

So, where do the powers of Agni to burn and that of Vayu to

move anything reside? Why could they not burn or move even a small

blade of grass? Their pride suffers a big blow. Next, the king of Gods,

Indra goes for the same purpose. He could not even see the Yaksha.

The Yaksha has disappeared.

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But, now, is the time to learn the lesson. So, Uma, the daughter of

Himavantha appears in a bright form before Indra. The Upanishad

does not clarify, who the goddess Uma is? But, other Epics clarify that

she is the Sakthi of Siva, the supreme God of destruction among the

Great Trinity. The story proceeds further and ends in the 4th chapter

with Uma’s words.

As we understand, each God represents a different power in the

universe and a similar power in the living beings. Agni represents the

power of seeing in us. Vayu represents the power of prana. Indra is of

course the king of Gods and keeps the cycle of life moving with his

powers on rains, clouds and so on. If these Gods rejoice in their powers

instead of properly discharging their ordained responsibilities, the

world would be in total disarray.

Is this not so, even among the humans? People who are given

powers- are given those powers, to discharge certain responsibilities.

If they fail to know that their power is Brahman’s power, they are

bound to misuse their powers and not discharge their responsibilities.

This was, is and will be so always. Brahman himself had to teach this

lesson to the Gods. Without Brahman supporting them, their own

power was just nothing. Brahman is the power pervading all the Gods

and all the living beings.

Part-4

Mantra 1

Goddess Uma Devi explained to Indra, “That was none other than

Brahman. You were all proud of a victory – which was won for you by

the Brahman, as if you had won the victory all by yourself”. Now, Indra

understood that it was Brahman, who appeared before the Gods as

Yaksha.

Here, the great Goddess, Umadevi, has taken on the role of Guru,

because, she was explaining the nature of Brahman to Indra and other

Gods. The need for a competent Guru’s instruction in understanding

Brahmajnanam is highlighted here. Because of that Brahman only you

won the battle. This Brahman alone is responsible for your victory”,

explained Uma Devi as the Guru. Then all the Gods realized that the

great power behind all of their powers was Brahman.

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Mantra 2

Because Agni, Vayu and Indra had direct cognition and experience

of Brahman, they became the best among all Gods with their

Brahmajnanam. Among Gods, these three are the first to experience

and know the Brahman.

Agni, Vayu and Indra learnt of Brahman from Brahman himself.

It was Brahman who showed them that their power was utterly useless,

unless they had the Grace of Brahman. Indra had the additional fortune

of learning more about Brahman from the great Goddess, Uma devi,

who thus became his Guru. These three Gods, Agni, Vayu, and Indra

thus became the most illustrious and wisest of all Gods. They now

know that they got their power only by the grace of Brahman and

that they can use it only so long Brahman’s Grace continues to shower

on them. If this is the case with these Great Gods, what about the powers

of the human being? Well, the explanation about the Gods continues

in next mantra further, and it also illustrates what we need to do.

Mantra 3

Indra, therefore, has became the foremost God among the Gods

(devas) because he went closest to Brahman. Not only that, Indra

understood the Brahman (and his powers) first, amongst all Gods .

Goddess Uma devi chose to appear before only Indra and explain

to him that the Yaksha was none other than the Brahman and that

Brahman was responsible for their powers and for their victory. She

explained the nature of Brahman and Indra became the first God to

know the Brahman and see his powers first hand. So, he became the

foremost of all Gods with this Brahmajnanam. Likewise, Agni, Vayu

also saw the power of Brahman first hand – as we have seen in previous

Mantra. The story thus makes it completely explicit that all power of

all powers flows from Brahman. Let us now recall the first Mantra in

which the disciple asks, who is the power behind the power of his

ears, eyes, mind and so on. If the Power behind the Power of Agni,

Vayu and Indra is Brahman, who else can be behind the power behind

the power of the ears, eyes and the mind – other than Brahman? So,

the question of the disciple stands answered not only at the micro

level but also at the macro level of the Universe itself.

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Mantra 4

This Mantram describes Brahman in terms of what we can easily

understand as his actions. Brahman alone made the lightening so

lustrous. He alone is responsible for the twinkling of the eye in the

human being.

What happens in the sky and what happens in the human, and

in all other beings happens only because of the Brahman’s innate

presence. We can understand the presence of Brahman even by

looking at all the actions happening all around us. So why does the

human mind go all around the world with deep curiosity? The answer

comes in the next Mantra.

Mantra 5

The guru is continuing to explain the manifestation of Brahman(or

Atman). Because of Brahman only, the mind is able to see and explore

the external world. It keeps in memory what all it has seen. Based on

that knowledge, it imagines all other things.

Brahman has blessed the mind with the powers of observation,

exploration, absorption and retention. Mind observes and explores

the external world, only to understand Brahman. Why does it do so?

This is again explained in the next Mantram. Mind tries to reach out to

the Brahman, wherever it reaches through the five senses or through

its own imagination. However, external objects are constantly changing.

Therefore, Mind cannot grasp the steady nature of the Brahman filling

all the beings so easily. Also, so long as the Brahman within one self is

not cognized, exploration outside will remain unfulfilling. So what should

mind do in respect of external world and all beings?

Mantra 6

Brahman is to be worshipped as Tadwanam, which means it is

the one which fills all beings and hence it is to be worshipped as such.

One who understands this will be loved by all beings. All beings tend

to like him because he sees himself (Atman) in all of them.

One who sees the Self (Atman) in all beings around himself, can

never dislike or hate any being around him. His heart is always full of

divine love towards all of them. When love flows from him towards all

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beings, it is reciprocated by all beings towards him also. It happens as

a natural process. The presence of Brahman becomes immediate and

obvious in presence of such self-realized beings. Ramana Maharshi

and Rama Krishna Paramahamsa, have been great examples of this

phenomenon.

Mantra 7

The disciple again seeks - “Oh Gurudev! Kindly teach me the

Upanishad. Teach me knowledge of Brahma”. The Guru says “I told you

only about the Upanishad that teaches the knowledge of Brahman”.

Having heard all that the master told so far about the nature of

Brahman and about how the Gods like Indra understood the Brahman

from Devi Uma, the disciple again asks the teacher to teach him the

Upanishadic wisdom.

The disciple is no doubt a competent Sishya and has heard his

guru with devotion. But, the reason for raising this question is - to

know from the guru with certainty on what exactly has been taught to

him. He also wants to know more than what has already been explained

by the Guru. Unless the guru says I have completed all that I wanted to

tell you, the disciple is not willing to leave the learning. It also indicates

that understanding Upanishadic knowledge and being sure of it is not

simple even for a competent and devoted disciple. As earlier told by

Guru, this knowledge cannot be explained through words easily.

Mantra 8

Having confirmed that what he detailed so far was in fact

Upanishadic wisdom, the guru says that, for this most secret wisdom

to get ingrained, some basic sadhanas (practices)are essential. Tapasya,

control on senses, performing yagna and other prescribed karmas

are such Basic Sadhanas, which the disciple must practice. The Vedas

remain as parts of this deep wisdom. Sath or Satyam (the Existential

Truth) is the only place of residence of this knowledge

(Brahmagnanam).

Tapasya, here, means, devoted, constant and consistent

exploration of Brahman in the self and in all beings around the self, as

earlier said by the Guru. Knowledge of Vedas (of which the Upanishads

are a part) helps the seeker to acquire this Brahmagnanam, so far

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narrated in this Upanishad. Vedas are the accepted organs of Brahman.

The first part of Vedas, called Karma Kanda, gives the disciple, the

Trikarana Suddhi, that is necessary to attain Brahmajnanam, which is

described in the last part of Vedas,or Vedanta, which is also called

Upanishads, or Jnana Kanda. Brahman is considered as the Existential

or Eternal truth. The three qualities of Brahman usually mentioned

are Sath, Chith, Ananda of which Sath is mentioned here. Truth is thus,

the obvious residence of Brahmagnanam.

Mantra 9

The person who understands this Upanishad with certainty

destroys all his sins and reaches and resides in the omnipresent,

magnificence of the Brahman.

In this Mantram, the word, “swarga loka or heaven” is said in

place of moksha. But, it is qualified with words like “ananta or endless

or omnipresent”and “jyeye or the best” . These qualifications and the

very aim of this Upanishad as stated in all other Mantras is only the

realization of Brahman in the self. Hence, this word also is to be

understood in the same context.

Uttara Santi Pathamu

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

Upa Samharam

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The first part (Khanda) of this Upanishad describes the Atman – by

leading us through the Manas and the Indriyas and explaining that manas

and Indriyas cannot know the Atman but their existence and power are

derived from the Atman itself. Atman gives specific powers to Manas and

Indriyas and makes them perform all their functions. The Devas or Gods

with names and forms are different from Para Brahman.Brahman is

said as nirakara and nirguna and not reachable through indriayas and

manas. Whatever is adored and prayed for through them is not the

Brahman.

In the second part, how the one who thinks he knows does not

know and unlikely to know but the one who thinks he does not know

but is therefore likely to know (in future at least) is emphasized. Guru

also cannot express Atman but can only lead the seeker on the path

laid down by ancient teachers. In every movement, one must see the

Atman. Then, one attains Immortal status of the Atman. One must

achieve atmajnanam here and now; else, greatest loss occurs in one’s

life. But, one who realizes Brahman, becomes immortal.

The third part narrates the battle of devas (possibly with

Rakshasas) and indicates that Brahman achieves victory for them. But,

the Gods become proud of their victory as their own. Brahman removes

this pride in them by showing how, without Brahman’s support, all of

them are totally powerless. The powers given to our Indriyas are the

Gods in us. But, the qualities like pride are the rakshasas, which take us

downhill. With Brahman’s support only, the Indiryas enjoy all their

special powers and can achieve any victories in worldly matters. The

battle is us is always between the Good deeds that Indiryas can do,

and the bad deeds they tend to do because of Ego, pride etc. The one

who seeks and takes the support of the Brahman emerges victorious.

If Gods cannot win their Battles without the power of Brahman,

how can our Indriyas win their Battles, without Brahman’s innate

support.

The appearance of Uma at the end of this chapter III is again

allegorical. Brahman has disappeared from the form of Yaksha. Uma,

the Haimavathi, is the great teacher for the Gods lead by Indra (Agni,

Vayu etc). Her teaching to Indra however comes in the chapter IV.

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The fourth part describes how Uma teaches Indra about the

Brahman who was the architect of the victory of Gods. Indra was the

first to directly understand him from His Guru, Uma, and so becomes

the best of all Gods. Whoever seems Atman in all beings and all beings

in Atman, he cannot hate any being and every being tends to like him.

This knowledge of Atman is really secret and is available only for those

who practice Tapas, control of senses and such sadhanas. Vedas

describe them and so, are their parts. Brahman resides where Sath

(or satyam) resides. Eternal truth is verily the Brahman.

Uttara Santi Paatam (same as at Beginning)

Om Santihi Santihi Santihi

–oOo–

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Tyttireeyopanidhad - Glossary

Aadharam Support

Aadhyatmika Paankta Trayam Vayu Paanktam, IndriyaPaanktam, Dhetu Paanktam

AakashaBrahmam Brahmam

Aakasham Sky

Aatma The soul

Aatma Swaroopam The real form of the soul

Aatma tatvam The true nature of the soul andof god

Aatmagnanam; Aatma Vidya Knowledge of the soul

adharma Unrighteousness

Adharvana Veda One of four Vedas

Adharvya The priest who performs yagna

Adhayanam Learning of Vedas

Adhyatmamu Spiritual

Aditya Sun

Adwaita Non dualistic

Agni Fire god

Akarta Non doer

Aksharas The eternal being

Amruta tatvam Nature of immorality

Ananadamaya Aatma The supreme spirit

Ananda Swaroopa The supreme spirit

Anandam Delight

Anandamaya Kosam The subtlest and the mostethereal of the five sheaths inwhich the human soul isenclosed

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Anantham Infinite

Anna Brahma Brahmam

Annam Food

Anna Purusha Brahmam

Annamaya Aatma Brahmam

Annamaya Kosam Sheath for Jeevatma

Annamaya Sareeram Physical body

Annarasam The sap of food

Anthakaaranam Between earth and heaven

Anudattam The grave accent to beobserved in reading Vedas

Anukaaranam Conscience

Anukruti Bodhakam Similar knowledge

Anurutudu Name belongs to Parabrahmam

Apana Vayu

Apanumu Vayu

ardha Wealth

Asatyam Untruth

Avidya Ignorance

Bahya Paankta Trayam, Loka Paanktam, DevataPaanktam, Bhoota

Bahya Paanktams Paanktam

Bhooh A mantra

Bhoolokam Earth

Bhoota Living beings

Bhoota Paanktam Water, Oshadulu (vegetation),Grains, Atmosphere, Aatma(Aatma means Virata Purusha)

Bhuvahaha A mantra

Brahma Vidya The knowledge of Brahma

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Brahmajnanam Knowledge of Brahmam

Brahmavarchassu The splendor of Brahmam

Brahmavedam Vedam pertains to Brahmam

Brahmavettas Who had the knowledge ofBrahmam

Budhi Intellect

Chandra Moon

Chandrayana A religious observance

Chitram Picture

dakshana Gift given to a brahmin after areligious function

Deerghams Long or lengthy

Desa Country

Devata Paanktams Agni, Vayu, Sun, Moon, Stars

Devata Swaroopam Image of devata

dharma Duty

dharma pathni Wife married with vedicmantras

Dhatu Paanktam Skin, Flesh, Nerves, Bones, Fats

Gandham Smell

gunas Three gunas – Satva, Rajas,Tamo

gurukulam Stay in the house of a teacher

havisis Offering to gods at a yagna

Hiranmayudu Name belongs to Parabrahmam

Hiranyagarbhas Anandam Parabrahmam

Hitabodha Good advise

Hitopanishat One of the Upanishads

Hota; Hotas Priest

Hraswam The letter that can be uttered in

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1/6 second

Hrudaya Padmam Heart

Indranandam The pleases of Indra

Indriya Paanktam Eyes, Ears, Mind, Speech, Skin

Indriyas Organs

Jalam Water

Janma Birth

Japa; Japam Muttering prayers

Jatharagni Digestive heat of the stomach

Jeeva Soul

Jeeva Brahmam Brahmam

Jnana Knowledge

Jnana Kandam Chapter pertaining to jnana

Jnanam Brahma Brahmam

Kala Time

Karana Sareeram The inner rudiment of the body

karma Action

karma phalam Fruits of action

Karmendriyas sense of organs

karta Doer

Kartrutwam Doer

Klesam Pain

Konda Naluka Ovule

Kosa; Kosam Sheath

Kshemam To protect what is alreadysecured

Loka Paanktams Pridhivi, Atmosphere, Heaven,Directions, Moolalu (quarters)

Maha Samhita Great compilation

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Mahaha A mantra

Mananamu Knowledge

Manasa Japam Meditation in silence

Manassu Mind

Mano Brahma Brahmam

Manomaya Aatma Aatman

Manomaya Kosam Sheath

Manomaya Sareeram Physical body

Manomayudu pure knowledge

Matras 1/6 seconds

Medhassu Budhi

Modamu A type of happy feeling,

happiness

moksha Salvation

Moolalu Quarters

Naama Name

nirguna The Supreme Being; devoid of

all attributes

Nirguna Brahmhopasana Meditation on formless

Brahmam

Nishtayatmaka budhi Steady intellect

Omkara Brahmam Brahmam of sound

Omkaram Another name of Parabrahmam

Oshadees Vegetation and grains

paanktams Yagnas

Padmem Foot or past

Pancha bhoothas Five principal elements

Pancha Bhoutika Sareeram The body made of five elements

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(Earth, Aakasham, Vayu, Agni,

Tejassu)

Para Brahma Swaroopam The nature of Parabrahmam

phalam Fruits

Pirithvi Earth

Plutamu Plutamu will take three or moreMatras time.

Poorva Former form

Pragna Intellect

Prajapathi He is the first man in thecreation

Prajapatis Anandam The pleasure of Brahma

Prana A Vayu

Prana Brahma Vital air which is Brahmam

Prana Vayu Oxygen

Pranam Life; vitality

Pranamaya Aatma The soul

Pranamaya Brahmam The soul or Jeevatma

Pranamaya Kosam The sheath of the soul

Pranamaya Sareeram The subtle body of the soul

pranayama Restraining the breath

Prapancham World

Pravachanam Teaching to the disciples

Pridhivi The earth

Priyamu The happiness while seeingnear and dear like son

Prudhivi Brahmam Brahmam in the form of earth

Puchamu The tail

Purusha Parabrahmam

Purushardhas The principal object of human

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life and pursuit

Rasam Subtle quality of liquids

Rig Veda One of the four Vedas

Roopa; Roopam Form or figure

Ruthamu Srauta Smarta karmas asprescribed in Sastras

Ruthviku The priest who performs yagna

Sabda Swaroopam The nature of sound

Sabdam Sound

Sachyavasalulu Truthful person

Sadhacharams Superior customs

Sadhaka One who accomplishes

Sadhana Accomplishing; means

Salagramam A form connected to Vishnu andSiva

Sama Veda One of the four Vedas

Samagana The singing of Sama Veda

Samana Vayu One of the five Vayus

Samanamu A Vayu

Samhita Making the reader to learn theunknown knowledge from theknown knowledge

Samsaram Cycle of birth and death

Sankalpa Will; mental resolve

Santi, Santihi Peace

Santi Patham The path of peace

Sastrams Srotra Rukkus without a song

Sastras Science; law

Satyam Truth

Satyam Brahma Brahmam in the form oftruthfulness

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Soonyam Empty

Sparsha Heavenly nymph; wives ofgandharvas

Sradha Devotion

Srauta Smarta karmas Vedic karmas like yagna, yagaetc.

Srotra Rukkus Reciting of mantras

Sukrutam self made

Surya loka The abode of sun

Sushuma A nerve

Suvahaha A mantra

Swadhyanamu Reading by himself

Swaha’ Offer given to any god

Swaritams The grave accent to beobserved in reading Vedas

Swaroopam The real form

Taapams Heat; Burning

tapasya Meditation

Taponitchudu who does tapasya extensively

Udana Vayu A Vayu

Udanumu A Vayu

Udattams Elevated or bountiful

Udattas Acute accent with sharp tones

Upanishad A subsidiary of Vedas

Upasana Constantly remembering asprescribed in the scriptures

Uttara Later form

Varnasramas Duties of varnas viz Brahmama,kshatriya Vyasa, Sudra

Varuna The god of rain

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Vayu Paanktam Pranamu, Vyanamu, Apanumu,Udanumu, Samanamu

Veda Divine knowledge; collection ofhymns and prayers

Vedaatma A veteran in the knowledge ofVeda

Vedadhjyanam Learning of Vedas

Vedanta The last of the six dharmas ofHindu Philosophy

Vedardhas The true meaning of Vedas

Vidiya The 2nd day after a no moon

Vidwamsa Scholar

Vidya-Upasana Learning; worshipping

Vignana; Vignanam Wisdom

Vignana Aatma, Vignana Brahma, The soul

Vignanamaya, Vignanamaya Aatama

Vignanamaya Kosam The sheath of the soul

Vignani Scientist

Vikalpas Changes

Virat Purusha The Brahmam

Viswaroopa He who exists in all forms; LordVishnu

Vrata Religious vow; A course ofconduct

Vyahruti Mystical words

Vyahruti ‘Bhooh’ A mantra

Vyahruti ‘Bhuvaha’ A mantra

Vyahruti ‘Mahaha’ A mantra

Vyahruti ‘Suvaha’ A mantra

Vyana Vayu One of the five Vayus

Vyanamu A Vayu

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Vydika karmas Prescribed actions by Vedas

Yagas; yagna An act of worship; sacrifice

Yajassu Details of the formation ofsacrifices

Yajur Veda One of the four Vedas

Yogam The system of philosophyestablished by patanjali

Yogamu A state of which a yogi haswithdrawn the whole of hisconsciousness

yogi A tapasvi

This is the end of Bhruguvallee

Uttara Santi Pathamu

Om Santihi Santhi Santihi

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Isavasyopanishad - Glossary

Aakasham Sky

Aatma The soul

Aatmagnana Knowledge of the soul

adharma An unjust act

Adhibhoutika Taapams Calamities like Earthquakes, famines etc

Adhidaivika Taapams Evils from Yaksha, Rakshasa, Pisacha

and other grahas

Adhyatma Taapams Diseases etc

Aditya Sun god

adwaitees non dualistic

Agnana Ignorance

Agni Fire god

ahankaram Pride

Anantatma Brahman

Anantham Infinite

Anima One of the eight prominent sidlus

Antariksham Atmosphere

Ardha Wealth

Asambhooti Which is not born, which has no birth

and death

Asoorya Represents to the world where sun is

not seen

asuras Devils

Avidya Ignorance

Avranudu, Asnayuvu Who has no form

Avyakruta Prakruti which has no birth and death

Avyakta Invisible

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bakthi Devotion

Bhooha A mantra from Veda

bhoothas Living beings

Bhuvaha A mantra from Veda

Bruhadaranyaka Name of an Upanishad

Chandogya Name of an Upanishad

Dakshanayanamu The half-year during which the sun

moves from north to south

Devalokam Abode of devatas

dharma Duty

Eesavasya A name of an Upanishad

Ekarishi Other name of Surya

Esavasyamidham’ A mantra

grahas Planets

Hiranmayapaathra Golden vessel

Itareya Name of an Upanishad

Jnana Knowledge

Jnanis A person who has knowledge

Karma Action

karma phalam Fruits of action

lokas world

mantra Magical formula

marga Path

Omkaram Pranavam; Para Brahman

Para Brahma Supreme Spirit

Parimitama Paramatma

Paripoorna Para Brahman Brahman

Pisacha Evil spirit

Pitrulokam The abode of ancestors

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Pitruyanam The path of pitrulokam

Pooshana Other name of Surya

Poshaka Protector

Prajapati Brahma

Prakrutti Primary substance

Pralayam Annihilation; Dissolution

Prana A Vayu

Prana Vayu Oxygen

Pravrutti world

punya phalam Fruits of virtuous acts

Purusha Para Brahman

Sabda Prapancham World of sounds

Sadhaka One who accomplishes

Samadharishis Impartial

samanvayam coordination

Sambhooti Para Brahman with form

Samishti whole

Sampoornams Complete; full

Sankalapas Will; mental resolve

Sankalpa Vikalpas The memories since childhood till now

sastras Science; law

Satya Surya The sun god

Satyadharma He who performs karmas as prescribed

in Sastras

Satyam Truth

Satyaswaroopa; He who performs karmas as prescribed

Satswaroopam in Sastras

Satyavrata Vow of speaking truth

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siddhis Acquisition of super natural powers

sloka A verse

Sukla Yajur Veda One of the Vedas

Suras devatas

Surya Sun

Surya mandala Abode of sun god

Suvaha A mantra

Swaroopam The real form

Swayambhvu He is born by himself

Taapams Tapasya

Upanishad A supplementary text for vedas

Vayu Wind

Vedas Divine knowledge; collection of hymns

and prayers

Vidya Knowledge

Vignanis Scientist

Vikalpas Changes

Vyahruttis Mantras

Vyakta Manifested

Vyashti individual

yaga An act of worship

yagna Sacrifice

Yaksha A celestial god

–oOo–

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Kenopanishad - Glossary

mano vikaras Changes in mind

Matariswvu wander in the atmosphere

merupu Lightening

moksha Salvation

Mukthi Salvation

Paramatma The Supreme Spirit

Prakruti Primary substance

Prana A Vayu

rakshasas Daemons (a variety of Living beings)

sadhanas Accomplishing; means

Sama Veda One of the four Vedas

Samadhi Deep meditation

Sastras Science; law

Siddhas Yogis

sishya Disciple

Taapams Heat

Talavakara Brahmanam A part of an Upanishad; a chapter in

Upanishad

Talavakaropanishattu One of the Upanishads

tapasya Meditation

Trikarana Sudhi Purity by speech, action, mind

Trimoorthis Brahma, Vishnu, Easwara

Upanishad A supplementary text for Vedas

Vayu Wind

Vedas Divine knowledge; collection of hymns

and prayers

Vidhitam Known; understood

Vikaras; vikarams Change; alteration

yagna sacrifice

–oOo–