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  • 1. Artificial ReefProjectMarine & Community Values

2. Background Increase in water-based tourism activityin Tyre vs. traditional users Conflict and competition for limitedspace and resources among various usersand uses Degradation of resources; loss ofeconomic opportunity; threat of violence! Initial unsuccessful effort by Departmentof Fisheries 3. TyMMA Tyre Marine Management Area:A Pilot Artificial Reef project andMarine Protected Area 4. Tyre Artificial Reef ObjectiveTo contribute to national and local development,Particularly in the fisheries and tourism sectors,Management of the Tyre coastal zone,Establish sustainable use, co-operation among resourceusers, institutional collaboration, active andenlightened local participation, and equitable sharingof benefits and responsibilities among stakeholders. 5. Unique Consultativeand Participatory Process Clean slateMultiple stakeholder meetings: governmental, non- governmental, community-based persons Representation/mobilisation of groups Various site visitsScientific studies and popular knowledgeNo time line 6. Financial ArrangementsUser fees: SCUBA diving, snorkeling and floraconservation (mooring)Installation of mooringsSale of souvenirsCoffee shop Donations Grants 7. What can Purple Reef Do? Scientific research on the natural resources of the area Regular monitoring of the reefs life, water quality andother environmental factors and resources Public information and sensitization Provision of facilities for users of the TyMMA, e.g.moorings Coordination of economic activities related to the TyMMAand its resources 8. What will TyMMA Committee Do Promotion of technologies that are appropriate andlinked with local environmental, social and culturalaspects of the TyMMA Surveillance and enforcement of rules and regulations Conflict resolution among the various user groupswhenever necessary Maintenance of the principles of ongoing participationand public consultation 9. A Set of Goals Co-existence of users with minimal conflict Support the locals, improve the local economy, highlightthe cultural heritage Increases in fish stocks, in marine reserves and fishingareas and reflection of these increases in fishermenscatches Self-sustainability with regards to operating costs International recognition Community support Enhanced awareness and sensitization 10. Threats to be contained andcontrolled Sedimentation and Sewage Overuse of certain dive sites (localizedcongestion) Non-compliance with rules and regulations byfishers from communities adjacent to Tyre Lenient penalties Inadequate consultation regarding developmentactivity or inadequate and/or untimely actionwhen reports are made Late payment of user fees 11. New Developments/ChallengesSpread the MarineManagement Area projectsProposed new greenecological hotel developmentin the TyMMA, includingmarinaInternational ConservationSiteSedimentation &wastewater, coupled withthe compounding effects ofstorm events and Globalwarming 12. Zoning Arrangements Marine Reserves Fishing Priority Areas Mooring Areas Recreational Areas Multiple Use Areas 13. The setting up of ARs to attract fish inMediterranean goes back to around 3,000 years ago The rocks used as anchors for the tuna fishery nets in the Mediterranean Sea were left on the seabed at the end of each fishing season, accumulated over time and made new rocky habitats populated by benthic fauna and fish which were exploited by local fishermen during the intervals between the fishing tuna seasonsIn the middle of the 17th century artificial reefs were used in Japan under various shapes for fish attraction. Modern concept of Artificial ReefUSA 1800sEurope 1900s 14. IMO-UNEP 2008OSPAR 1999 UNEP-MAP 2005 London Convention andGuidelines on Artificial Reefs inGuidelines for the Placement Protocol / UNEP guidelines forrelation to Living Marine Resources 1999 at Sea of Matterthe placement of ARs for Purpose other than mere Disposal (Construction of Artificial Reefs)AR DEFINITION AR is a submerged structure deliberately placed on the seabed to mimic some functions of a naturalMaterials, design, placement, reef, such as protecting,administrative action, regenerating, concentrating and/or monitoring, scientific enhancing populations of livingexperiments, management and marine resources liabilitiesThe term EXCLUDES artificialislands, cables, pipelines, platforms,mooring, and other structures forcoastal defense (e.g. breakwaters) 15. GUIDELINES PURPOSEAssessing proposals for the placement of ARs on the basis of scientifically sound criteria anddeveloping an appropriate regulatory frameworkImplementing regulations on the AR constructionPreventing of pollution or degradation of the marine environment as a consequence of wastedeployment 16. MEDITERRANEAN SEA ARTIFICIAL REEF NETWORK Spain France Principality of Monaco Italy Albania Greece Turkey Cyprus Malta Tunisia 17. GREECE CASE STUDYConstruction of ARs started in 1999 MULTIANNUAL PROGRAM FOR FISHERY DEVELOPMENTProtection and management of fisheries resourcesMINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE Construction, monitoringand fundingSite identificationbefore 2004after 2004 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURELOCAL FISHERYASSOCIATIONS,through Local Prefectures 18. GREECE CASE STUDY AR CONSTRUCTION PROCEDUREFeasibility study Environmental featuresLocal Fish assemblageExistence of sensitive areas or areas under specificregimesPermissions by allDependence of the area on fisheriesSocio-economic aspects of local fisheriesauthoritiescompetent in seaArchaeological AuthoritymanagementMinistry of Maritime AffairsMinistry of EnvironmentHydrographical National AuthorityIchthyologic studyOceanographic studyAdditional studiesConstruction studyEnvironmental impact studyAR deployment Oceanographic investigationsFish assemblage inside and outside the ARBenthic colonization of the structuresLanding monitoring program at the nearest fishingports5-year monitoring program 19. GREECE CASE STUDYFOUR Existing ARs (2000-06) SIX New positions identifiedMinistry of Agriculture Feasibility Study LocalPrefectures Surface: 8-10 km2 Surface: 10 km2 20. ARs in Mediterranean have been developed over 40 years withdifferent aims nature conservation and restoration fish stock enhancement fishery management and improvement aquaculture research recreation 21. Highlights Research has strongly contributed to the AR success; better understanding of the manychallenges offered by ARs for the conservation and sustainable use of the marineenvironment and its resources. Development of several guidelines aimed to assist in AR construction and avoiddumping in the European seas.Unambiguous definition of AR. Plus common protocols for the AR deployment and theassessment of their effectiveness and impacts. In spite of the recent developments, National and/or Regional programs for ARdeployment are only in force in most of countries overlooking the Mediterranean Sea,while only few of these programs have been developed in the other European Regions(Portugal and Spain) up to now. Adoption of overall regional/national programs is strongly recommended in the viewof overall plans based on a holistic approach to fisheries and nature conservationwithin the coastal zone.At the same time, research and cooperation among researchers should continue tofully understand how the ARs work and how they can be manipulated to get desiredbiological and socio-economic products. In fact, the key of acceptance of AR concept still depends on research anddissemination of knowledge among the managers of the marine environment and users. 22. To Avoid Toxic MaterialsThe use of toxic materials is a common mistake when building an artificialcoral reef. This greatly pollutes the habitat and nullifies any benefitartificial reefs have to wildlife. Damage to NestsArtificial reefs often do not reach the weight requirement necessary tokeep them in one place. They are known to float along the sea floor,damaging wildlife and often disturbing or destroying nests. Ocean DumpingMany times, artificial reefs will be chained to light buoys or not besufficiently chained at all. In addition, some of these reefs are poorlyconstructed. Both of these factors greatly increase the amount of oceandumping each year. Vessel CollisionThere are a number of artificial reefs being placed and mounted withoutany sort of marker on the surface of the water. This prevents boats andfishing vessels from avoiding them and they can do damage to the vesselsand the surrounding real reefs. ExampleCleaned and sanitized military tanks have been used to construct artificialreefs. Some worry that toxicity due to firing heavy artillery could damagethe environment, but those that are sanitized properly make suitable reefs 23. Thank you