Typhoid disease

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2. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused bySalmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi). Thedisease remains an important public health problem indeveloping countries.About 16 million cases of typhoid fever and 600,000deaths occur yearly worldwide and that more than90% of this morbidity and mortality occurred in Asia 3. What?An acute illness with fever caused byinfection with the Salmonella typhibacteria contracted from contaminatedwater and food. Also called enteric fever, bilious fever and yellow jack . 4. Virulent bacterium that cause illness1.Bacteria called Salmonella typhi. 2.Fecal- spread through contaminated food orwater and occasionally through directoral routecontact with someone who is infected. These people, called chronic 3.Typhoid carriers, shed the bacteria in theircarriers faeces and are capable of infecting others. 5. work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemicWork as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhibacteriaHave close contact with someone who is infected or hasrecently been infected with typhoid feverHave an immune system weakened by medications such ascorticosteroids or diseases such as HIV/AIDSDrink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi 6. 1st WEEK Poor appetiteFever, often as high as (39.4 or 40 C) 7. 2nd WEEKContinuing high Extremely feverdistendedabdomen Diarrhea or severe weight lossconstipation 8. 3rd WEEKLie motionless andIntestinal bleeding exhausted 9. Salmonella typhi contracted fromcontaminated water and foodIngested by human.The S.typhi survivesthe acidity of the stomachIt will invades the payers patches of theintestinal wall The bacteria is within the macrophages and survivesBacteria spreads via the lymphatics whileinside the macrophages 10. Access to reticuloendothelialsystem,liver,spleen,gallbladder and bonemarrow.1st week: elevation of the body temperature2nd week: abdominal pain, spleen enlargementand rose spot3rd week: necrosis of the payers patchesLeads to perforation, bleeding .And if leftuntreated, death is imminent 11. Blood culture (C&S)A blood culture during the first week ofthe fever can show S. typhi bacteriaComplete blood count (CBC)A complete blood count (CBC) will showa high number of white blood cells. 12. . Stool C&Sstool culture may be positive for S.typhiseveral days after ingestion of the bacteriaWidal testTest whereby bacteria causing typhoidfever are mixed with serum containingspecific antibodies obtained from aninfected individual 13. Brand name :Cipro USES: This medication is used to(Ciprofloxacin) treat a variety of bacterial Class of drugs :quinolone infections.antibiotics. Routes : per oral Side effect :nausea, vomiting,dizzinessDosage :Adult :500 mg orally ,blurred vision,feeling every 12 hours for 10 daysnervous,sleep problems 14. Brand name :Rocephin (Ceftriaxone)Uses :It works by fighting bacteria in body group of drugs : cephalosporin antibioticsRoute : intravenousDosage:Pediatric :75 to 80 mg/kg IVonce a day for 5 to 14 daysSide effect : Mild diarrhea, mildAdult:2 g IV every 24 hourspain, swelling, nausea,vomiting 15. COMPLICATION OF TYPHOIDGastrointestinal GastrointestinalBleedingPerforation Myocarditis 16. GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING 17. COMPLICATION OF TYPHOIDGastrointestinal GastrointestinalBleedingPerforation Myocarditis 18. GASTROINTESTINAL PERFORATION 19. COMPLICATION OF TYPHOIDGastrointestinal GastrointestinalBleedingPerforation Myocarditis 20. MYOCARDITIS 21. Nursing Diagnosis :Hyperthermia related to increased metabolicrate, illness. Goal : Client can maintain the normal body temperature withoutcomplication Nursing Intervention RationaleMonitor patient temperature degree and patternsFever pattern may aids in diagnosing underlying disease.Observe for shaking chills and profuse diaphoresis Chills often precede during high temperature and in presence of generalized infection.Wash hands with anti-bacterial soap before and after Reduces cross contamination and preventseach care of activity and encourage proper hygiene.the spread of infection.Provide tepid sponge baths and avoid the use of iceMay help reduce fever .Use of ice water andwater and alcohol. alcohol may cause chills and can elevate temperature.Monitor for signs of deterioration of condition or failure May reflect inappropriate antibiotic therapy.to improve with therapy. 22. Nursing Diagnosis : Risk for imbalance nutrition related to diseaseprocess. Goal : Patient will be maintain the nutrition balance and body weight status Nursing Intervention Rationale Monitor the Input & Ouput Chart To maintain nutrient status of patient Assess clients nutritional patternsOffer client their favorite food to ensure patient taken the diet Recommend bed rest / activity restrictions during To minimize the pain and to maintain patient the acute phase, balanced body weight each dayweight Record or report such things as nausea, vomiting, To do further management to reduce the symptom stomach pain and distension. Collaboration with a nutritionist for dietary To maintain patient taken diet well administration 23. Nursing Diagnosis : Increase frequency of bowel movement related to disease process. Goal : Client will maintain the hydration of body from over diarrheaNursing InterventionRationaleMonitor the vital sign such as pulse and respirationTo monitor patient from over dehydrationMonitor the Input & Output chart. To maintain the fluid balance in patient bodyEncourage the patient to eat more nutritious food such asTo prevent patient from get constipationfruit & vegetable.Encourage pt to drink plenty of water at least 2.5 liters /To maintain hydration status of patient24 hours.Observe the drip infusion & administer the medication asTo prevent infection and maintain fluid balanceordered by doctor. 24. Wash hand before and afterhandling somethingAvoid drinking untreated waterAvoid raw food and vegetablesChoose well-cooked food 25. Avoid popsicles and flavored ices that may havebeen made with contaminated water.Avoid eat the foods and beverages from thestreet vendorRemember taking antibiotics injection as doctorordersGetting vaccinated before travelling to anothercountry where common gets the typhoid.Follow up with the doctor 26. Salmonella Typhi causes a protracted bacteremicillness referred to as typhoid fever. Since humansare the only reservoir for S. Typhi, infection ismost often acquired through ingestion of food orwater contaminated by feces and urine of infectedpersons and chronic carriers.Typhoid fever is characterized by thegradual onset offever, headache, malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, rosespots, and changes in mental status.Laboratory diagnosis can be made byculture of stool, blood and widal test. 27. Antimicrobial therapy is indicated for patients with typhoidfever. Typhoid fever cases should be excluded from foodhandling, and from direct care ofinfants, elderly,immunocompromised, and hospitalized orinstitutionalized patients. An individual may return to normalduties after 3 consecutive negative stool culture taken at leastone month apart, and at least 48 hours after completion ofantibiotic therapy. If without prompt treatment, it can causeserious complications and can be fatal. 28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002308/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoid_fever http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/encyclopaedia/t/article/typhoidfever/ http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Typhoid-fever/Pages/Introduction.aspx http://www.answers.com/topic/typhoid-fever#Signs_and_symptoms http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Typhoid_inoculation2.jpg http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001332.htm http://www.livestrong.com/article/133749-an-introduction-typhoid-fever/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ForskeligeVeje_ad_hvilkenBroen_kan_inficeres_medTyfusbaciller.png