Types of Interviews

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  • 1. Interviews -talking andlistening topeopleThis presentation covers:- types of interviews:structured, unstructured; individual, group- planning the interviews- questions - probing- interview tips- capturing the data 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation1

2. Checking inWhat do you think?Answer YES or NO to each of the following1.Interviews involve talking with people2.Everyone would rather be interviewed than surveyed3.There is one standard method of interviewing4.Interviews are always done in-person5.Because interviews are personal, they are more culturallyappropriate6.Interviews can create a lot of narrative data that will require timeto analyze7.Interviewers should ask the same question in the same way of allrespondents.Check answers 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 2 3. Checking in - Answers 1. Interviews involve talking with people YES 2. Everyone would rather be interviewed than surveyed NO (depends uponthe person, topic and situation) 3. There is one standard method of interviewing NO(way to interview falls along a continuum from structured toconversational) 4. Interviews are always done in-person NO(interviews can be conducted by telephone or other audio devices) 5. Because interviews are personal, they are always culturally appropriateNO 6. Interviews can create a lot of narrative data that will require time toanalyze YES 7. Interviewers should ask the same question in the same way of allrespondents. NO 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation3 4. Interviewing is Verbally asking program participants the programevaluation questions and hearing the participantspoint of view in his or her own words. Interviews can be either structured or unstructured They can be conducted in person or over thetelephone. They can be conductedindividually or as a group 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 4 5. Interviews are useful When you want to hear the persons own voice, his/herown perspective When you want to delve into depth about a topic, anexperience, a program When people like personal interaction When personal interaction is likely to yield the best data When reading and writing skills are limited When you want to encourage people to reflect and learnfrom an evaluation 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 5 6. Interviews Advantages Disadvantages deep and free response costly in time flexible, adaptableand personnel glimpse into impractical with large numbersrespondents tone, of respondentsgestures requires skill ability to probe, may be difficult to summarizefollow-up, clarify responsesmisunderstanding possible biases: interviewer,about questionsrespondent, situation 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation6 7. How culturally appropriate are interviews?Things to consider: Preferred by people withan oral culture Language level proficiency;verbal skill proficiency Politeness responding to authority (thinking its unacceptable tosay no), nodding, smiling, agreeing Need to have someone present Relationship/position of interviewer for example, do youth feelcomfortable speaking frankly to the interviewer? May be seen as interrogation Direct questioning may be seen as impolite, threatening, orconfrontational More information about collecting information from youth isavailable from http://www.uwex.edu/ces/4h/evaluation/purpose.cfm 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 7 8. Structured Unstructured InterviewsInterviews fall along a continuum from structured to unstructured.A structured interview uses is a set of questions that are asked in a standard wayacross all respondents.A semi-structured interview has specific topic areas and a general set of questionsbut the interview flows like a conversation and topics are covered as they come up.An unstructured interview has a topic area to be explored but what gets covered isleft up to the respondent. An opening question might introduce the topic, Id like toget your perspective about the Ambassador program.What would you like to tell me about it?The way you conduct an interview can fall anywhere along the continuum. When thequestions are not totally preset and the interview takes a conversational approach, it isoften called qualitative interviewing. 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 8 9. Types of interviews: Individual or groupInterviews may be conducted with a group as well as with anindividual.Individual interview: Based on the purpose of your evaluation,you may decide to conduct interviews with individual youth,volunteers or parents. The number of interviews and selection ofinterviewees will depend upon your purpose and the time andresources you have.Key informant interview is one type of individual interview.Key informants are individuals who are likely to have theinformation you need. They are specifically chosen because they haveparticular knowledge or insights of interest. 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation9 10. Group interviewThe most common type of group interview is the focus group interview. Focusgroups involve a particular process with a focused set of questions. (See the section onfocus groups for additional information.)Other group formats also can be used, for example:Informal discussion group: at the end of the workshop or program, you might ask aseries of evaluation questions in an informal, relaxed way; a summary of thediscussion is recorded.Community forum: an open community meeting provides a forum for gettingperspectives on needs, behaviors and outcomes.Nominal group: facilitate a nominal group process of program participants toidentify and prioritize program outcomesAny group format is possible for collecting data related to your evaluation questions. 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation10 11. Think about How would the information be different for different types of interviews: structured or unstructured? Individual or group? When might you use each? 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 11 12. Plan your interview process What do you want to learn what is your purpose for conducting the interviews? Who do you intend to interview? Will you conduct individual or group interviews? Which will be more comfortable for youth participants? If you are considering a group interview, how might the presence of peers affect them? Exactly who will you interview? How many? How will they be selected? 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 12 13. Plan the interview, continued Where will the interview be held? How long will each interview take? Who will do the interviewing? You? Colleagues from another county? Youth?Others? Will you need to train the interviewers? Will there be an incentive for participants? Food may be helpful! 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation13 14. Develop the interview questions What do you want to know? Review the purpose of your evaluation and why youare conducting these interviews Decide on the questions you will ask Brainstorm questions Prioritize and identify the key questions Identify possible probing questions Anticipate how long each question will take toanswer and keep within your timeframe 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation14 15. Develop interview questions continued Sequence the questions Opening questions, transition questions, ending questions Write your questions down in an interview guide that lists the topics or questions to be covered Remember: the type and specificity of your questions depends upon whether you are conducting a structured, semistructured or unstructured interview 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 15 16. Avoid asking why questions Source: Patton, M.Q., 1990. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, pg 316. 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation16 17. Pilot test the questions With a colleague, friend, or family member and/or With a few people like those you intend to interview 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 17 18. Practice Practice - Practice Good interviewing requires skill Practice interviewing before you begin Ask a colleague to stand in as the respondent, or solicit someone from the interviewee population Know your questions well so the interview flowssmoothly 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation18 19. Contact the respondent By telephone or in-person Personalize the request Explain: Purpose of the interview how data will be used How long it will take How it will be conducted when, where, etc. Solicit participation and arrange date/time for theinterview Send the interview questions in advance as appropriate 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation 19 20. Introduction Create an open, respectful environment Ensure the person is comfortable Review the purpose of the interview Assure Human subjects protection Distribute consent form May I proceed? Is it okay to begin 2009 University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension