Trends 2015: Learning and Teaching in European Universities

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Transcript of Trends 2015: Learning and Teaching in European Universities

  • Trends 2015:Learning and Teachingin European UniversitiesB Y A N D R E S U R S O C K

    EUA PUBLICATIONS 2015

  • Copyright by the European University Association 2015

    All rights reserved. This information may be freely used and copied for non-commercial purposes, provided that the source is acknowledged (European University Association).

    European University Association asbl

    Avenue de lYser 24

    1040 Brussels, Belgium

    Tel: +32-2 230 55 44

    Fax: +32-2 230 57 51

    A free electronic version of this report is available through www.eua.be

    ISBN: 9789078997542

  • EUA PUBLICATIONS 2015

    Trends 2015:Learning and Teachingin European UniversitiesB Y A N D R E S U R S O C K

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    T R E N D S 2 0 1 5 : L E A R N I N G A N D T E A C H I N G I N E U R O P E A N U N I V E R S I T I E S

    Foreword 8

    Acknowledgments 9

    Executive summary 10

    Introduction: Aims and methodology 17

    Focus and aims of Trends 2015 17

    The changing landscape since 2010 18

    The Trends 2015 questionnaire 18

    The characteristics of the sample 19

    Structure of the report 20

    Part I: The changed context 22

    1.1 The economic crisis and demographic trends 22

    1.2 Globalisation and institutional positioning 26

    1.3 Summary of key trends 34

    Part II: Dynamic European and national policy agendas 35

    2.1 The European Higher Education Area 35

    2.2 European Union policies, instruments and funding support 47

    2.3 National reforms 49

    2.4 Summary of key trends 54

    Part III: Institutional strategies and the changing student population 57

    3.1 The changing size of the student population 58

    3.2 The changing composition of the student body 60

    3.3 External drivers affecting the characteristics of the student body 63

    3.4 Institutional outreach increases the diversity of the students 66

    3.5 Summary of key trends 67

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

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    T R E N D S 2 0 1 5 : L E A R N I N G A N D T E A C H I N G I N E U R O P E A N U N I V E R S I T I E S

    Part IV: Learning and teaching in Europe 69

    4.1 Trends 2010, the starting point of Trends 2015 69

    4.2 Impact of internationalisation on learning 71

    4.3 Impact and implications of e-learning 72

    4.4 Changing conceptions of teaching 76

    4.5 Staff policies 82

    4.6 Enhancing the learning environment 84

    4.7 Supporting the progression of students 86

    4.8 Summary of key trends 93

    Part V: Universities in the next decade 95

    5.1. Maintaining the momentum: the importance of learning and teaching 95

    5.2. Organisational structures and human resources 97

    5.3 The growth of marketisation in higher education:

    blurring the lines between public and private? 98

    5.4. A common European agenda 98

    Appendix 100

    1. Trends in European Higher Education 2015

    Questionnaire for heads of higher education institutions 100

    Structure of the questionnaire 100

    I. The institution and its context 100

    II. The enhancement of teaching and the role of academic staff 103

    III. Student lifecycle 104

    IV. Study programmes 110

    V. E-learning 112

    VI. Internationalisation 114

    VII. Quality assurance, qualifications frameworks and recognition 116

    2. Country distribution of Trends 2015 respondents 120

    References 121

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    T R E N D S 2 0 1 5 : L E A R N I N G A N D T E A C H I N G I N E U R O P E A N U N I V E R S I T I E S

    Figure 1: High importance of economic crisis and demography (Q10) 26

    Figure 2: Which community do you see your institution as primarily serving? (Q4) 29

    Table 1: National shifts in the primary community of reference 29

    Figure 3: Does your institution have an internationalisation strategy? (Q 45) 30

    Figure 4: Geographical targets in 2010 (Q53) and in 2015 (Q46) 31

    Figure 5: Does your institution undertake the following activities to support

    its internationalisation? (Q47) 32

    Figure 6: Does your institution have a strategy or policy regarding e-learning? (Q40) 33

    Figure 7: Which statement best describes the situation at your institution? (Q8) 36

    Figure 8: If you do have a NQF (Q59), do you find it useful in relation to the following?

    (Q59.1) 38

    Figure 9: Does your institution have an institutional quality assurance policy and system?

    (Q51) 40

    Table 2: Country data on institutions with an institutional QA policy and an integrated

    approach to QA at institutional level (Q51) 40

    Figure 10: (If your institution offers joint programmes with institutions in other countries),

    what are the main challenges associated with these programmes?

    (Somewhat challenging aspects) (Q50.1) 44

    Table 3: (If your institution offers joint programmes with institutions in other countries),

    what are the main challenges associated with these programmes?

    (Very challenging aspects) (Q50.1) 45

    Figure 11: How has the total enrolment at your institution changed during the last

    five years? (Q18) 59

    Figure 12: How do you expect enrolment at your institution to develop in the future?

    (Q20) 59

    Figure 13: How has the composition of the student body in your institution changed

    over the last five years? (Q21) 61

    Figure 14: If enrolment has increased, what have been the main reasons? (Q19.1) 65

    Figure 15: Does your institution have targeted strategies to attract the following student

    groups? (No strategies) (Q22) 66

    Figure 16: Lifelong learning strategies (Q23) by institutional size (Q6) 67

    Figure 17: If internationalisation has contributed to improved learning and teaching (Q48),

    which of the following features have contributed most to the enhancement of

    learning and teaching? (Q48.1) 71

    Figure 18: What is your institutions most important objective regarding the development

    of e-learning in the future? (Q44) 73

    FIGURES AND TABLES

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    T R E N D S 2 0 1 5 : L E A R N I N G A N D T E A C H I N G I N E U R O P E A N U N I V E R S I T I E S

    Figure 19: Which of the following information technology (IT) systems or tools does your

    institution use or provide for its students? (Q42): For all students 73

    Figure 20: Does your institution offer any of the following? (Q43) 74

    Figure 21: Development of learning outcomes in 2010 (Q19) and 2015 (Q36) 77

    Table 4: Percentages of institutions that evaluate the effects of a learning outcome

    approach negatively (Q36.1) 79

    Figure 22: Do the following statements reflect the current situation at your institution?

    (Q12) 80

    Figure 23: Have the following issues been addressed at your institution? (Q17) 85

    Figure 24: Have the following been implemented at your institution to enhance learning

    and teaching provision? (Q38) 86

    Figure 25: Does your institution offer any of the following support services to enrolled

    students? (Q25) 88

    Figure 26: Does your institution offer any of the following to students who need additional

    support? (Q26) 88

    Figure 27: Which of the following does your institution provide to students? (Q28) 89

    Figure 28: Is there a central unit (e.g. planning department, research unit) which analyses

    the data collected? (Q30.3) 92

    Figure 29: Trends respondents per country 120

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    T R E N D S 2 0 1 5 : L E A R N I N G A N D T E A C H I N G I N E U R O P E A N U N I V E R S I T I E S

    Over the past 15 years, major reforms have been undertaken across Europe as part of the Bologna Process. While the implementation of these reforms is not yet entirely completed, increasingly the key question refers to how they are actually achieving their goal of enhancing the quality of learning and teaching and its relevance to learners and society. Much more so than in the past, and depending on the country and the institution, the success, or otherwise, of the Bologna reforms in improving the quality of learning and teaching is debated against a backdrop of demographic change, and a consensus on the need to improve accessibility and inclusion. At the same time, improved quality appears to be increasingly linked to digitalisation, internationalisation, research and innovation capacity and, to varying degrees, the impact of the economic and financial crisis.

    This implies an increased scrutiny not only on whether and how student-centred learning has been implemented and curricula revised, but also on the role and situation of teaching staff and institutional frameworks in general, and particularly in their ability to stimulate and support innovation in learning and teaching.

    These questions have been at the heart of the present Trends 2015 report. The report documents how developments in learning and teaching are perceived by the 451 institutions across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) that responded to the questionnaire while also taking account of a number of external factors that have driven change in recent years. In this regard, as for previous Trends reports, it complements the reports produced by the Bologna Follow-up Group, as well as other more in-depth and thematically focused studies undertaken.

    We hope that this report will contribute to the European debate on the future of the EHEA, and will be useful as a benchmarking tool to hig