Training Career Development BY- Supreet Ahluwalia.

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Training & Career Development BY- Supreet Ahluwalia
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Training cont’d. Training is a learning experience as it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. We can say that training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge & attitudes, or social behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interactions with their coworkers or their supervisors.

Transcript of Training Career Development BY- Supreet Ahluwalia.

Training & Career Development BY- Supreet Ahluwalia Training Training is important for manpower development, thus, it is a crucial management function. Training programmes are necessary to improve the quality of work of all employees at all levels. Evaluation of a training programme should not be limited to the event, rather it should be concerned with improvements in the performance of those who were trained so as to ensure that training has achieved the desired purpose. Training contd. Training is a learning experience as it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. We can say that training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge & attitudes, or social behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interactions with their coworkers or their supervisors. Training contd Training & development is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable & knowledgeable work force. Training & learning Training is a learning experience. Theories of learning: learning is concerned with bringing about relatively permanent change as a result of experience. It can be done through direct experience-by doing- or indirectly through observation. We cannot measure learning- we can only measure the changes in attitudes & behavior that occur as a result of learning. Need / purpose of training: To increase productivity To improve quality To help a company fulfill its future personnel needs To improve organizational climate To improve health & safety Obsolescence prevention: training & development programmes foster the initiative & creativity of employees & help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation, or the inability of a person to adapt himself to technological changes. Personal growth Principles of learning Learning is enhanced when learner is motivated Learning requires feedback. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a learned behavior will be repeated Practice increases learners performance. Learning begins rapidly, then plateaus: learning rates can be expressed as a curve usually begins with a sharp rise, then increases at a decreasing rate until a plateau is reached. Learning is very fast at the beginning, then there is plateau as opportunities for improvement are reduced. Learning must be transferable to the job. Learning curve TIME IMPRO- VEMENT The training & development process Hire Can the Workers Meet the standard Train Assign to job Give worker needed time & material Change in technology YesNo The training & development process contd. Change in technology Can workers Meet new Standards? Reinforce the good work Train in new technology Is the worker promotable? Educate for next position Take no action but retest for Promotability at regular intervals YesNo Yes No Are the Qualified workers Meeting standards Yes The training & development process contd. Are the Qualified workers Meeting standards Is the deficiency important Devote your energies to other performance issues Make the standards worthwhile Will organization Mission or structure change Maintain status quo Develop all Employees for The new era Trace for The cause; Implement A nontraining solution Yes No Yes No Sequence of training programme Discovering or identifying training needs Getting ready for the job who is to be trained? Training period etc. Preparation of the learner ( create desire & prepare accordingly) Presentation of operations & knowledge ( application of training techniques) Performance try-out Follow-up ( rewards & feedback) Determining training needs & priorities For this management should answer the following questions: 1.What are the organization's goals? 2.What tasks must be completed to achieve these goals? 3.What behaviors are necessary for each incumbent to complete his or her assigned tasks? 4.What deficiencies if any do incumbents have in their skills, knowledge, or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviors? Signals that show that training is required Productivity Inadequate job performance. High reject rate or larger than usual scrappage may indicate a need for employee training. Rise in the number of accidents. Change changes that are being imposed on the worker as a result of a job redesign or a technological breakthrough Methods for determining training needs Observation & analysis of job performance. Management & staff recommendations Analysis of job requirements Consideration of current & projected changes Surveys, reports & inventories Interviews etc. Formal employee training methods On the job training: 1.Apprenticeship programs 2.Job instruction training Off-the-job Training: 1.Classroom lectures or conferences 2.Films 3.Simulation exercises 4.Experiential exercises 5.Computer modeling 6.Vestibule training 7.Programmed instruction Formal employee training methods contd. On the job training: it is the most widely used method of training as it places the employees in an actual work situation & makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. It is simple, & less costly to operate. 1.Apprenticeship programs: under this technique the trainee is put under the guidance of a master worker. It is for the longer period keeping in mind that the required job knowledge & skills are so complex that a long period of training is required where the trainee understudies a skilled master/ supervisor. during this period, the trainee is paid less than a fully qualified worker. Formal employee training methods contd (On the job training) 2.Job instruction training: many jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps & are best taught step-by-step. This step-by-step process is called Job instruction training (JIT). It consists of 4 basic steps: Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job & overcoming their uncertainties. Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner Having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding. Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon should they need assistance. Formal employee training methods contd Off-the-job Training: 1.Classroom lectures or conferences: through this method one can convey specific information about rules, procedures, or methods. Trainer can make it more interesting by making use of audiovisuals or demonstrations- which helps in retention. The advantages of this method are- It is a quick & simple way to provide knowledge to large groups of trainees. The drawback of this method is that there is lack of feedback & lack of active involvement by the trainees. Formal employee training methods contd (Off-the-job Training) 2.Films: it can be a useful training technique, as they can provide information & demonstrate skills- they are accompanied with a conference discussions to clarify the points highlighted in the film. 3.Simulation exercises: any training activity that places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered as a simulation. Simulation activities include case exercises, experiential exercises, complex computer modeling, & vestibule training. Formal employee training methods contd (Off-the-job Training) Case exercises: cases presents an in-depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job- in this the analysis of the case is done- various alternatives are listed out- & then the most appropriate course of action is decided. Experiential exercises: in this method employees are given structured learning experiences where they learn by doing- & then are introduced to theoretical concepts to explain their behavior. Formal employee training methods contd (Off-the-job Training) Computer modeling: the computer simulates the work environment by programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job & allows learning to take place without the risk or high costs that would be incurred if a mistake were made in a real-life situations. This method is expensive & should be used only where the programs are formal, & the costs of allowing the individual to learn on the job are prohibitive. Formal employee training methods contd (Off-the-job Training) Vestibule training: in this, employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. It is an expensive method, but in this the employee get the full feel for doing tasks without real world pressures. It also minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job, since in it the employee uses the same equipment the trainee will use on the job. Formal employee training methods contd (Off-the-job Training) 4.Programmed instruction: it can be in the form of programmed texts or manuals, teaching machines are utilized. In this method the material to be learned is condensed into highly organized, logical sequences, which require the trainee to respond & immediately the feedback is provided about whether the response is right or wrong. Management development It is more future oriented, & more concerned with education, than is employee training. By education we mean that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes- to enhance ones ability to understand & interpret knowledge, therefore the focus is more on the employees personal growth. Process / steps :- 1)Organization's objectives: they tell us where we are going & provide a framework from which our managerial needs can be determined. 2)Appraisal of current management resources (based on information gathered from HR Planning). 3)Ascertain the development activities necessary to ensure that we have adequate managerial talent to fulfill future managerial needs. 4)Determine individual development needs 5)Seek the development activity that can meet the specific needs of each individual no one development method is most effective in all situations. 6)Evaluate i.e. looking for (changes in behavior and managerial performance) The process of Management Development Methods for developing managers On-the-job development: 1.Coaching 2.Understudy assignments 3.Job rotation 4.Committee assignments Off-the-job development 1.Sensitivity training 2.Transactional analysis lecture courses 3.Simulation exercises like:- Case study, decision games, role playing Coaching It occurs when a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager, this activity is known as coaching. The effective coach in a corporate hierarchy gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism and suggestions in an attempt to aid growth of employees. The advantage of this is there is rapid feedback and high interaction on performance. But the effectiveness of this technique relies on the ability of the coach. Understudy Assignments It means that a potential manager is given the opportunity to relieve experienced manager of his or her job and act as his or her substitute during the period. This method is usually used as a development technique to replace vacationing managers. Job Rotation It is an excellent method for broadening the manager, and turning specialists into generalists. In addition to increasing the managers experience and allowing the manager to absorb new information, it can reduce boredom and stimulate new ideas. It can be a vertical (promotion) or horizontal (lateral transfer) In addition to increasing the managers experience & allowing the manager to absorb new information, it can reduce boredom & stimulate the development of new ideas. Horizontal job transfers can be instituted as: on a planned basis, i.e. by means of a development program whereby the worker spends 2 or 3 months in an activity & is then moved on. On a situational basis, i.e. by moving the person to another activity when the first is no longer challenging to him or her, or to meet the needs of work scheduling where person is put in a continual transfer mode. Committee Assignments It means that an assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems. These temporary assignments can both be interesting and rewarding to employee s growth. Off the Job Development The development techniques that a personnel can partake in off-the-job are as follows: 1. Sensitivity training 2. Transactional analysis 3. Lecture courses 4. Simulation exercises Sensitivity Training????????????? It is often referred to as laboratory training because members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves which is facilitated by a behavioral scientist, who then creates an opportunity for participants to express their ideas, beliefs and attitudes. Transactional Analysis It is an approach for both defining and analyzing communication interaction between people and theory of personality. The fundamental theory behind this is that an individuals personality consists of three ego states-the parent,child and the adult. This has nothing to do with age but rather with aspects of ego. child adult parent Lecture Courses They offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to acquire and develop their and analytical abilities. In large organizations courses are offered in house by the organization and supported by college course work. Simulation Exercises It includes case studies, decision games and role plays. Case study involves actual experiences of organizations,They describe accurately real problems that managers face. Decision games put individuals in the role of acting out managerial problems Role playing allows participants to act out problems and to deal with real people The end