Top 13 Pre-workout Ingredients
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- 1. Pre-Workout Ingredients The most popular ingredients found in pre-workout supplements in the Sports Nutrition category. By Richard Wang, MPH
2. Arginine Arguably the most popular ingredient because the body readily converts it to nitric oxide (NO), which in theory allows for better blood circulation. 1 3. Beta-Alanine An amino acid that combines with the amino acid histidine in muscle cells to form carnosine. Carnosine is a important foundation for muscle strength and is found concentrated in the brain and muscle tissue. 4. Beta-Alanine According to a study at Adams State College, effects of beta-alanine and a placebo were compared between two sports: wrestling and American football. The subjects taking beta-alanine saw positive results. Wrestlers experienced increased lean mass weight by 1.1 lb and American football groups more than doubled their weight gain of lean muscle mass. 2 5. Betaine Modified amino acid known as trimethylglycine. Its effective for boosting muscle strength and power and reduces LDL levels in athletes. A study proved Twelve recreationally active men with a minimum of 3 months of resistance training including back squat and bench press participated in the study. A crossover design was utilized and subjects were randomly assigned to either Betaine or placebo group. 6. Betaine Subjects performed an acute exercise test (AET) consisting of maximal vertical jumps, isometric bench press, isometric squat, and a box lift test before and after 14 days of supplementation with either betaine or placebo. 3 7. BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS (BCAAs) Include the three amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. BCAAs are the fundamental blocks for nurishing muscle tissue during weight lifting. Branched-chain amino acids are essential amino acids that stimulate muscle synthesis and contribute to the amino acid pool for building muscle proteins.4 8. Caffeine A powerful stimulant that increases alertness by binding to receptors in the brain. This keeps nerve activity up and decreases fatigue response. It produces increased wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination 5 9. Citrulline Malate A combo of the amino acid citrulline and malic acid. It increases energy levels by removing ammonia from the bodya process that delays fatigue and improves recovery. Citrulline malate is sold as a performance-enhancing athletic dietary supplement, which was shown to reduce muscle fatigue in a preliminary clinical trial. 6 10. Creatine Provides muscles with the quick energy they need during workouts. It also pulls more water into the muscles for a greater pump, which turns on processes that lead to greater longterm muscle growth. 11. Creatine Who Uses It?There have been over 300 studies on creatine and the consensus is that it does help with athletic performance. Creatine supplements are used by athletes, bodybuilder, wrestlers, sprinters, and other who wish to gain muscle mass, typically consuming 2 to 3 times the amount that could be obtained from a very-high protein diet. 12. Ginseng Contains different ginsensosides and have shown to have a remarkable effect on performance and recovery. Notably, RG1 has shown in preclinicals to increase glycogen delivery to muscle tissue. 13. Taurine An amino acid that helps to increase muscle endurance and strength. It can increase blood flow to muscles by enhancing nitric oxide production. Taurine also draws water into your muscles for larger muscle appearance. A study of mice hereditarily unable to transport taurine suggests that it is needed for proper maintenance and functioning of skeletal muscles. 9 14. Tyrosine An amino acid that boosts energy, mood, and mental focus by producing hormones and neurotransmitters that boost your intensity during workouts. According to studies, Tyrosine shows improvements in cognitive and physical performance.10 15. References: 1Alba-RothJ, Mller O, Schopohl J, von Werder K (1988). "Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressingendogenous somatostatin secretion". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67 (6): 11869.doi:10.1210/jcem-67-6-1186. PMID 2903866. 2BenjaminKern, Tracey Robinson (July 31, 2009). "Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and bodycomposition in collegiate wrestlers and American football players". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-S1-P2. 3Apicella,Jenna M., "The Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Performance and Muscle Mechanisms" (2011). Master'sTheses. Paper 109. http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/gs_theses/109 4ZhangY, Kobayashi H, Mawatari K, Sato J, Bajotto G, Kitaura Y, & Shimomura YJ. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.. 2011.vol. 57. Pg114-117. 5BoltonS (1995). "Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use and Abuse". Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10 (3): 202211. 16. References: 6BendahanD, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ (Aug 2002). "Citrulline/malate promotesaerobic energy production in human exercising muscle". Br J Sports Med 36 (4): 282 9. doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.4.282. PMC 1724533. PMID 12145119. 7 HarrisRC, Sderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatinesupplementation. Clin Sci (Lond). (1992)"Creatine - Sources in the Diet". Examine.com. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 8U.Warskulat, U. Flogel, C. Jacoby, H.-G. Hartwig, M. Thewissen, M. W. Merx, A. Molojavyi, B. Heller-Stilb, J. Schrader andD. Haussinger (2004). "Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised". The FASEB Journal18 (3): 030496fje. doi:10.1096/fj.030496fje.PMID 14734644. 9QiLW, Wang CZ, Yuan CS (June 2011). "Ginsenosides from American ginseng: chemical and pharmacologicaldiversity".Phytochemistry 72 (8): 68999.doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.02.012. PMC 3103855.PMID 21396670. 10DeijenJB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). "Tyrosine improves cognitive performance andreduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course". Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2): 203 9. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00163-4.PMID 10230711.