TOOLS TO ADDRESS LOCAL HOUSING NEEDS Created by Maura Collins, Vermont Housing Finance Agency –...

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TOOLS TO ADDRESS LOCAL HOUSING NEEDS Created by Maura Collins , Vermont Housing Fi nance Agency – Presented by XX XXXX, XXRPC

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TOOLS TO ADDRESS LOCAL HOUSING NEEDS Created by Maura Collins, Vermont Housing Finance Agency Presented by XX XXXX, XXRPCMaura Collins Vermont Housing Finance Agency Slide 2 FIRST STEPS: Conduct a housing needs analysis to determine what kind of housing the community needsa housing needs analysis Draft a robust and accurate housing component in the municipal plan Articulate a vision for housing development and update bylaws to implement it 2/13/20142 Slide 3 NON-REGULATORY TOOLS 2/13/20143 Slide 4 PAY ATTENTION TO REGIONAL HOUSING CONTEXT Participate in Regional Planning - Important to know what neighboring towns are doing Nearby development will impact local demand for certain housing types Example: Building a large elderly complex in one town may lighten the demand for elderly housing by surrounding towns Increased regulation by a neighboring community may mean more developers wanting to avoid that town, driving them to neighboring communities 2/13/20144 Slide 5 IDENTIFY IMPORTANT LAND WITHIN THE COMMUNITY Identify key parcels for housing by evaluating development and redevelopment opportunities and constraints in the community Apply analysis used for state designation of Neighborhood Development AreasNeighborhood Development Areas Once identified, local planning staff/volunteers could welcome a dialogue with those property owners about their plans This doesnt always mean that these parcels should be slated for development, but maybe need to be protected, preserved, or potentially rehabilitated for new use 2/13/20145 Slide 6 DONATE OR SELL MUNICIPAL LAND FOR HOUSING DEVELOPMENT Municipalities (and others) can sell or donate land for residential development to lower the cost Examples: 2/13/20146 Waterfront housing in Burlington (photo) Johnsons local utility sold some land for housing Schools often sell/give properties for redevelopment Swantons old town garage (in heart of village) could be made into housing Image: gossens.bachman.Architects Slide 7 SUPPORT HOUSING PROJECTS THROUGHOUT THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Community opposition to housing can be a threat to making homes available to people who need them. Clearly communicate the towns housing goals and vision for development in the municipal plan. Maintain good communication with neighborhoods about proposed development Be as transparent as possible in development review deliberations Submit a letter of support for developers applying for public funding (if applicable) If a state or non-profit board holds a meeting to allocate funds for a housing project, attend the meeting to show support 2/13/20147 Slide 8 APPLY TO VT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR HOUSING FUNDS The VCDP is available to municipalities for a wide range of activities, and housing is a priority for this funding. Developers of affordable housing need the municipality to apply on their behalf By applying for and supporting an application throughout the process municipalities can help increase the supply of affordable homes for townspeople 2/13/20148 Slide 9 PROMOTE ACCESSORY DWELLING UNITS (ADU S ) Allow ADU approvals to be made administratively, not through Board/Commission review Look for funding to support ADU construction/rehab like Brattleboro Volunteer-lead effort Use municipal funds to support ADUs like Montpelier Educate homeowners with ADUs about what it takes to be a landlord with VT Tenants resources 2/13/20149 Slide 10 CREATE AN ACTIVE HOUSING COMMISSION State allows for housing commissions Several examples across Vermont: Montpelier Housing Task Force South Burlington Affordable Housing Subcommittee Hinesburg Affordable Housing Committee Dedicated to continual attention to housing issues 2/13/201410 Hinesburg Affordable Housing Committees Goals: Work with Hinesburg appointed and elected officials, Hinesburg residents and landowners, and other Hinesburg organizations on ways to implement the Housing Goals and Objectives in the Town Plan. (Taken from website February 2014) Hinesburg Affordable Housing Committees Goals: Work with Hinesburg appointed and elected officials, Hinesburg residents and landowners, and other Hinesburg organizations on ways to implement the Housing Goals and Objectives in the Town Plan. (Taken from website February 2014) Slide 11 CREATE A HOUSING TRUST FUND Popular tool, nationally, because of flexibility of funding, and full municipal control Town decides targeting (housing type, population, etc.) 2/13/201411 Three local housing trust funds: Charlotte (only for current property owners, max of $30,000 for no more than 3 units) Montpelier (committee awards funds paid for by penny on property tax) Burlington (funded by IZ and housing replacement/retention payments) Image: Center for Community Changes Housing Trust Fund Project Slide 12 PROMOTE AFFORDABLE HOMEOWNERSHIP THROUGH SHARED EQUITY MODEL Local community land trusts administer the shared equity program to create affordable homeownership opportunities Towns can match or provide some additional down-payment assistance for these perpetually affordable homes, making them more affordable 2/13/201412 Piggy-backing off existing programs can bring ongoing monitoring with little local staff involvement Slide 13 DESIGNATE AN AREA FOR REVITALIZATION AND GROWTH State-approved areas that trigger incentives for municipalities and developers Commercial/Mixed Use Core Village Centers Downtowns New Town Centers Walkable Neighborhoods Neighborhood Development Areas Comprehensive Planning Growth Centers 2/13/201413 Slide 14 HELP THE COMMUNITY VISUALIZE DENSITY Thinking and envisioning in terms of units/acre or zoning districts is hard Help residents fully understand whats on the books Encourage photo submissions of good/bad design Engage online tools like Lincoln Land Institute 2/13/201414 Images: Vermont Design Institute Slide 15 ENVISION THE KIND OF DEVELOPMENT THE COMMUNITY WANTS Engage residents in designing the form of future development Adopt a physical master plan Fund and construct the needed public facilities Craft bylaws that require the desired development pattern 2/13/201415 Slide 16 REGULATORY TOOLS 2/13/201416 Slide 17 ABIDE BY STATED DENSITY OR AS OF RIGHT DEVELOPMENT In locations identified by the town for development allow housing units at the maximum allowed density Developers commonly understand that the zoning density allowed for a parcel is rarely what is approved Set back, lot coverage, and other dimensional requirements also restrict density Offering density bonuses are only meaningful if a town is abiding by the allowed density in the first place Towns should encourage residential development as a permitted use (as opposed to conditional use) wherever possible 2/13/201417 Slide 18 CREATE/EXPAND A DENSITY BONUS OR OFFER LOT COVERAGE OR HEIGHT BONUSES One of the most common tools to encourage particular housing types or affordable housing usually part of PUD regulations. Bonuses can reduce the cost of housing by allowing more units on the same parcel Factors to consider: Define affordable housing Define applicable housing types (rent/own) How to monitor housing created Enforcement provisions 2/13/201418 Slide 19 LOOK AT PERMITTING COSTS AND THE IMPACT ON HOUSING Consider allowing fees to be paid on a deferred basis Consider allowing for fee reductions or waivers for certain housing types or affordable housing 2/13/201419 Slide 20 CONSIDER TIMING OF HIGH COST PLANS AND REVIEWS Invite developers to discuss the timing and order of the plans required for development review from concept to final Sometimes detailed plans and sketches are required very early in a development or redevelopment project, raising the cost and therefore risk of the project Some towns go so far as to expedite permits and reviews for desired residential activities 2/13/201420 Slide 21 CONSIDER REDUCING COST OF INFRASTRUCTURE Question whether all the public works requirements are necessary, such as wide roads, curbs, lighting and recreational facilities Allow for reductions or waivers for the types of housing the town wants to encourage 2/13/201421 Slide 22 REDUCE OR WAIVE IMPACT FEES While these can be a way for municipalities to raise revenue to support new development, they can also add to the cost of housing and prevent more housing development. Some communities will waive or reduce their fees for the housing types they want to encourage, or for affordable housing. 2/13/201422 Image: Chatham Journal Slide 23 CONSIDER RESIDENTIAL PARKING FLEXIBILITY Update outdated parking standards Waive parking requirements for mixed use properties when commercial and residential demand peaks at different times of day Reduce parking requirements for projects near transit, near mixed uses, and where on- street parking is available 2/13/201423 Image: VPIC Implementation Manual Parking adds to the cost of housing - an expensive use of land because of how much space it takes up and its low value Slide 24 HOUSING REPLACEMENT/RETENTION REQUIREMENTS For towns looking to protect its housing stock, it can require that housing be replaced when units are torn down Burlington has housing replacement requirements included in their Inclusionary Zoning ordinances (Part 2) Burlington 2/13/201424 Slide 25 CREATE LOCAL RENTAL CODES, OR LOCAL ENFORCEMENT OF STATE CODES Vermonts rental housing codes promote safe and healthy living conditions and are compiled on the Vermont Rental Housing Codes website, with information specifically for municipalities.Vermont Rental Housing Codes 2/13/201425 Some towns create local codes and registries to raise the bar Some towns Other towns use the states policies but have created local procedure for inspections or enforcement Slide 26 ADOPT ON THE RECORD REVIEW Appeals of municipal decisions add significant time and expense to housing projects On the record review saves time when proposing a new housing development because testimony and findings from lower judicial bodies (Development Review Boards, Zoning Boards, etc.) are accepted by the courts without re-arguing the same points - instead the court builds on that knowledge About a dozen Vermont municipalities have adopted this model 2/13/201426 Slide 27 ADOPT INCLUSIONARY ZONING (IZ) IZ requires a proportion of new housing to be affordable Burlington is the only Vermont city with IZ Progressive model with a sliding scale of affordable units required based on price of market rate housing Takes considerable political will to pass 2/13/201427 Slide 28 WWW.HOUSINGDATA.ORG For more information