Toolkit for derelict fishing gear projects - . ABOUT THE TOOLKIT Page | 1 This Toolkit is developed...

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Transcript of Toolkit for derelict fishing gear projects - . ABOUT THE TOOLKIT Page | 1 This Toolkit is developed...

  • pg. 0

    Toolkit for derelict fishing gear projects

    February 2015

  • MARELITT Toolkit for marine litter projects

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT Pg. 01

    Objectives and scope of the Toolkit Pg. 02

    Structure of the Toolkit Pg. 04

    II. WHY SET UP A DFG PROJECT? Pg. 05

    III. PLANNING YOUR PROJECT

    Writing your project plan Pg. 08

    Your local situation Pg. 09

    Objectives Pg. 10

    Project results Pg. 12

    Project budget Pg. 14

    IV. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS

    Project team Pg. 16

    Involvement of fishermen Pg. 17

    Participants in DFG retrieval Pg. 18

    Port authorities Pg. 20

    Waste management and recycling companies Pg. 21

    V. IMPLEMENTING YOUR PROJECT

    Development of prevention and mitigation measures Pg. 22

    Selection of locations where to retrieve DFG Pg. 25

    DFG retrieval methods Pg. 28

    Planning DFG retrieval activities Pg. 32

    Reception of DFG at the port Pg. 35

    Recycling and disposal Pg. 36

    Monitoring DFG Pg. 38

    Raising awareness of the causes and impact of DFG Pg. 40

    Project communication Pg. 41

    VI. PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION Pg. 42

    VII. FUNDING FOR YOUR PROJECT

    Funding strategy Pg. 43

    Motivation for project sponsors Pg. 44

    Applying for EU funding Pg. 46

    VIII. COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES Pg. 48

    REFERENCE LIST Pg. 49

    Photo Credits: fishing vessel: Jan Cools; Containers with retrieved nets (Sweden): Mats Nilsson; Retrieval campaign in Sweden: Per-Olof Larsson; Nets on the beach: WWF Poland/O Skumial 2; containers with nets (Ireland): Jan Cools.

  • I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT

    Page | 1

    This Toolkit is developed for organisations that want to initiate a project to reduce the

    impact of derelict fishing gear (DFG) on the marine environment. When setting up a DFG

    project, this Toolkit will support you in the planning and implementation of your project.

    This Toolkit does not provide a single recipe for how you should develop your project.

    Instead, it points out some important issues you should think of when setting up your

    project and provides advice on how to overcome problems that you may face when

    setting up a DFG project.

  • I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT

    Page | 2

    Objectives and scope of the Toolkit

    DFG is a common marine litter item and is commonly defined as abandoned, lost or

    otherwise discarded fishing gear. This Toolkit is designed to cover DFG retrieval in marine

    waters. Freshwater occurrences of DFG present different retrieval issues and are not

    covered by this Toolkit.

    The guidance in this Toolkit is prepared by the MARELITT team, based on a review of

    reports from DFG research and retrieval projects, the assessment of existing DFG projects

    and the lessons learnt through supporting the initiation of a new DFG project in the Baltic

    Sea. This new DFG project (MARELITT Baltic) is being initiated by three organisations with

    previous DFG experience: WWF Poland, Keep the Estonian Sea Tidy (KEST) and the

    Swedish municipality of Simrishamn, as a member of KIMO Baltic. This Toolkit has greatly

    benefitted from the review and comments from the representatives of these

    organisations: Piotr Predki (WWF Poland) Marek Press (KEST) and Vesa Tschernij

    (Simrishamn). In addition, valuable comments have been provided by two experts on DFG

    retrieval, Ryszard Malik and Per-Olof Larsson, who have worked previously with WWF

    Poland and the municipality of Simrishamn, respectively, on DFG retrieval issues.

    MARELITT is an EU-funded project aiming at identifying and disseminating good practices

    for the removal of litter and derelict fishing gear from the sea. During 2013 and 2014, the

    MARELITT team assessed all marine litter retention (sometimes referred to as fishing for

    litter), dedicated marine litter collection and DFG retrieval projects in Europe for which

    information was available. Although various - also EU-funded - research projects on DFG

    have been conducted, to date very few DFG retrieval projects have been undertaken in

    the EU. It is only in the Baltic Sea region (Poland, Lithuania and in particular in Sweden)

    that extensive previous experience with the location and the retrieval of DFG can be

    found.

    This Toolkit is the first attempt in the EU to provide guidance on DFG projects, and it is

    expected that the organisations that use the Toolkit, will be able to improve it based on

    their experience. It is recognised that there are still many unknowns with respect to the

    preventive, mitigating and retrieval measures to reduce the impact of DFG, but that over

    time, as more projects will be implemented, experience will be gained and expertise and

    knowledge will be improved. It is anticipated that this Toolkit will instigate and encourage

    the undertaking of these projects.

    DFG projects are initiatives under which measures are developed and taken to reduce the impact of DFG. Such measures can be broadly divided in three categories:

    1. Prevention (avoid the occurrence of DFG in the environment); 2. Mitigation (reduce the impact of DFG in the environment); and 3. Remediation (remove DFG from the environment).

  • PAGE 3

    I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT

    Page | 3

    DFG monitoring and raising awareness are cross-cutting measures that can complement a

    DFG project.

    While preventive measures are the most effective way to tackle DFG, a mix of the three

    categories of measures is needed to successfully reduce the DFG problem. While this

    Toolkit aims to provide an understanding of a range of possible prevention and mitigation

    measures, the emphasis will be on practical guidance on remediation, and particularly on

    the retrieval of DFG.

    The removal of DFG involves fishermen and qualified divers locating derelict fishing gear.

    They use various technologies to locate DFG, such as side-scan sonar for sea-bed surveys,

    map locations on the basis of interviews with fisherman, or information systems that track

    lost gear, and remove the gear from the marine environment using specialist equipment.

    The retrieved nets are disposed of or recycled in an environmentally sound manner. These

    projects can be combined with related activities, such as beach cleaning. While this Toolkit

    does not specifically cover these additional activities, they are briefly described at the end

    of the Toolkit.

    The fisheries sector is very diverse. This diversity is reflected in the causes of DFG and the

    extent of the DFG problem. A detailed understanding of the fisheries sector, and of the

    causes and impacts, is required to design effective measures, tailored to particular

    locations and fisheries. This DFG Toolkit therefore aims to provide also an initial

    understanding of the various causes and impacts of DFG, and of the categories of

    stakeholders that should be targeted when designing measures.

  • I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT

    Page | 4

    Structure of the Toolkit

    This Toolkit broadly follows the different steps of a DFG project. Section 2 on Why set up a

    DFG project discusses impacts and causes of DFG. The section on Planning your project

    (Section 3) focuses on the first steps you should take in planning your project, such as

    understanding your local situation (type of sea bottom; hot spots, such as ship wrecks),

    defining the objectives for your project and preparing your project budget. The section on

    Project participants (Section 4) helps you to engage stakeholders in your project and

    describes their potential role in the project. The section on Implementing your project

    (Section 5) provides practical advice on each step of a DFG project, from collecting the nets

    to managing how they will be treated or disposed of once they returned to shore. Section

    6, on Project monitoring and evaluation, provides advice on measuring the progress and

    achievements of your project. The section on Funding for your project (Section 7) provides

    guidance on how to seek funding and approach sponsors for your project. Section 8, on

    Complementary activities, highlights some other marine litter activities that might

    complement your DFG project.

    The Toolkit also provides a set of ready-made tools that you can tailor to the specifics of

    your project. These tools are provided as downloadable attachments.

    The whole Toolkit is also available for download in a printable version.

  • II. WHY SET UP A DFG PROJECT?

    Page | 5

    DFG is found in each of Europes four regional seas. Due to the continuous growth in the

    quantity of litter and the slow rate of degradation of most marine litter items, the marine

    litter problem continues to worsen. Plastic marine litter items, such as fishing nets, do not

    biodegrade, but are split into micro-plastics due to exposure to sunlight.

    Some degree of DFG is unavoidable due to the environment in which fishing takes place

    (conditions such as weather, currents, tides, the depth of the sea or the type of sea

    bottom) and the technology used (loss rates of DFG vary between and within fisheries).

    The rates of permanent net loss are estimated to be rather low well below one percent

    of nets deployed - in relation to the total number of nets used in EU waters (Brown et al,

    2005). In most cases, the