Toolkit for derelict fishing gear projects - . ABOUT THE TOOLKIT Page | 1 This Toolkit is developed...
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Toolkit for derelict fishing gear projects
MARELITT Toolkit for marine litter projects
TABLE OF CONTENT
I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT Pg. 01
Objectives and scope of the Toolkit Pg. 02
Structure of the Toolkit Pg. 04
II. WHY SET UP A DFG PROJECT? Pg. 05
III. PLANNING YOUR PROJECT
Writing your project plan Pg. 08
Your local situation Pg. 09
Objectives Pg. 10
Project results Pg. 12
Project budget Pg. 14
IV. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
Project team Pg. 16
Involvement of fishermen Pg. 17
Participants in DFG retrieval Pg. 18
Port authorities Pg. 20
Waste management and recycling companies Pg. 21
V. IMPLEMENTING YOUR PROJECT
Development of prevention and mitigation measures Pg. 22
Selection of locations where to retrieve DFG Pg. 25
DFG retrieval methods Pg. 28
Planning DFG retrieval activities Pg. 32
Reception of DFG at the port Pg. 35
Recycling and disposal Pg. 36
Monitoring DFG Pg. 38
Raising awareness of the causes and impact of DFG Pg. 40
Project communication Pg. 41
VI. PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION Pg. 42
VII. FUNDING FOR YOUR PROJECT
Funding strategy Pg. 43
Motivation for project sponsors Pg. 44
Applying for EU funding Pg. 46
VIII. COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES Pg. 48
REFERENCE LIST Pg. 49
Photo Credits: fishing vessel: Jan Cools; Containers with retrieved nets (Sweden): Mats Nilsson; Retrieval campaign in Sweden: Per-Olof Larsson; Nets on the beach: WWF Poland/O Skumial 2; containers with nets (Ireland): Jan Cools.
I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT
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This Toolkit is developed for organisations that want to initiate a project to reduce the
impact of derelict fishing gear (DFG) on the marine environment. When setting up a DFG
project, this Toolkit will support you in the planning and implementation of your project.
This Toolkit does not provide a single recipe for how you should develop your project.
Instead, it points out some important issues you should think of when setting up your
project and provides advice on how to overcome problems that you may face when
setting up a DFG project.
I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT
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Objectives and scope of the Toolkit
DFG is a common marine litter item and is commonly defined as abandoned, lost or
otherwise discarded fishing gear. This Toolkit is designed to cover DFG retrieval in marine
waters. Freshwater occurrences of DFG present different retrieval issues and are not
covered by this Toolkit.
The guidance in this Toolkit is prepared by the MARELITT team, based on a review of
reports from DFG research and retrieval projects, the assessment of existing DFG projects
and the lessons learnt through supporting the initiation of a new DFG project in the Baltic
Sea. This new DFG project (MARELITT Baltic) is being initiated by three organisations with
previous DFG experience: WWF Poland, Keep the Estonian Sea Tidy (KEST) and the
Swedish municipality of Simrishamn, as a member of KIMO Baltic. This Toolkit has greatly
benefitted from the review and comments from the representatives of these
organisations: Piotr Predki (WWF Poland) Marek Press (KEST) and Vesa Tschernij
(Simrishamn). In addition, valuable comments have been provided by two experts on DFG
retrieval, Ryszard Malik and Per-Olof Larsson, who have worked previously with WWF
Poland and the municipality of Simrishamn, respectively, on DFG retrieval issues.
MARELITT is an EU-funded project aiming at identifying and disseminating good practices
for the removal of litter and derelict fishing gear from the sea. During 2013 and 2014, the
MARELITT team assessed all marine litter retention (sometimes referred to as fishing for
litter), dedicated marine litter collection and DFG retrieval projects in Europe for which
information was available. Although various - also EU-funded - research projects on DFG
have been conducted, to date very few DFG retrieval projects have been undertaken in
the EU. It is only in the Baltic Sea region (Poland, Lithuania and in particular in Sweden)
that extensive previous experience with the location and the retrieval of DFG can be
This Toolkit is the first attempt in the EU to provide guidance on DFG projects, and it is
expected that the organisations that use the Toolkit, will be able to improve it based on
their experience. It is recognised that there are still many unknowns with respect to the
preventive, mitigating and retrieval measures to reduce the impact of DFG, but that over
time, as more projects will be implemented, experience will be gained and expertise and
knowledge will be improved. It is anticipated that this Toolkit will instigate and encourage
the undertaking of these projects.
DFG projects are initiatives under which measures are developed and taken to reduce the impact of DFG. Such measures can be broadly divided in three categories:
1. Prevention (avoid the occurrence of DFG in the environment); 2. Mitigation (reduce the impact of DFG in the environment); and 3. Remediation (remove DFG from the environment).
I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT
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DFG monitoring and raising awareness are cross-cutting measures that can complement a
While preventive measures are the most effective way to tackle DFG, a mix of the three
categories of measures is needed to successfully reduce the DFG problem. While this
Toolkit aims to provide an understanding of a range of possible prevention and mitigation
measures, the emphasis will be on practical guidance on remediation, and particularly on
the retrieval of DFG.
The removal of DFG involves fishermen and qualified divers locating derelict fishing gear.
They use various technologies to locate DFG, such as side-scan sonar for sea-bed surveys,
map locations on the basis of interviews with fisherman, or information systems that track
lost gear, and remove the gear from the marine environment using specialist equipment.
The retrieved nets are disposed of or recycled in an environmentally sound manner. These
projects can be combined with related activities, such as beach cleaning. While this Toolkit
does not specifically cover these additional activities, they are briefly described at the end
of the Toolkit.
The fisheries sector is very diverse. This diversity is reflected in the causes of DFG and the
extent of the DFG problem. A detailed understanding of the fisheries sector, and of the
causes and impacts, is required to design effective measures, tailored to particular
locations and fisheries. This DFG Toolkit therefore aims to provide also an initial
understanding of the various causes and impacts of DFG, and of the categories of
stakeholders that should be targeted when designing measures.
I. ABOUT THE TOOLKIT
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Structure of the Toolkit
This Toolkit broadly follows the different steps of a DFG project. Section 2 on Why set up a
DFG project discusses impacts and causes of DFG. The section on Planning your project
(Section 3) focuses on the first steps you should take in planning your project, such as
understanding your local situation (type of sea bottom; hot spots, such as ship wrecks),
defining the objectives for your project and preparing your project budget. The section on
Project participants (Section 4) helps you to engage stakeholders in your project and
describes their potential role in the project. The section on Implementing your project
(Section 5) provides practical advice on each step of a DFG project, from collecting the nets
to managing how they will be treated or disposed of once they returned to shore. Section
6, on Project monitoring and evaluation, provides advice on measuring the progress and
achievements of your project. The section on Funding for your project (Section 7) provides
guidance on how to seek funding and approach sponsors for your project. Section 8, on
Complementary activities, highlights some other marine litter activities that might
complement your DFG project.
The Toolkit also provides a set of ready-made tools that you can tailor to the specifics of
your project. These tools are provided as downloadable attachments.
The whole Toolkit is also available for download in a printable version.
II. WHY SET UP A DFG PROJECT?
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DFG is found in each of Europes four regional seas. Due to the continuous growth in the
quantity of litter and the slow rate of degradation of most marine litter items, the marine
litter problem continues to worsen. Plastic marine litter items, such as fishing nets, do not
biodegrade, but are split into micro-plastics due to exposure to sunlight.
Some degree of DFG is unavoidable due to the environment in which fishing takes place
(conditions such as weather, currents, tides, the depth of the sea or the type of sea
bottom) and the technology used (loss rates of DFG vary between and within fisheries).
The rates of permanent net loss are estimated to be rather low well below one percent
of nets deployed - in relation to the total number of nets used in EU waters (Brown et al,
2005). In most cases, the