Tobias heifer workshop_110824_eng
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- 1. Lessons learned from the protection of Gruyre cheese (Switzerland) Tobias Eisenring Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) Kyiv, August 27, 2011
2. Swiss PDOs and PGIs 3. Le Gruyre - a very old product !
- First historical reference: 13th century
- Major source of income for the production region since the 17th century (mainly for export)
- Early professional organizational structures
- Since 20th century: strong involvement of the Swiss Government in the promotion of Gruyre (protectionism)
4. Important changes in the 1990s
- GATT / TRIPS 1989-94: national support and protection for Swiss quality cheese is reduced and stopped.
- Increased international demand for quality cheese.
- Appearance of relevant Gruyre imitations originating from different countries (lower quality and lower cost).
- Increased interest to improve cooperation along the value chain (strengthening of vertical integration).
- Claim for a PDO to better position and promote real Gruyre cheese in the international market.
- Development of the Gruyre Declaration.
5. Gruyre Declaration (1992)
- Shared specifications among different value chain actors in respect to technical processing procedures and the production area of Gruyre cheese in Switzerland.
- Implementation of a local-based governance structure involving 95% of stakeholders
- But:Outsiders can still produce Gruyre cheese not respecting these specifications (no intellectual property)
Need for a strong professional organisation enforcing the declaration and promoting Gruyre cheese from the specified region. 6. Gruyre Association (1997) Board (13 members):4 milk producers + 4 cheese makers + 4 cheese refiners + 1 president Assembly of Delegates (50 members):20 milk producers + 20 cheese makers + 10 cheese refiners Directorate:Director and hired staff(specialists, administration) 2300 milk producers, 176 cheese makers, 52 mountain cheese makers, 9 cheese refineries 7. Tasks of the Directorate
- Market transparency Notification of quantities, sales agreement, casein mark.
- Sales promotion Basic marketing, advertising, attendance at trade fairs.
- Enhancement of quality Control of production, price assessment, correct branding and labelling.
8. Gruyre PDO (2001)
- Basis relates to Gruyre Declaration
- Specifications become mandatory for all stakeholders
- Almost all value chain partners become members of the Gruyre Association (Interprofession du Gruyre)
- ButProtection only within Switzerland
Need for a larger protection to better promote export 9. EU Recognition for Swiss PDOs (2010)
- Mutual recognition / protection of PDOs Switzerland and UE exchange their PDO registers, including Gruyre.
- Advantages:increased export, fight fraud within EU.
- But:French Gruyre still exists, due to an older treaty between Switzerland and France.
Gruyre Association still faces different challenges to boost (Swiss) Gruyre PDO! 10. Challenge 1 Optimal inclusion of Tradition
- Hard discussions about technical specifications:silage, heating, ripening etc.Pressure from industry towards technical rationalization / progress versus consumer preference for tradition.
- Agreement:Technical improvement only if not putting at risk the core of typicality of Gruyre (taste in particular).
- Outcome:Today, still 176 active cheese makerssatisfied consumers, working places and landscape maintained, cultural heritage preserved, good image for the Gruyre region.
11. Challenge 2 Create Collective Advantages
- Difficult governance issue:How can2300 milk producers, 176 cheese makers, 52 mountain cheese makers, and 9 cheese refineriesdecide together?
- Agreement:Set in place democratic and professional organizational structuresGruyre Association (Gruyre Parliament).
- Outcome:All partners along the value chain gained through improved market penetration of Gruyre PDO higher milk prices for farmers, interesting margins / added value along the supply chain (processing, storage, marketing).
12. Challenge 3 Optimal brand management
- Individual trademarks versus a collective PDO:How to stimulate collaboration and healthy competition to strengthen the brand while preventing free riders from benefiting (image, quality, etc.) without participating?
- Agreement:All stakeholders respect the PDO code of practice, which enhances fair competition along the supply chaineach cheese maker and ripener has an own (additional) trademark and freedom to sell.
- Outcome:Strong positioning of the Gruyre PDO in the Swiss andinternational marketprice and volumes increase
13. Thank you Et bon apptit !