TNM BLADDER CANCER STAGING

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TNM BLADDER CANCER STAGING. Dr. Mahnaz Roayaei Radiation Oncologist Assistant Professor Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. AMERICAN JOINT COMMITTEE ON CANCER 2009 TNM BLADDER CANCER STAGING. PRIMARY TUMOR (T) REGIONAL LYMPH NODES(N) DISTANT METASTASIS (M). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TNM BLADDER CANCER STAGINGDr. Mahnaz RoayaeiRadiation OncologistAssistant Professor Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

AMERICAN JOINT COMMITTEE ON CANCER 2009 TNM BLADDER CANCER STAGING

PRIMARY TUMOR (T)REGIONAL LYMPH NODES(N)DISTANT METASTASIS (M)

The primary pathologic substages of the TNM staging system such as pT2a and pT2b, cannot be determined from TURBT specimens.

Patients who have documented muscularis propria-invasive bladder cancer require an additional set of studies:

chest x-rayCT scanliver function studiesCreatinine , and electrolytesBimanual examinationMRI lymphangiographyA prostatic urethra and bulbous urethra biopsyTumor extends through the muscle to involve the full thicknessof the bladder and into the serosa

CTS or MRI, are not reliable for staging.Only, when they show unequivocal tumor extension outside the bladder

Nonstromal invasive urothelial tumors of theprostate are not classified as T4, as the prognosis in this group is quite goodREGIONAL LYMPH NODES

N2 :Metastasis in multiple lymph nodes in primarydrainage region

N3: Common iliac lymph node involvement

DISTANT METASTASIS (M)

Thanks for your attention

Ref of photographs:Color Atlas by Dr.Hamid EemamiAssociate Professor of Radiation OncologyIsfahan University of Medical Sciences