TKT GLOSSORY

download TKT GLOSSORY

of 92

  • date post

    04-Jun-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    246
  • download

    4

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of TKT GLOSSORY

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    1/92

    ing/ed adjective

    An -ing/ed adjective changes in different situations, e.g. The book is very interesting; I am veryinterested in the book.

    Keyword s!"

    A

    Accuracy

    The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabu#ary and $ronunciation. In an accuracy activity,students ty$ica##y give more attention to correctness. %ee f#uency.

    Achievab#e target, goa#

    An aim that is not too difficu#t for the #earner toreach.

    Achieve aims, objectives

    &hen a teacher succeeds in teaching what he/she has $#anned toteach.

    Achievement test

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    2/92

    An achievement test is used to see how we## students have #earnt the #anguage taught in c#ass.Achievement tests are often at the end of term or end of the year and test the main $oints of

    what has been taught in that time.

    Keyword s!"

    Ac'uisition noun, ac'uire verb

    To #earn a #anguage without studying it, just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. This isthe way we a## #earn our first #anguage.

    Active ro#e, $assive ro#e

    &hen students think about their own #earning and what their own needs are and try to he#$themse#ves #earn more, they are taking an active ro#e. A $assive ro#e is the o$$osite of an activero#e.

    Active voice

    In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usua##y does or causes the action, e.g. I wrote the#etter. %ee $assive voice.

    Activity book, workbook

    An activity book or workbook has e(tra $ractice and is often used for homework. It usua##yaccom$anies a coursebook.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    3/92

    Keyword s!"

    Activity-based #earning

    A way of #earning by doing activities. The ru#es of #anguage are #ooked at either after the activityor not at a##.

    Ada$t materia#!

    To change a te(t or other materia#, so that it is suitab#e to use with a$articu#ar c#ass.

    Adjective

    An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun, $ronoun or c#ause, e.g. ahot day.

    Adverb

    An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where or to what degreesomething is done, e.g. They sang beautifu##y.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    4/92

    Affi(

    A meaningfu# grou$ of #etters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word.Affi(ation is the $rocess of adding a $refi( or suffi( to word.

    Aim

    &hat the teacher tries to achieve in the #esson orcourse.

    Ana#yse #anguage

    To think about #anguage, e.g. what the form of the structure is and why it is being used in this way in this situation.

    Antici$ate #anguage $rob#ems

    &hen teachers are $#anning a #esson, they think about what their students might find difficu#tabout the #anguage in the #esson so that they can he#$ them #earn more effective#y at certain$oints in the #esson.

    Antonym

    The o$$osite of another word, e.g. hot is the antonym ofco#d.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    5/92

    A$$ro$riacy

    noun a$$ro$riate/ina$$ro$riate adj)anguage which is suitab#e or correct in a $articu#ar situation. %eeregister.

    Arouse, generate interest

    To make students interested in atask.

    Artic#e

    An artic#e can be definite the!, indefinite a! or *ero -!, e.g. I was at -! home in the sitting room when I heard a noise.

    Ask for c#arification

    To ask for an e($#anation of what a s$eaker means, e.g. &hat I mean is+. &hat doyou mean

    As$ect

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    6/92

    A way of #ooking at verb forms not $ure#y in re#ation to time. The $erfect, continuous and sim$#eare as$ects. The continuous as$ect, for e(am$#e, suggests that something is ha$$eningtem$orari#y.

    Assessment criteria

    The 'ua#ities against which a student s $erformance is judged for assessment. or e(am$#e,assessment criteria for judging students writing may be" accuracy of grammar, use ofvocabu#ary, s$e##ing and $unctuation; organisation of ideas.

    Assum$tions

    &hen teachers think about what they be#ieve their students wi## or wi## not know or how they wi##behave in a $articu#ar #esson. or e(am$#e, a teacher $#ans to teach $resent sim$#e using theconte(t of jobs and dai#y routines. The teacher makes the assum$tion that students wi## knowbasic job vocabu#ary and so wi## not s$end time in the #esson $resenting these words

    Attention s$an

    ow #ong a student is ab#e to concentrate at any onetime.

    Auditory #earner

    A #earner who remembers things more easi#y when they hear them s$oken a#oud. This ty$e of#earner #ikes the teacher to say a new word a#oud as we## as writing it on the board.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    7/92

    Keyword s!"

    Authentic materia#

    &ritten or s$oken te(ts which a first #anguage s$eaker wou#d read or #isten to. They may betaken from news$a$ers, radio etc. The #anguage is not made easier.

    Au(i#iary verb

    An au(i#iary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make 'uestions, negatives and tenses, e.g.be, do, have.

    Keyword s!"

    0

    0ase form of the verb

    The base form of the verbis the infinitive form of a verb without 1to ,e.g.go.

    Keyword s!"

    0i#ingua# dictionary

    This uses trans#ation from the target #anguage into another #anguage for definitions and

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    8/92

    e(am$#es. %ee mono#ingua# dictionary.

    0oard game

    A game $#ayed by two or more $#ayers on a board and often using dice. Teachers can use thesefor contro##ed #anguage $ractice.

    0rainstorm noun 2 verb

    To think of ideas usua##y 'uick#y! about a to$ic often noting these down!. This is often done as$re$aration before writing or s$eaking.

    3

    3ategorisation noun, categorise verb

    To $ut things into the grou$ category! to which they be#ong. or e(am$#e, students mightcategorise a #ist of different foods into grou$s such as fruit and vegetab#es.

    3hant noun 2 verb

    To re$eat a $hrase, sentence or $oem, usua##y with others, in a regu#arrhythm.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    9/92

    3hart

    A drawing or gra$h that can be $#aced on the c#assroom wa## and can show information such asirregu#ar verb forms or $re$ositions.

    3hora# dri##

    In a chora# dri## the teacher says a word or sentence and the students re$eat ittogether.

    Keyword s!"

    3#arify

    To make c#ear what youmean.

    3#ass $rofi#e

    A descri$tion of a## the students in a c#ass, inc#uding their age,abi#ity etc.

    3#assroom management

    The strategies used by a teacher to organise the c#assroom and the #earners, such as seatingarrangements, different ty$es of activities, teacher ro#es, interaction $atterns.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    10/92

    3#ause

    A c#ause consists of a verb and genera##y! a subject. A c#ause can be a fu## sentence or a $artof a sentence.

    3#osed $airs

    &hen students do $airwork with the $erson sitting ne(t to them and no one e#se #istens. %eeo$en $airs.

    3#o*e test

    A ty$e of task in which students read a te(t with words missing and try to work out the missing words. The missing words are removed regu#ar#y from the te(t, e.g. every seventh word. A c#o*etest is used for testing reading abi#ity or genera# #anguage use. This is different to a ga$-fi##activity which can focus on testing a s$ecific #anguage $oint. %eega$-fi##.

    3o-o$eration noun, co-o$erate verb, co-o$erative adj

    &orking together and he#$ing each other. In some grou$ work activities students wi## co-o$erate

    to find the answer or so#ve a $rob#em.

    3ognitive $rocesses!

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    11/92

    The menta# $rocesses invo#ved in thinking, understanding or#earning.

    3o##ective noun

    A co##ective noun is a noun which inc#udes a grou$ of $eo$#e or things, e.g. the $o#ice, thegovernment.

    Keyword s!"

    3o##ocation

    &ords which are used together regu#ar#y, e.g. The teacher made a $resentation 45T Theteacher $erformed a $resentation.

    3o##o'uia#

    )anguage used in informa# conversations or writing.

    3ommunicative activity

    A c#assroom activity in which students need to communicate to com$#ete theactivity.

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    12/92

    3ommunicative A$$roach

    A way of teaching which is based on the $rinci$#e that #earning a #anguage successfu##y invo#vescommunication rather than just memorising a series of ru#es. Teachers try to focus onmeaningfu# communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes a## thetime. %ee 6rammar-Trans#ation method.

    com$arative adjective

    A com$arative adjective com$ares two things, e.g. e is ta##er thanshe is.

    Keyword s!"

    3om$onents of a #esson $#an!

    The main $arts of a #esson $#an, e.g. aims, $rocedure, timing, aids, interaction $atterns,antici$ated $rob#ems, assum$tions.

    3om$ound nounA com$ound noun is a combination of two or more words which are used as a sing#e word, e.g.a f#ower sho$, a headache.

    Keyword s!"

  • 8/13/2019 TKT GLOSSORY

    13/92

    3om$ounds

    4ouns, verbs, adjectives or $re$ositions that are made u$ of two or more words, e.g. assistantoffice manager, bring back, #ong-#egged, due to.

    3once$t checking

    The techni'ue of asking conce$t 'uestions or other techni'ues to check that students haveunderstood a new structure or item of #e(is. A conce$t 'uestion is a 'uestion asked by theteacher to make sure that a student has understood the meaning of new #anguage, e.g. the new#anguage structure 7 used to 7 e used to #ive in 8aris. 3once$t 'uestion 7 9oes he #ive in 8arisnow Answer 7 4o.

    3onditiona#

    A $ossib#e or imagined situation usua##y with