Étienne Danchin

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Étienne Danchin CNRS, Toulouse, France. http://edanchin.fr/

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Page 1: Étienne Danchin

Étienne DanchinCNRS, Toulouse, France.

http://edanchin.fr/

Page 2: Étienne Danchin

What does the existence of cultural

Inheritance change in the process of

Evolution?

Page 3: Étienne Danchin

What does the existence of cultural

Inheritance change in the process of

Evolution?

Page 4: Étienne Danchin

What does the existence of cultural

Inheritance change in the process of

Evolution?

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Heredity:

Patterns of parent-offspring resemblance

Inheritance:

Underlying mechanisms: transfer of any kind of

information across generations

Genetic: DNA sequence (‘Sequencic’)

Non-genetic inheritance: Inheritance of

phenotypic variation not resulting from DNA

sequence variation

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Heredity:

Patterns of parent-offspring resemblance

Central role in natural selection,

Inheritance:

Underlying mechanisms: transfer of any kind of

information across generations

Genetic: DNA sequence (‘Sequencic’)

Non-genetic inheritance: Inheritance of

variation not resulting from DNA sequence

variation

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Darwin “The Origin of species” (1859, p.12 ):

“Any variation which is not inherited

is unimportant for us”

Implying that only the variation that is inherited is

important for natural selection

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Trait variance (VP)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*According

to Darwin

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet. and

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Trait variance (VP)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*According

to Darwin

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

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Trait variance (VP)

Genetic variance

(VG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*

According to the

current

mainstream

Semantic shift

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

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Trait variance (VP)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*According to

the current

mainstream

Semantic shift

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

Genetic variance

(VG)

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Genetic variance

(VG)

Trait variance (VP)

*

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*According to

the current

mainstream

Semantic shift

VP = VG + VE + …

Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

VE

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*VE

According to

the current

mainstream

Semantic shift

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

VP = VG + VE + …

Genetic variance

(VG)

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*VE

According to

the current

mainstream

Semantic shift

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

VP = VG + VE + …

Discarding part of the baby with the bathwater

Genetic variance

(VG)

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

Genetic variance

(VG)

Inclusive

heredity

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*

Non-genetic inheritance

VTEpi VPNGEVTEcoVTSoc

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

… …

Genetic variance

(VG)

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*Genetic variance

(VG)

Francis et al. Science, 1999Anway et al. Science, 2005

Jablonka & Lamb 2005, Evolution in four dimensionsDanchin et al. Science, 2004

Danchin & Wagner Oikos 2010 Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

Wang et al. 2017 Biol. Reviewsand many references therein

……

For the

existence

of VTNG

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Trait variance (VP)

* Non-genetic transmitted Variance

(VTNG)

Transmitted

variance (VT)

Non-transmitted

Variance (VNT)*

Non-genetic inheritance

VTEpi VPNGEVTEcoVTSoc

Danchin et al. Science, 2004; Danchin and Wagner Oikos 2010; Danchin et al. 2011. Nature Rev. Genet.

… …Culture

Genetic variance

(VG)

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After Darwin, Weismann(1889) separated germ plasm (≈genotype) vs soma (≈phenotype)

=> Wilson (1896), and then Maynard Smith (1965) produced this diagram of inheritance ruling out the inheritance of acquired characters

DNA

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

T

i

m

e

Germline S o m a

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

T

i

m

e

Germline S o m a

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

The canonical vision of inheritance according to the Modern Synthesis

T

i

m

e

Germline S o m a

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Red arrow: Informational channel

across generations

Only one red arrow

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

The canonical vision of inheritance according to the Modern Synthesis

T

i

m

e

Germline S o m a

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Simplification: other transmission processes,

one of which being

Cultural Transmission

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

T

i

m

e

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Cu

ltu

re

Cultural heredity

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Generation n

Generation n+1

Genetics

Vertical

Culture

Vertical

Horizontal

Oblique

May drastically affect evolution

99.9

%

Epigenetics,ecological,

parental,…Originality

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

T

i

m

e

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Cu

ltu

re

Originality of Cultural heredityOne Lineage

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T

i

m

e

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Cu

ltu

re

Originality of Cultural heredity

Cu

ltu

re

=>

Culture can spread across lineages

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What does the existence of cultural

Inheritance change in the process of

Evolution?

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Classical definition: “The process by which

the frequencies of genes change over

generations”

Today, two major processesEvolution through natural selection

Occurs as soon as 3 conditions are fulfilled (a) ∃ variation among individuals on a trait (ie phenotypic variation, VP)

(b) ∃ a consistent relationship between trait value & fitness (capacity

to avoid predators, acquire mates,...) = Selective pressure

Trait value

Fitn

ess

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Classical definition: “The process by which

the frequencies of genes change over

generations”

Today, two major processesEvolution through natural selection

Occurs as soon as 3 conditions are fulfilled (a) ∃ variation among individuals on a trait (ie phenotypic variation, VP)

(b) ∃ a consistent relationship between trait value & fitness (capacity

to avoid predators, acquire mates,...) = Selective pressure

(c) Trait variation should be transmitted (i.e. heritable)

Parent-Offspring resemblance

Evolution through drift

Same condition except that condition (b) is replaced by random selection

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Must meet the 3 conditions of evolution by natural

selection

Variation, Change, Innovation

Selective pressure

Cultural variants are Inclusively heritable

(through social learning)

Parent-offspring resemblance

=> Social learning can lead to cultural evolution only if

variants (or their descendants) persist across

generations (traditions)

May evolve (ie be modified) within 1 generation

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Must meet the 3 conditions of evolution by natural

selection

Variation, Change, innovation

Selective pressure

Cultural variants are Inclusively heritable

(through social learning)

Parent-offspring resemblance

Only cultural variants persisting (accumulating) over generations can produce cultural evolution

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Must meet the 3 conditions of evolution by natural

selectionVariation, Change, InnovationSelective pressureCultural variants are Inclusively heritable

(through social learning)Parent-offspring resemblance

Only cultural variants persisting (accumulating) over generations can produce cultural evolution

Inclusive definition of evolution:

“Processes by which frequencies of variantschange over generations" Bentley et al. (2004)

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Classical definition: “The process by which

the frequencies of genes change over

generations”

Today, two major processesEvolution through natural selection

Occurs as soon as 3 conditions are fulfilled (a) ∃ variation among individuals on a trait (ie phenotypic variation, VP)

(b) ∃ a consistent relationship between trait value & fitness (capacity

to avoid predators, acquire mates,...) = Selective pressure

(c) Trait variation should be transmitted (i.e. heritable)

Parent-Offspring resemblance

Evolution through drift

Same condition except that condition (b) is replaced by random selection

The importance

of variation

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Pre

se

nt

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

This is current the vision of

inheritance according to the

Modern Synthesis of Evolution

VP = VG + VE + ….

VE

VG

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

?

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

Environmental information gathered by

recent ancestors far more up-to-date

and thus a far better predictor of the

environment

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

Accruing evidence for the inheritance of

recent environmental effects

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

Animal Culture

Develop-

ment

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

Inherited response to

environmentalstress

Parental effects

Animal Culture

Develop-

ment

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Development

VG

VTNG

VNT

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Ph

en

oty

pe

Fertilization

Development

VG

VTNG

VNT

VP

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Fertilization

Neo-Darwinism Neo-Lamarckism

D a r w i n i s m

Development

Variation in information from many generations ago (genetics)

Variation in experience since fertilization (phenotypic plasticity)

Also variation in the history of more recent ancestors

(nongenetic inheritance)

Ph

en

oty

pe

VG

VTNG

VNT

VP

DNA sequence:

Genetic inheritance

Irreversible

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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Log10 of number of generations04 3 2 16 57

Fertilization

Neo-Darwinism Neo-Lamarckism

D a r w i n i s m

Development

Ph

en

oty

pe

VG

VTNG

VNT

VP

DNA sequence:

Genetic inheritance

Irreversible

Danchin et al. 2019. Phil Transac Roy Soc

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DNA

Phenotype

Environment

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

T

i

m

eInheritance according to the Modern Synthesis of Evolution

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DNA

DNA

Phenotype

Phenotype

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Environment

Environment

T

i

m

e

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Cu

ltu

re

Cultural heredity

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DNA

Phenotype

Environment

DNAEnvironment

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

Phenotype

Epigenes

Epigenes

Epigenes

Heredity according to the Inclusive Evolutionary Synthesis

T

i

m

e

Danchin et al. 2019, Biological Reviews

Modeling informational

dynamics

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DNA

Phenotype

Environment

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

DNA

Phenotype

Environment

T

i

m

eInheritance according to the Modern Synthesis of Evolution

Modeling informational

dynamics

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Ongoing conceptual leap

Need to multidimensionalize

inheritance to implement the

“Inclusive Evolutionary

Synthesis”

Modernising (generalizing) the

Modern Synthesis of Evolution

One major dimension being animal culture

(originalities)

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What does the existence of cultural Inheritance change in the process of

Evolution?

Now, we just start to be able to answer

that question

Now: the tools and concepts

But this is just a beginning

There is no empirical study of the consequences

of culture in evolution per se, yet

Entirely open field

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Acknowledgements

Home national

institutions

Local

institutions

Funding

Agencies

Our labs

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Darwin. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. London: John Murray.

Danchin et al. 2004. Public information: from nosy neighbors to cultural evolution. Science.

Danchin & Wagner. 2010. Inclusive heritability: combining genetic and nongenetic information to study animal behavior and culture. Oikos.

Bentley et al. 2004. Random drift and culture change. Proc Roy Soc B.

Danchin et al. 2011. Beyond DNA: integrating inclusive inheritance into an extended theory of evolution. Nature Rev Genet.

Francis et al. 1999. Nongenomictransmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat. Science.

Anway et al. 2005. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and mate fertility. Science.

Jablonka & Lamb. J. 2005. Evolution in four

dimensions. Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioural,

and Symbolic Variation in the history of life.

Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT.

Wang et al. 2017. Lamarck rises from his

grave: parental environment-induced

epigenetic inheritance in model organisms and

humans. Biol Rev.

Weismann. 1893. The Germ Plasm: a Theory

of Heredity. C. Scribner's sons.

Wilson, EB. 1896. The cell in development and

inheritance. London: Macmillan.

Maynard Smith. 1965. The theory of evolution.

Middlesex: Penguin.

Danchin et al. 2019. Epigenetically-Facilitated

mutational assimilation: Epigenetics as a hub

within the Inclusive Evolutionary Synthesis.

Biol Rev.

Danchin et al. 2019. Early in life effects and

heredity: reconciling neo-Darwinism with neo-

Lamarckism under the banner of the inclusive

evolutionary synthesis. Phil. Transac Roy Soc

B-Biol Sci.

Plus references therein

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