Thesis dana

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  • 1. In search for new brand identity branding industrial city of Ostrava MA IN TOURISM AT AALBORG UNIVERSITY, MASTER THESIS, JANUARY 2012
  • 2. MA IN TOURISM AT AALBORG UNIVERSITY, MASTER THESIS, JANUARY 2012In search for new brand identity branding industrial city of Ostrava NR. OF PAGES: 65 NR. OF WORDS: 18 578 KEYSTROKES: 123 333 SUPERVISOR: Peter Kvistgaard AUTHOR: Dana Vachrlonov --------------------- 2
  • 3. CONTENTSINTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 5RESEARCH QUESTIONS........................................................................................................ 7METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................................... 8 THE OBJECTIVES OF STUDY ........................................................................................... 8 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DATA..................................................................................... 9 INTERVIEW GUIDE........................................................................................................... 10 FREE ELICITATION....................................................................................................... 11 SELECTION OF THE SETTING........................................................................................ 12 DATA COLLECTION.......................................................................................................... 12 SCIENTIFIC METHOD ...................................................................................................... 14 LIMITATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 15THEORY .................................................................................................................................. 17 INTRODUCTION TO DESTINATION IMAGE AND DESTINATION BRANDING ..... 17 INTRODUCTION TO FACTORS INFLUENCING DESTINATION IMAGE.................. 19 SOURCES OF DESTINATION IMAGES .......................................................................... 20 THE COMPONENTS OF DESTINATION IMAGE........................................................... 23 APPROACHES TO DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY ....................................... 29 BRANDS AS COMMUNICATION EQUTIES................................................................... 29 (CUSTOMER BASED BRANDING STRATEGY)......................................................... 29 BRANDS AS PERCEPTION OBJECTS............................................................................. 31 (CUSTOMER DRIVEN BRANDING STRATEGY)....................................................... 31 BRAND EQUITY ................................................................................................................ 32DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................................... 34 THE IMPACT OF ORGANIC AND INDUCED IMAGES ON DESTINATION IMAGE 35 THE EVALUATION OF ORGANIC AND INDUCED IMAGES ...................................... 37 EVALUATION OF DESTINATION ATTRIBUTES FROM PUSH AND PULL FACTORS PERSPECTIVE .................................................................................................................... 39 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................... 42 THE EVALUATION OF IMAGE FORMATION AGENTS ............................................... 43 THE DESTINATION IMAGE FORMATION PROCESS .................................................. 44 THE EVALUATION OF COMPONENTS FORMATING THE DESTINATION IMAGE - VISITORS ............................................................................................................................ 44 THE EVALUATION OF COMPONENTS FORMATING THE DESTINATION IMAGE - NON-VISITORS .................................................................................................................. 46 THE PROCESS OF DESTINATION IMAGE FORMATION ............................................ 47 3
  • 4. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE/COMMON ATTRIBUTES............................................ 49 FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIQUE HOLISTIC ATTRIBUTES............. 50 PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON FUNCTIONAL ATTRIBUTES ...................................................................................................................... 51 PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIQUE HOLISTIC ATTRIBUTES..... 53 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................... 54 EVALUATION OF DESTINATION BRAND IDENTITY................................................. 55 THE DESTINATION IMAGE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRAND IDENTITY ........................................................................................................................... 58 SUMMARY AND RECCOMENDATIONS IN BRANDING OF OSTRAVA.................... 60CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 63REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 65FIGURES ................................................................................................................................. 67APPENDIXES ......................................................................................................................... 68 4
  • 5. INTRODUCTIONWith the increasing competitiveness of destinations, the aim to differentiate the placesbecomes more difficult for destination marketers. To achieve the differentiation and brandcustomers loyalty require the understanding of destination image formation and the variablesinfluencing it. Based on the research investigating these study fields may be established thebrand with sustainable, unique, strong and favorable core values and associations.This increasingly competitive environment produce even higher challenge for the marketersof destinations with negatively perceived images, such as industrial or communistic cities.These places need to accept and develop more effective strategies in order to position thedestinations in the minds of customers and achieve the competitive advantage. In order toreach these goals, it is necessary to understand the destination image formation process andreveal the opportunities for influencing the customers decision making process. For thesepurposes, the following literature will be reviewed.The destination image formation is a multiple concept differently perceived by severalscientific fields and researchers presented further in the text. The variables influencing thesecondary destination images have been investigated by Stabler (1988), Gunn (1988), Gartner(1993) or Fakeye and Crompton (1991). The process of the way how are those imagesstructured in the customers minds and which factors affect this image formation processbecame the objects of several research studies (Echtner and Ritchie (1993), Baloglu andMcCleary (1999), Stern and Krakover (1993) or Tasci et al. (2007).The primary aim of this study is to detect the inaccuracies between the visitors and non-visitors destination images and evaluate the destination holistic and functional attributes.This study will focus on investigating the individual attributes, on the assessment of holisticimpressions and unique features of destination rather than measuring of functionalcharacteristics. This approach enable to obtain more complex information about destinationimage composition and it may also reveal the strongly held attributes and images of previousand potential tourists. There are not many studies investigating the holistic attributes, even ifthere is an agreement among researchers, that the customers hold both functional and 5
  • 6. psychological images. In order to develop more effective destination positioning strategiesand to achieve an advantage toward competitors, the more holistic based studies should beaccomplished.The change of negatively perceived destination image may result in a confused identity ofdestination. Therefore, the second aim of this study is to examine the process of destinationidentity establishment and its relation to destination image perceived by customers. Thispaper is aiming to reveal the inconsistencies between the brand image analyzed in the firstpart of thesis and modified destination brand identity.The destination change of identity is characteristic for places with negative images. Thisdifficult process involves several challenges, which will be examined through the study o