Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology€¦ · We study Modern Cosmology or „Physical...
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Theoretical Astrophysics & CosmologySpring 2015
Lectures: Lucio Mayer & Alexandre RefregierProblem sessions: Andrina Nicola & Aleksandra Sokolowska

Lectures take place at:
Wednesday at ETH: 1315 – room HCI G3
Thursday at ETH: 1214 – room HPV G5
Weekly exercise Classes Two groups:
Friday at ETH: 1416 – room HCI D8 1416 – room HCI H 8.1

Course Guidelineshttp://www.astro.ethz.ch/education/courses/TheoreticalAstrophysicsandCosmologyhttp://www.astro.ethz.ch/education/courses/TheoreticalAstrophysicsandCosmologyTeaching Assistants (For Friday exercise classes):Andrina Nicola ([email protected]) Aleksandra Sokolowska ([email protected])
Exercise sheets and lectures slides downloadable on website.Exercises should be returned to assistants on the week following assignments (solutionswill be discussed by the assistants).
Occasionally the Friday Exercise class will cover extra topics, for example on Astronomical notions (example next week – notion of standard candles for cosmicdistance measurements).
Textbooks (available online, copies of material not available online provided during classes):
H. Mo, F. van den Bosch, S. White (Cambridge)  Galaxy Formation and Evolution
S. Carroll – Lectures on General Relativity (http://arxiv.org/abs/grqc/9712019) + book “An Introduction to General Relativity: Spacetime and Geometry”)
S. Dodelson – Modern Cosmology (Academic Press)
mailto:[email protected]

Course Structure
Part I  The Unperturbed State of the Universe Introduction: dynamics of expanding Universe and its matter/energy content The FRW metric and Friedmann equations The Thermal History of the Universe (Hot Big Bang model) Decoupling and thermodynamics or relic particles Nucleosynthesis and Recombination Introduction to Inflationary Theory
Part II – The Perturbed State of the Universe
Relativistic Cosmological Perturbations Perturbed Boltzmann equation Initial perturbations from inflation Inhomogeneities Anisotropies Newtonian Perturbation treatment

Part III – Extra Topics (time permitting)
Nonlinear evolution of structures Cosmological Probes
Galaxy formation

Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology
What is COSMOLOGY?
The study of the Universe as a whole, namely as the collection of its matter/energycomponents and its constituent phenomena, and of its evolution. Cosmology is thus a multidisciplinary science (involves astrophysics, relativistic gravitational physics, particle physics, nuclear physics etc..)
The origin of the word from Ancient Greek: „discussion on the Universe“ suggests we should be open minded in our inferences, not dogmatic.Ancient Greeks were the first cosmologists of the western world (= the first philosophers, such as Democritus or Parmenides, who proposed different cosmological „models“). Cosmology is present in all advanced civilizations of the past.
We study Modern Cosmology or „Physical Cosmology“, namely a cosmology that isquantitative and testable with experiments. It is based on our modern knowledge of physical laws. This course focuses on the physical foundations of cosmology.General Relativity constitutes the backbone of current cosmological theory
The prevailing cosmological model (LambdaColdDarkMatter) satisfies several tests set forth by astrononical observations and experiments. However there areaspects of the model which are not understood (eg. Dark Matter, Dark Energy) and aspects of cosmic structure that it cannot predict (eg structure of galaxies),

Big Bang
PresentDay Universe
 Expansion from an initially dense, hot state. Expansion cools matter and radiation. Currently expansion is accelerating Initial state not completely uniform. Small inhomogeneities grow viagravitational instability during expansion becoming the galaxies and clustersof galaxies that we see today.

The birth of Modern Cosmology: the notion of an Expanding Universe
Hubble
Edwin Hubble (1920s) Determines spiral nebulae areexternal galaxies Determines galaxies are receding from each other, andincreasingly faster for greater distances (Hubble law) – vr = Hd
The Theory : Einstein (GR, 1916) and Lemaitre (Big Bang/primeval atom model) – also in the 1920s
Later (1940s) Alpher, Bethe and Gamov develop quantitative model for thermal history of Universe And origin of elements (H, He)

Another new revolutionary notion: Dark Matter
Fritz Zwicky in 1933at Caltech The Coma Cluster of Galaxies
Zwicky meausured the motionof many galaxies in Coma and usedthe virial theorem to find thatthere is 400 times more massthan it is visible > Dunkle Materie!
Virial theorem: ~ GMcl/Rcl

The need for Dark Matter: the rotation curves of galaxies
Rotational velocity (newtonian gravity assuming spherical potential): vrot2 = GM/R

The constituents of the Universe; today and then
~ 1% is in neutrinos (photondensity and density of other subatomic particles is negligible)
Dark energy (simplest form is cosmological constant originallyintroduced by Einstein) producesaccelerated expansion – associatedwith a negative pressure
Dark matter nonbaryonic because we can place limits on the baryon contentof the Universe (baryons, eg stars orInterstellar gas, detected In some band of the electromagnetic spectrum plusconstraints from nucleosynthesis)
Time corresponding to theemission of the cosmic microwavebackground (CMB), the relicradiation from the Big bang

The founding notion: cosmological principle
Cosmological Principle: Universe is homogeneous and isotropicIt is the starting point of modern cosmology Statement verified on large enough scales
We will use the cosmological principle to derive the fundamental equationsthat relate the dynamics of the Universe with its matter/energy content and geometry.
The first step will be to determine a metric that satisfies the cosmologicalprinciple.The dynamical equations (Friedmann equations) will then be derived from Einstein's field equations for the proper metric describing a Universe with atime dependent spatial scale (expanding or collapsing) assuming an appropriateform of the stressenergy tensor to describe the matter/energy content.
Surprisingly, one can obtain the first of the Friedmann equations workingwith newtonian gravity, again owing to the cosmological principle. Of course in this case there is no natural notion for how to identify the geometrical meaning of the equation because there is no notion of spacetime in newtonian gravity.

Structure not homogeneous on galactic scales....

Structure looks a bit morehomogeneous and isotropic on Megaparsec (Mpc) scales...

......and it is quite so on Gigaparsec scales (Gpc)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation:
relic of the Big Bang supports strongly the cosmological principle
but also provides evidence of the initial inhomogeneities present
in the early Universe (at the time of last scattering)

Angular power spectrum of temperature fluctuations

Temperature fluctuations after subtractionof Galactic foreground contamination (7yrWMAP data) – amplitude of spots ~ 1/105 (T/T ~ a few K)
Blackbodyspectrum ofCMB (at a resolutionof mK): uniformTemperature of2.73 K

And now to a newtonian treatment of an expanding Universe....
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