The worlds of north and south

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  • 1. The Worlds of North andSouth1820 - 1860 Section 3Cotton Kingdom in the South

2. Essential QuestionsWhy did cotton planters begin tomove westward?How did the cotton gin affect slaveryin the South?Why did the South have less industrythan the North? 3. Essential TermsDefine Identify Eli Whitney Cotton Kingdom William Gregg 4. SummaryDue to the invention of the cotton gin,growing cotton became veryprofitable.As the Cotton Kingdom spread fromthe Atlantic coast to Texas, so didslavery.As planters invested in land andslaves, the South developed anagricultural economy rather than aindustrial one. 5. IntroductionEven before the period of 1820-1860,cotton production became more andmore important in the SouthSouthern economy and societyrevolved around the growing of cottonand the plantation / slave systemThe South grew other crops, butcotton was king. 6. Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomEli Whitneys inventionCotton Kingdom and slavery 7. Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomThe Industrial Revolution greatlyincreased the demand for cotton. Textile mills in the North and Englandneeded more and more cotton to bemade into cloth 8. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom1. What problem did Southernplanters have? 1. Textile mills in the North and inBritain needed more and more rawcotton to make cloth. 2. Southern planters could grow plentyof cotton, but removing the seeds byhand was a slow process. 9. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom2. What was the solution to theproblem of not being able to cleancotton? 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cottonengine or gin. The cotton gin could do the work of 50people. Because of the cotton gin, planterscould grow as much cotton as theycould and make huge profits. 10. Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomEli Whitney built amachine to cleancottonthe cottonengine, or gin.It had rollers withwire teeth thatseparated the seedsfrom the fibers. 11. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom1. Cotton bolls,made up of fiber andseeds, are fed intothe cotton gin.The red arrows showthe path of thecotton through thegin. 12. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom2. As the handle isturned, the cylinderand brushes rotate.3. Wire teeth catchthe cotton bolls andpull them throughnarrow wire slots. 13. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom4. The seeds are toolarge to pass throughthe slots. They fall to thebottom of the gin.5. Rotating brushespull cleaned cottonfiber from the wireteeth and sweep itout of the gin. 14. Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomOne slave using thecotton gin could dothe work in one dayof 50 slaves workingone day cleaningcotton by hand. 15. Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomLater cotton ginswere powered bysteamThey were builtbigger and biggerThey could clean asmuch cotton as couldbe plantedSouthern plantersbecame wealthy 16. CAUSE AND EFFECTThe Cotton Gin made growing cotton moreprofitable because It allowed slaves to clean cotton more quickly. The Planter could sell more cotton. With more cotton, factories could producemore. Price of cloth dropped. More people boughtcloth With factories producing more, demand forcotton grew. Planters bought more land and slaves, andgrew more cotton. 17. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom3. What was the effect of the cottongin on the South? The cotton gin led to a boom in cottonproduction. Also led to an increased demand forslaves.In the 1790s slavery was beginningto die out in the South, as it had in theNorth. The cotton gin gave it new life. 18. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom4. Why and how did the Cotton Kingdomspread? Cotton plants wore out the soil, Planters began to look for fresh land. By the 1850s, cotton plantations extended in awide band from the East Coast westward toTexas. This area became known as the CottonKingdom. As the Cotton Kingdom spread, so did slavery. 19. Cotton Kingdom 20. An Agricultural Economy 21. An Agricultural Economy5. What else did the South growbesides cotton? (see next few slides) 22. An Agricultural EconomyRice Where coasts of South Carolina and Georgia Effects required expensive irrigation and drainagesystems promoted the plantation system 23. Rice growing areas 24. An Agricultural EconomySugar Cane Where Louisiana and Texas Effect required expensive irrigation and drainagesystems promoted the plantation / slavery systemThis is where Napoleon had wanted togrow sugar cane 25. Sugar cane growing areas 26. An Agricultural EconomyTobacco Where Virginia, North Carolina, and Kentucky Effect Usually grown on small farms Labor intensive. Needed slaves 27. Tobacco growing areas 28. An Agricultural EconomyLivestock (cattle, hogs, oxen, horses,mules) Areas Many different places in the South Usually where soil / climate was not goodenough for growing crops. Effect Most American cattle were raised in theSouth. 29. Cattle, mules, horses,hogs, oxen raising areas 30. Limited Industry 31. Limited Industry6. How was the South economicallydependent on the North (and Europe)? Sold its cotton to Northern factories Borrowed money from Northern banks Bought tools and machines from theNorth. Bought luxuries from Europe. 32. Limited Industry7. Who was William Gregg and whatdid he do? 33. Limited IndustryOne of the fewSouthernIndustrialistsBuilt a cotton mill inSouth CarolinaModeled it after theLowell MillsHousing for workersGardensSchools 34. Limited Industry8. What were the Treadegar IronWorks One of the few Southern factories Near Richmond VA Made Railroad track Made cannons But mostly it made tools and equipmentfor the Agricultural South 35. Economically Dependent 36. Economically Dependent9. The South lagged behind the Northin developing industry because Planters invested in land and slavesrather than in factories Investing in growing cotton was a sureand fast way to make more money Investing in a factory could be risky andcould take a long time to get yourmoney back. 37. The End 38. Review 39. Review10. Why did cotton planters begin tomove westward? Soil was worn out from years of plantingcotton More land to raise cotton and makemoney. Land in Texas was available. 40. Review11. How did the cotton gin affectslavery in the South Before the cotton gin, slavery was dyingout in the South. It was not profitable to have slaves After the cotton gin, planters could plantas much cotton as they could, butneeded slaves The cotton gin increased the need forslaves 41. Review12. Why did the South have lessindustry than the North? The concentrated on agriculture It was a quick and easy way to makemoney Factories were expensive to build andcould take a long time to make a profit. 42. Review13. IDENTIFY: Eli Whitney 1793 A New Englander that inventedthe cotton gin The cotton gin gave new life to theagricultural South and to slavery It could be argued that if the cotton ginhad not been invented, slavery wouldhave died out and the Civil War wouldnot have happened. 43. Review14. IDENTIFY: Cotton Kingdom A wide area of the deep South of NorthCarolina, South Carolina, Georgia,Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana andTexas, where cotton was the mainsource of making money All social, political and economic activityrevolved around cotton. It dominatedeverything. 44. Cotton Kingdom 45. Review14. IDENTIFY: William Gregg Developed on of the few textile mills inthe South. Modeled it after the Lowell Mills inMassachusetts 46. The End