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The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill Museum Learning Department Copyright © The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity All rights reserved www guyfox org uk The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme TEACHER’S SOURCEBOOK Including: Winston Churchill Resources Leadership Activities Citizenship Activities National Curriculum Links
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  • The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    TEACHERS SOURCEBOOK

    Including:Winston Churchill Resources

    Leadership ActivitiesCitizenship Activities

    National Curriculum Links

  • Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    INTRODUCTIONWe are pleased to introduce Martin Heaney and Kourtney Harper, our workshop developers whose different educationalstrengths merged with great success on this project.

    Martin Heaney is a freelance arts education consultant, researcher and lecturer. He has worked for anumber of years as an actor and theatre director. He is an education consultant devising educationprogrammes for a number of arts organisations including English Touring Theatre, the Oxford Stage Company,the Royal National Theatre, the Half Moon Young People's Theatre and the Guy Fox History Project. He isalso a visiting lecturer in Theatre Education at Goldsmiths College, the University of London and CentralSchool of Speech and Drama.

    Kourtney Harper is the Creative Director of the Guy Fox History Project, an award-winning South Londoneducational charity. In developing the activities and resources for this programme, Kourtney drew upon15 years experience in design, as well as 4 years workshop provision for young people. Her innovativeapproach combines history education with visual arts and information technology.

    Leadership, Winston Churchill, and CitizenshipWe piloted this programme with a Year 9 Class in Stoke Newington, London, during June 2004. The class included28 students, aged 13 and 14 years. While the students engaged at different intellectual levels, the variety and scopeof activities in this programme allowed every student to participate and to develop new skills and awareness ofLeadership, Winston Churchill and Citizenship issues.

    In our workshop delivery, we started with Leadership Activities then moved on to Winston Churchill Activities. Finally,we explored Citizenship. However, with the vast amount of overlap among the subjects, its feasible to change theorder. In fact, we encourage you to chop and change according to your students needs and abilities!

    The Cabinet War Rooms and the Churchill MuseumThe Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms are an amazing source of information about life in Britain during theSecond World War and Winston Churchills life and times.

    The Learning department offers a range of sessions to support the delivery of the Winston Churchill LeadershipProgramme. Sessions are offered every weekday by the Learning team and include illustrated talks, handling workshopsand role play discussions. Should you be unable to visit the department can also offer videoconferences.

    For more information about the Learning departments services see their web site www.iwm.org.uk/cabinetlearning,call 020 7766 0130/0132 or email [email protected]

    We strongly encourage you to visit!

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  • Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    PROGRAMME OVERVIEWIn the Winston Churchill Leadership Programme, we have created a workshop series which willdevelop your students citizenship awareness and skillset. By examining leadership, then applyingthose lessons to Winston Churchills life, students are motivated and equipped to develop campaignswhich fulfill the Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 National Curriculum Citizenship requirements.

    The programme begins with an exploration of leadership (Leadership: Whats the Big Idea? page 9),investigating leadership as an idea, without reference to a specific person. Students consider whichqualities and abilities are needed for different situations, and of these, which ones they recognisein their own lives (Build a Leader, page 10). Additionally,students begin to consider how leadership skills are cultivated,and again, how they can develop these skills for themselves.

    Through visual and dramatic arts activities, as well as facilitateddiscussion, students can expand upon the idea of leadershipand begin to develop their own personal definition of leadership(Activities, page 10).

    Once students have established their definition of leadership. the group examines the life andleadership Winston Churchill. Churchills life makes an excellent case study, not only because he isgenerally acknowledged to be one of historys greatest leaders, but also because it was so well-documented. In our Walk in Churchills Shoes Activity (page 13), students are asked to consider theirown actions when confronted with one of Churchills life choices. Churchills oration makes an idealdeparture point for discussions about Britain during World War II, as well as the development ofkey skills necessary for leadership and citizenship.

    In our Pilot Workshops, we found that students identified with Winston Churchills negative qualities his failure to get into Sandhurst until the third attempt, his stammer, his boredom in school because they (like all of us) have experienced the same sense of failure in their own lives. Yet, theidea that Churchill rose to become Prime Minister, despite his mistakes and foibles, captured theirimagination. After all, if we identify with Churchills negative qualities, we can allow ourselves toidentify with his positive qualities, too!

    After grappling with Winston Churchill and debating leadership, students are asked to Do SOMETHING!,through the development of a campaign (page 19). This citizenship activity encourages students toput into practice the lessons they have learned from the Leadership and Winston Churchill elementsof the programme.

    Throughout the Teachers Sourcebook, thepencil symbol indicates there is a worksheetavailable in our Resources Section. It isfollowed by a circled letter, which is theworksheet page reference.

  • Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

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    Warm-up ExercisesFocus your energy and fire up your imagination. Select from a variety of Drama,Concentration, and Arts Exercises which will kick-start student engagement inyour Leadership, Winston Churchill or Citizenship lesson.

    LeadershipEngage your students in the nuts and bolts of Leadership, including differentideas and qualities of Leadership. Choose from a menu of Leadership Activitiesto develop your lesson, or use one of our Sample Sessions.

    Winston ChurchillLearn about Winston Churchill: his life, his leadership, and his role in Britishhistory. A selection of Activities will bring Churchill to life, through your ownlesson plan or one of our Sample Sessions.

    CitizenshipEncourage your students idealism and pursuit of active citizenship. These activitiesuse elements of Churchills leadership to engage students in the world around them.Follow-up Activities prepare them for turning their ideas into reality.

    National Curriculum LinksWeve linked our Programme Activities to the National Curriculum for you!

    ResourcesInvestigate Winston Churchill, Leadership and Citizenship further with this list ofbooks, websites and resources. This section includes the resources and worksheetsdeveloped for this programme, as well as an audio file of Churchills speeches.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • WARM-UP EXERCISES

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    WARM-UP EXERCISES

    Drama-Based Exercises1. Name and Gesture

    Objective: To get to know names and break the ice!Instruction: Each person in turn steps into the circle says

    his or her name and makes a gesture Repeat the exercisewith everyone copying the name and gesture Encourage each personAsk the rest of the group to listen and to encourage variety of expressiontone of voice accent modulation etcetera

    2. Touch ColourObjective: To break the ice, particularly with more inhibited groups.Instruction: Ask the group to walk around the room in silence The leader calls

    out the name of a colour The group has to touch an item of that colour

    3. Number GameObjective: To prepare for group work, a good ice-breaker.Instruction: Ask the group to walk around the room in silence The leader calls out a number

    Everyone must get into groups of that number Encourage the group to combine withthe people nearest them and not to go to find their friends This exercise is done in silence!

    4. Instant StatuesObjective: To prepare for group work, a good ice-breaker.Instruction: Ask the group to walk around the room in silence The leader asks the group

    to get into smaller groups of s The leader then asks the pair to make a statueThe statue can only have:

    legs touching the floor or leg one bottom (and so on)

    This can be repeated with different pairs or with a larger number with slightly differentinstructions e g leg arms bottom

    5. The Sun Shines OnObjective: To warm up, also a good way to find out likes/ dislikes of the group.Instruction: This exercise works best seated in chairs One person goes into the middle

    He/she must regain a seat by trying to get as many people as possible to move This isdone by calling out a statement which must be true of the person saying it e g :

    The sun shines on anyone who has dark hair The sun shines on anyone wearing trainers ( Etcetera )

    Everyone this sentence applies to must move The person in the middle tries to find a seatand the exercise starts again The person without the chair calls out The sun shines on

    Use these Warm-Up Activities asa prelude to more focused work onLeadership, Churchill or Citizenship,or combine them to form a single

    drama session.

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  • WARM-UP EXERCISES

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    Concentration Exercises1. Last Man Walking

    Objective: To develop focus and concentration.Instructions: The group starts walking ( in silence!)

    The leader calls out a number and only that numberof people keep walking It is important for the group not to talk to keepgood eye contact and think on their feet quickly

    2. The Paper ExerciseObjective: To encourage lateral thinking, listening and team-building.Instructions: Put a large piece of paper on the floor Everyone in the group has to

    keep at least one foot on the floor and be in contact with the piece of paperWatch while the group all try to fit on the piece of paper Fold the paper in halfand repeat the instruction This carries on until someone works out: the groupcan hold the paper in the air and stay in contact with the floor!

    3. Concentration Sit DownObjective: To develop concentration and teamwork through non-verbal communication.Instructions: Get everyone into a circle and keep good eye contact The leader sits down

    and the members of the group must sit down individually If people sit simultaneouslythe group must start over from the beginning Avoid speed for the exercise to work Ittakes longer with a bigger group

    4. Concentration Stand UpAs above but this time if two people stand up simultaneously the exercise starts again

    Arts Exercises1. Take Your Pencil for a Walk

    Objective: To develop sensitivity with art materials.Equipment: A sheet of paper and a pencil

    Instructions: With eyes closed the groupdraws the narrative as the leaderdescribes it For example I waswalking in the grass when suddenlyI bumped into a wall Ouch! I felt myway along the rough wall until Icame to some steps I slowly walkeddown the steps but I tripped and tumbled

    etcetera Everyone should express the narrators activity with their pencilsFollowing the activity everyone looks at their drawing to see the various line qualities:dark light squiggly angularA great starting point for a discussion about line pressure and sensitivity

    You could use these exercises as alternativelearning tools to support classroom-based

    learning sessions.

    These exercises focus on LOOKING ratherthan DRAWING. The results may or may

    not look good! Thats okay! We have designedthese exercises to help your students get

    past the I cant draw stage.

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    2. Drawing Without LookingObjective: To draw what you see.Equipment: sheets of paper a piece of sticky tape and a pencil

    Instructions: Everyone should tape one piece of paper over the top of the other to actas a cover sheet The leader identifies an object in the room ( perhaps a still life ) and thegroup draws what they see without peeking! This may be the first time they have evertruly looked at something and they should be encouraged NOT to peek at their drawingThe result doesnt matter but the LOOKING does!

    3. Upside-Down, Topsy-TurvyObjective: To draw what you see.Equipment: Postcard or photocopied artwork for each student Paper and pencil

    Instructions:This exercise simplifies the drawing of complicated subjects Students shouldturn the image upside down and draw what they see ( It works best if students dont seethe image correct side up until the end of the exercise ) Turning the image upside downreduces it to a series of lines which students will find easy to draw on their paper At theend of the exercise it is fun to turn it right side up and look how well the drawings haveturned out

    4. Pass the PictureObjective: To loosen up your drawing style and work as a group.Equipment: Paper and pencil

    Instructions: Split the large group into smaller groups sitting together at separate tablesThe leader has an image in mind for the groups to create for example an elephant Hetells the group what the image will be then he shouts out instructions for drawing theelephant step by step Everyone in the group draws Step One and then passes the sheetof paper to the left; then everyone draws Step Two on the sheet which has just beenpassed to him or her At the end of the exercise its fun to compare the results

    5. Quick Draw!Objective: To loosen up your drawing style and develop ideas.Equipment: Paper and pencil

    Instructions: The leader has a series of statements for example the cow jumped overthe moon which he shouts out Each student has seconds to illustrate the statementIt is important that this exercise is done quickly and that students draw quickly

    6. Quick Draw! ( Part Two )Objective: To loosen up your drawing style and develop ideas. To practice illustrating abstractideas and qualities.Equipment: Pencil and paper

    Instructions: The leader has a series of qualities or emotions ( eg communicationstubborn egotistical ) which he calls out Students should illustrate the essence of thatquality or abstract idea but not necessarily as an image They should be encouraged tolet their pencil EXPRESS the quality itself or how the quality makes them feel ratherthan to draw an image of the idea For example stubborn may just be a strong blackline across the page ( To save paper have the group subdivide their sheets before the

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    LEADERSHIPBefore engaging your students on the Big Idea of Leadership, consider Leadership for yourself!

    Leadership in EducationLeadership in Education is a growing area of research The drive towards higher standardshas created interest in the role of leaders to bring about change in the school environmentLeaders are seen at best as a magic panacea to bring about improvement in failing schoolsand by others as brokers and enablers of change in other people The speed of change ineducation along with a series of governmentreforms has introduced new pressures onschool leaders to manage complex processesand has begun a trend where the head teacheris often referred to in managerial terms asa managing director or chief executive

    In the current educational climate there ismore emphasis on the role of the school leaderas a broker of change capable of coping withcomplex processes and recognizing the keyrole of the head as a politically astute andemotionally attuned change agent Thecurrent view of school leadership recognizesthe current climate within which headteachers operate and the roles rapidlychanging nature So what does effectiveschool leadership look like?

    Riley ( : ) suggests that:

    there is no one package for schoolleadership no one model to be learnedand applied regardless of culture orcontext though leadership can bedeveloped and nurtured;

    school leadership is more than theeffort of a single individual;

    school leadership is not static;

    school leaders do not learn how to doleadership: they are often rule breakersand are willing to change in responseto new sets of circumstances[Riley in Harris ( : )]

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    What Kind of Leader are YOU?What model of leadership is followed in your school?These are complex questions but a growing body ofliterature provides some interesting reading tostimulate your thinking around the increasinglyimportant subject of school leadership. Alma Harris,writing in The Changing Context of Leadership( 2003 ) offers a useful overview of the sector,( and a guide to further reading ). She identifiesthree major types of school leadership:

    Transactional Leadership: Concerned largelywith structures, emphasizing organizationalpurposes rather than people, requiring aleadership approach that transforms otherpeoples feelings and attitudes.

    Transformational Leadership: Transformationalleaders not only manage structure but theypurposefully impact upon the culture in orderto change it, changing the leader-followerrelationship to empower others.

    Post-Transformational Leadership: A reflective,highly principled form of leadership whichinvests in inviting others into dispersedleadership structures

    This latter category takes into the field of educationtheory, knowledge that has been widely acceptedwithin the commercial sector for some time: thattraditional, command and control leadership nolonger fits the management of complex organizations.

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

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    Leadership : Whats the Big Idea?While brainstorming Leadership : Whats the Big Idea? for ourselves, we devised a rule: Avoiddiscussing a specific person. We felt it would be patronising to our students to identify someone weenvisioned as a role model, only to fall into the trap of promoting celebrity. After all, the purpose ofthis programme is to encourage students to think of THEMSELVES as leaders or potential leaders.

    QUESTIONS FOR YOUR STUDENTSOur brainstorm resulted in these questions about leadership, leading, and being led.

    Are leadership skills something youre born with, or something you develop? In what situations can you find leadership in your life? (Home, school church, etc.) When people talk about he showed great leadership, what does that mean to you? What are the key requirements for leadership? (You cant lead people who wont be led.) What makes a leader? What makes a good leader? What is the role of ethics / morality in leadership? After all, you can lead people in an unethical

    direction, and it still makes you a leader. But does it make you a good leader? What are the different types of leadership? What skills are necessary to each one? It is a common idea that leaders have power. But which comes first, power or leadership?

    Can one exist without the other? Can you be a leader without power? Can you havepower without being a leader? Can you cultivate qualities of power?

    What is the relationship between celebrity and leadership?

    QUOTATIONS FOR CONSIDERATIONWe also considered a number of quotations on leadership. There are countless quotations aboutleadership, which you can find on the internet.

    A man who wants to lead the orchestra must turn his back on the crowd. James CrookThe man who follows a crowd will never be followed by a crowd. R.S. DonnellLeaders arent born, theyre made. And they are made just like everything else, through

    hard work. Vince LombardiThe penalty of leadership is loneliness. H. Wheeler RobinsonThe best leaders of all, the people know not they exist. They turn to each other and

    say, we did it ourselves. Zen sayingIt is a terrible thing to look over your shoulder when you are trying to lead and find

    no one there. Franklin Delano RooseveltA great man is not someone who would die nobly for a cause, but someone who would

    live humbly for it. Martin Luther King Junior

    We found the discussions around the philosophy of leadership were among the most heated andengaging of the entire programme.

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES

    Discussion & Arts ActivitiesL1. Build a Leader

    Objective: To explore various situations requiringdifferent types of leadership skills and qualities.Divide the class into small groups and give each group

    a scenario to discuss ( scenarios are provided )Students should identify a plan for the leader in eachscenario and explore the qualities and skills requiredAt the end of the activity each group feeds backtheir list of skills and qualities From this feedback the class can make a list of LeadershipSkills and Qualities Use this list to debate the most important qualities and skills

    L2. Leadership Skills & QualitiesObjective: To visually express leadership skills and qualities.Using the list of leadership qualities developed in Exercise L ( Build a Leader ) students

    choose the quality they feel is most important in leadership They create an image toillustrate that quality The illustration can be literal or figurative a cartoon an abstractionor an expression drawing ( See Warm up Exercise Quick Draw! Part ) Studentsshould endeavour to illustrate the quality so that it is obvious to the viewer Followingcompletion students should be prepared to defend their choice and explain their illustrations

    L3. Leadership EquationsObjective: To explore the various qualities of leadership.This exercise follows on from Exercise Students

    work either individually or in groups Debating andthen selecting the most important qualities fromthe Leadership Qualities and Skills list the groupproduces a visual expression for leadership Whencomplete the groups should share their equations and the class shoulddiscuss the various combinations Are there common elements in eachequation? What are they? Are the leadership equations appropriate incertain situations only or would they work in any circumstance?

    L4. Leadership ModelsObjective: To discuss different types of leadership.This is a teacher led explanation of the various models of Leadership We

    have provided hard copies of the models in the Resources section of thispacket which can be enlarged or copied as posters for the class Youshould fully explain each model and include examples of that particularmodel Encourage your students to debate and discuss the various typesof leadership Do these models cover every type of leadership?

    Youll find the worksheets and supportingmaterials for these exercises in theRESOURCES section of this guide!

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    Throughout the Teachers Sourcebook, thepencil symbol indicates there is a worksheetavailable in our Resources Section. It isfollowed by a circled letter, which is theworksheet page reference.

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    Drama ActivitiesL5. Palm Follow

    Objective: To develop concentration. To prepare to explore leadership.Divide the class into pairs One of the pair is A the leader One is B the follower A and B

    hold their palms inches apart A moves his / her hands in slow motion B follows A withhis / her palm They then reverse roles

    L6. Obstacle CourseObjective: To develop concentration. To prepare to explore leadership.Build an obstacle course in the classroom with chairs and tables Divide the class into pairs

    The As are blindfolded Selecting a few pairs to start with Bs position themselves on theopposite side of the obstacle course The task is for Bs to get their partners across theobstacle course without bumping into anything or anyone

    L7. Build a Leader StatueObjective: To develop concentration. To prepare to explore leadership.Following on from Warm up Exercise ( Instant Statues ) ask students to discuss briefly

    then show in statue form what they have identified as a key quality of leadership Thisexercise can be repeated in different forms e g to show the relationship between theleader and the led

    Discussion points: What sort of leadership was present in these activities? In what situations is this type of leadership found? Do you have any of these leadership qualities?

    L8. Agree / DisagreeObjective: To respond to an issue and articulate different points of view. It is useful as anopener for discussion-based activities.Instruction: Ask the group to imagine a line running through the room facing a particular

    direction It is like a spectrum Students can place themselves at one end of the spectrumif they agree with the given statement or at the other end if they disagreewith it or of course at any point in between These statements refer toleadership ( and are only the beginning! Add yours too!

    Different situations call for different types of leaders.The most important leadership skill is good communication.Leaders should never go against the crowds opinion.Leaders have to be top dog.

    Encourage students to think about their ownpoint of view and position themselves onthe line without discussion Feedback some or all of the viewpoints one at atime without wider discussion until every point of view has been voiced

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    Try Agree / Disagree with statementsabout Churchill or Citizenship, too!

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

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    SAMPLE SESSIONS

    Sample Session 1

    A. Warm-Up Exercise(s) of Your Choice ( see pages 4 to 6 ) 5 to 10 minutes

    B. Whats the Big Idea? : Introduction & Discussion of Leadership 10 to 15 minutes

    C. Build a Leader ( Exercise #L1 ) 30 to 40 minutes

    D. Leadership Skills & Qualities ( Exercise #L2 ) 10 minutesAlternative: Statue Build ( Leadership Exercise #L7 )

    Close the session with a plug for the next session. Give the students something to thinkabout, for example: Which qualities and skills are necessary in various leadership situations?In our next session, well continue to explore leadership skills and qualities!

    Sample Session 2

    A. Warm-Up Exercise(s) of Your Choice ( see pages 4 to 6 ) 5 to 10 minutesB. Palm Follow ( Exercise # L5 ) & Obstacle Course ( Exercise #L6 ) 10 minutesC. Leadership Equations ( Exercise # L3 ) 15 to 20 minutesD. Agree / Disagree ( Exercise #L8 ) 15 to 20 minutes

    If you steer the exercise statements towards the idea of differenttypes of leadership, it dovetails into a discussion of leadership models.

    E. Leadership Models ( Exercise #L4 ) 10 minutesThis discussion is meant to dovetail into the Walk in Churchills ShoesExercise in the Winston Churchill section of the programme.Encourage students to consider the idea that different situationsdemand different leadership.

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    WINSTON CHURCHILLMany of your students will have no knowledge of Winston Churchill.We recommend you find images and resources about Winston Churchill,which you can refer to during these activities. Perhaps you can createa Winston Churchill bulletin board or display in the classroom. ExploringWinston Churchill would make an interesting class exercise as aprelude to our programme of activities.

    WINSTON CHURCHILL ACTIVITIES

    WC1. Winston Churchill Fact FileObjective: To present Winston Churchills life and eccentricities.This booklet is an excellent bite sized resource about the life and leadership of Winston

    Churchill It includes a timeline of his life excerpts from his speeches and interesting factsUse it during workshops or as supplemental material for students to take home

    WC2. Walk in Winston Churchills ShoesObjective: To engage in Winston Churchills life story and life choices.NB. The exercise is included within the Winston Churchill Fact File.We present ten episodes from Churchills life which were moments of truth Students are

    asked to put themselves in Winston Churchills shoes to empathize with his situationand to decide on a course of action or come up witha good solution Students should be encouraged todebate their ideas All ideas and suggestions shouldbe written on the board and students can discussthe ramifications of various actions

    Following the discussion of each episode reveal theaction that Churchill took The class should discusswhat leadership qualities were required Refer tothe Leadership Models ( Exercise L ) What typeof leadership did Churchill show in each situation?

    WC3. Visit to the Churchill Museum and Cabinet War RoomsObjective: To learn about and consider the challenges faced by the British population andChurchill during the Second World War.During a visit to the Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms students consider issues

    related to Churchills leadership through the Lifeline activity and learn about Churchillslife and times including the conditions under which he worked during the Second WorldWar When booking a visit please request the Lifeline worksheets The Learning departmentalso offers a range of sessions exploring Churchills wartime leadership and life during theSecond World War To discuss your needs or to book a visit please contact the Learningdepartment on / or email cwr [email protected] org uk

    History.Key Stage 3.

    Objective 2, 4, 5,7, and 13.

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    Winston Churchill Leadership Programme

    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    or WC3a. Discussion of Britain at War & Churchill as Prime MinisterObjective: To learn about and consider the challenges faced by the British population andChurchill during the Second World War.The Learning department at the Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms offer a

    videoconference session through which life during the Second World War and Churchillsleadership can be discussed Students will need to prepare presentations on specificsubjects for the videoconference

    To book a videoconference please contact the Learning department or use the online bookingfacilities at www global leap com

    WC4. The Big Why? Voting ExerciseObjective: To explore the campaign process.NB. This exercise follows up the visit to the Cabinet War Rooms or discussion about 1940sBritain.Begin with a discussion about the conditions which people endured during World War II

    eg rationing Then ask students to write a reply to this question:

    WHY DID THE PEOPLE FOLLOW CHURCHILL?

    Students write their answers on ballots and place them in the ballot box Pick out a selectionof responses read them out and the person who wrote them must defend it After his /her defence the class discusses its merits Did the person stand up staight? Speak clearly?Make eye contact with voters? Was he or she convincing? Why or why not? Would youfollow this leader? The student then can improve his or her campaign speech to try toget the class to vote for his or herresponse

    The class makes a second ballot andstudents must vote for one of thereasons which has been defendedThe results are discussed Did the best reasonwin? Or did the most popular student win? Are the election results just?

    Part Two: The Second BallotIn the second part of the exercise the leader asks the question:

    IF HE WAS SUCH A GREAT LEADER WHY DID PEOPLE VOTE AGAINSTHIM IN ?

    The process for the balloting is the same with discussion about Churchills wartime leadershipChurchills loss in the general election is one of historys great debates

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    In our Pilot Programme, the voters elected the student whopromised everyone chocolate! It was a perfect opportunityto discuss campaign promises especially when the student

    did not follow through on his chocolate bribe!

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    WC5. Winston Churchills SpeechesIn addition to the worksheet in the Resources Section, please download the audio file,WCHURCHILL.mp3, which can be used for this exercise.

    Objective: To listen, read and engage with Churchills oration.NB. This exercise ties in well with Speech-Making & Oration ( Exercise #CZ1 ).

    We have provided excerpts from Winston Churchillsspeeches Prior to engaging in the Citizenship orationexercises it is worth discussing the speeches in theircontext Encourage students to listen as if they wereactually living in the UK in the sNotice Churchills slight speech impediment themodulation of his voice his lengthy and punchysentences and his use of metaphors / imagery tocarry his point Critique his delivery his clarity andhis objective Would he convince you if he wasarguing against your point of view?

    Extension Activity: Have students illustrate Churchills metaphors and images as he speaks.

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    Throughout the Teachers Sourcebook, thepencil symbol indicates there is a worksheetavailable in our Resources Section. It isfollowed by a circled letter, which is theworksheet page reference.

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    SAMPLE SESSIONS

    Sample Session 1A. Warm-Up Exercise(s) of Your Choice ( see pages 4 to 6 ) 5 to 10 minutesB. Winston Churchill Fact File ( Exercise #WC1 ) 10 to 15 minutesC. Walk in Winston Churchills Shoes ( Exercise #WC2 ) 40 to 50 minutesTo arrange a visit to the Cabinet War Rooms, call 020 7766 0130/0132 or email [email protected]

    Sample Session 2A. Discussion of Conditions in Great Britain during World War II 20 minutes

    ( Exercise #WC3 )B. The Why? Voting Exercise ( Exercise #WC4 ) 40 minutesC. Winston Churchills Speeches ( Exercise #WC5 ) 20 minutes

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

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    CITIZENSHIPCITIZENSHIP ACTIVITIES

    CZ1. Speech-Making & OrationOration was one of Churchills greatest skills, and arguably, a keyquality for leadership. The role of an active citizen demands theability to articulate ones position and to persuade others.

    Objectives: To exploreunderstanding of the

    power of the spokenword as an attribute of leadership. To develop students ability to use their voices effectively. To build confidence in voicing opinions within groups. To further students awareness of Churchill as a skilled orator and leader.

    A. Vocalise It!Ask students to form a circle facing out from the middle ( to avoid eye contactand focus on listening and the voice ) Ask students to think of two adjectivesto describe themselves In turn students introduce themselves from their positionin the circle ( e g I am John and I am helpful and hard working ) Ask studentsto repeat the exercise this time facing into the circle

    Citizenship.Key stage 3.Objective 3a.

    Key Stage 4.Objective 3a.

    Drama, Leadership & CitizenshipCitizenship programmes develop skills of communication, encouraging participation and responsibleaction. Students can explore leadership within a curricular framework in relation to issues ofcitizenship and participation. Leaders decisions have consequences in our government, in shapingour rights and responsibilities, in how we organize our communities. How do we respond to decisionsthat are taken in our name? How do we influence those decisions? How do we become leaders?

    Exercises in this section can be used to develop an understanding of leadership issues within abroader framework of social responsibility. Citizenship programmes commonly promote negotiatedunderstandings of response to wider social issues. Drama is a particularly effective tool of enquiryin these programmes as it can encourage:

    Empathy: Students imagine different perspectives & attitudes as a prelude to debate

    Debate & Participation: Students create structures for debate and explore complexissues & different perspectives in addressing human and social dilemmas

    Exploring Winston Churchills oration may bemore effective later in the workshop programme.You may find it better to develop other areasof work before embarking on this exercise.

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    B. Orate!NB. In preparation for this Activity, transcribe the speech excerpts found on Worksheet Eonto separate sheets of paper.Ask students to face out of the circle again Place a card face down in front of each student

    The card carries a very short phrase from a chosen speech e g one of Churchills wartimespeeches Ask students to pick up the card in silence In turn students read out their cardsThe activity can be repeated to increase volume clarity conviction etc until studentsare familiar with the text

    C. Drop the Card and Run!NB. In preparation for this Activity, transcribe the speech excerpts found on WorksheetE onto separate sheets of paper.

    Line the class up in rows of four as if for a race Ask students to run to a finish line andrelease their Churchill speech excerpt as loudly as they can join the back of the queue andrepeat ( This exercise is a great means for students to build up confidence in delivery andletting go of inhibitions!)

    D. Being a good oratorNB. In preparation for this Activity, transcribe thespeech excerpts found on Worksheet E onto separatesheets of paper.In this activity students read out a phrase ( or a slightly

    extended version ) from a card in front of the wholeclass as if addressing an audience from a stage

    After each student has read their phrase out discuss: What do we remember? What keyphrases or words stood out? What would improve communication?

    Coaching Ask individuals to pair up and coach each other to improve their deliveryRepeat the phrases in front of the whole class What do we notice? What has improved?

    E. Churchills SpeechesNB. This Activity uses the WCHURCHILL.mp3 audio file.Listen to selected excerpts of Churchills speeches

    Discuss key resonant leadership qualities How does Churchill make his speeches effective?Discuss speech patterns e g alliteration brevity imagery used What similarities werethere in delivery between students presentations and the audio excerpts?

    F. Oration. Extended Activity.After giving background information on the context of Churchills speech ask the class to

    imagine that they are in the same situation as Churchill e g rallying the country afterthe defeat at Dunkirk How would they respond? What message would they want toconvey?

    Ask the groups to write a speech reflecting Churchills delivery and present it to the class

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    CZ2. Political Corners Whats Your Response?Objective: To explore how people respond to decisions made by their leaders.

    i Divide the room into corners representing four responses to unfairauthority:

    Do nothing Persuade the powerful Non violent direct action Violent direct action

    ii Introduce the subject: an unfair situation ( e g at school in theplayground within society ) The group reflects on strategies to challenge the unfairness

    iii In three groups the class discusses activities that might take place in corners and Ideas can be written on charts set up by the appropriate corners ( e g writing

    a petition protest ): Groups rotate so that they put ideas on all three sheets

    iv Different strategies and ideas are read out Individuals go to the corner that bestrepresents their views In groups they create a sculpture (tableau) in the corner todescribe and show their feelings about the action that they are taking

    reflect on what they see in the images What is being represented? How do peoplefeel? The sculpture (tableau) actors then tell us what they feel and what they aretrying to represent

    A. Follow-Up Discussion What are the consequences of the

    action chosen? Why do people choose that kind of action to

    respond to misuse of power? What kind of action is most likely

    to create change? Which action will be most effective? Is there a consensus about the course of

    action to follow?

    B. Extension ActivityThe class chooses the most effective way to create

    change In groups they show the first stage ofa campaign to bring reform about

    C. Discussion What further action is necessary to bring about

    a reversal of the situation of abuse of power orleadership?

    What skills were needed to organize an effectiveresponse to the situation?

    [ This activity is adapted from exercises describedby Danny Braverman in Playing a Part: dramaand citizenship ( ) Trentham]

    More Ideas!Courtroom Drama:

    Put Your Leaders on Trial!Courtrooms are useful settings to explorecomplex moral questions and leadershipissues Role play can explore differentarguments around key decisions and can beextended to include prosecutors defencecounsel and jury

    Current LeadersHow does Churchill compare withcontemporary political leaders? Make a listof his characteristics and compare them withrecent or current politicians Explore themedia interpretation of these charactersHow would you represent these characterson stage? What slogans catch phrases orindividual traits would you show?

    Leadership Wish ListList all the positive features of ChurchillHow would you recreate these qualities ina modern leader? What characteristicswould you choose for this ideal leader?How would you convey them to the public?

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    The courses of actionrequire careful

    explanation! You may wishto substitute the termviolent with legal or

    permitted.

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    CZ3. Do SOMETHING! CampaignObjectives: To encourage students to:

    Consider leadership roles in developing a campaign. Develop team building & problem-solving skills.

    A. Whats your Argument?i Through facilitated discussion identifykey issues for which students wouldlike to campaign Establish workinggroups groups of five or six areoptimal

    ii Ask the groups to consider the following factors in their campaigns: The key campaign issue(s) to be addressed The audiences that need to be targeted Campaign and media tools Leadership skills Major obstacles that the campaign may encounter A slogan for the campaign

    B. Make Your ArgumentAsk students to write a short speech to use to address a key audience acknowledgingkey obstacles for progress and stating the campaigns vision

    Students should present the speech to the class: Stating the issue Arguments / counter arguments Campaign tools Slogan and speech

    C. Extended Activities - Creating an Ideal LeaderAsk students to prepare job specifications which detail

    campaign roles and leadership qualities required

    D. Whole Class Campaignsi Ask students to identify an issue that they would all like to campaign for This might be

    of local or school interest or for example a global environment issue

    ii Using a range of resources students investigate key aspects of the issue and share findingswith the whole class

    Task the groups with one or more of the following:

    Getting Publicity: drawing up slogans and identifying key issues of the campaign Designing a petition: What questions need to be asked? Writing a letter to a celebrity to ask for their involvement Writing a press release Designing a campaign website or poster

    Citizenship.Key Stage 3.

    Objectives 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c.

    Key Stage 4.Objectives 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c.

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    This activity allowsstudents to explore issuesthat they feel passionatelyabout and to reflect onand develop appropriateskills to take these issues

    into the public arena.

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

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    SAMPLE SESSIONS

    Sample Session 1

    A. Warm-Up Exercise(s) of Your Choice ( see pages 4 to 6 ) 5 to 10 minutes

    B. Do SOMETHING! Campaign 50 to 60 minutes

    The Do SOMETHING! exercise was piloted in a two-hour session, but it has thescope to be a long-term exercise ( over a few weeks ) with a group which really wants todevelop their campaigns.

    Sample Session 2

    A. Student Presentations / Campaigns 15 minutes per presentation

    Follow up each presentation with a class critique. Discuss the viability of the campaign - havethe students considered all the necessary parts of their campaign and executed them well?

    NB. If your students are motivated to take their campaign to the next level, there are manysources of support and funding. The Guy Fox History Project can help your students find resources.Contact us at [email protected] or through www.guyfox.org.uk.

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    NATIONAL CURRICULUM LINKSCitizenship Key Stage 3 www.nc.uk.net/nc/contentsTeaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired and appliedwhen developing skills of enquiry and communication and participation and responsible action During Key Stage students study reflect upon and discuss topical political spiritual moral social and cultural issues problems and events

    They learn to identify the role of the legal political religious social and economic institutions and systems that influencetheir lives and communities They continue to be actively involved in the life of their school neighbourhood and widercommunities and learn to become more effective in public life They learn about fairness social justice respect fordemocracy and diversity at school local national and global level and through taking part responsibly in communityactivities

    Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens) students should be taught about:

    a) the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society basic aspects of the criminal justice systemand how both relate to young people

    b) the diversity of national regional religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need formutual respect and understanding

    c) central and local government the public services they offer and how they are financed and the opportunitiesto contribute

    d) the key characteristics of parliamentary and other forms of governmente) the electoral system and the importance of votingf) the work of communitybased national and international voluntary groupsg) the importance of resolving conflict fairlyh) the significance of the media in societyi) the world as a global community and the political economic environmental and social implications of this

    and the role of the European Union the Commonwealth and the United Nations

    Developing skills of enquiry and communication) students should be taught to:

    a) think about topical political spiritual moral social and cultural issues problems and events by analysinginformation and its sources including ICTbased sources

    b) justify orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues problems or eventsc) contribute to group and exploratory class discussions and take part in debates

    Developing skills of participation and responsible action) students should be taught to:

    a) use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about express and explainviews that are not their own

    b) negotiate decide and take part responsibly in both school and communitybased activitiesc) reflect on the process of participating

    Citizenship Key Stage 4 www.nc.uk.net/nc/contentsTeaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired andapplied when developing skills of enquiry and communication and participation and responsible action During KeyStage students continue to study think about and discuss topical political spiritual moral social and cultural issuesproblems and events They study the legal political religious social constitutional and economic systems that influencetheir lives and communities looking more closely at how they work and their effects They continue to be activelyinvolved in the life of their school neighbourhood and wider communities taking greater responsibility They developa range of skills to help them do this with a growing emphasis on critical awareness and evaluation They developknowledge skills and understanding in these areas through for example learning more about fairness social justicerespect for democracy and diversity at school local national and global level and through taking part in communityactivities

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    Citizenship Key Stage 4 (continued)

    Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens) students should be taught about:

    a) the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizensincluding the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems

    b) the origins and implications of the diverse national regional religious and ethnic identities in the UnitedKingdom and the need for mutual respect and understanding

    c) the work of parliament the government & the courts in making and shaping the lawd) the importance of playing an active part in democratic and electoral processese) how the economy functions including the role of business and financial servicesf) the opportunities for individuals and voluntary groups to bring about social change locally nationally in Europe

    and internationallyg) the importance of a free press and the media's role in society including the internet in providing information

    and affecting opinionh) the rights and responsibilities of consumers employers and employeesi) the United Kingdom's relations in Europe including the European Union and relations with the Commonwealth

    and the United Nations

    Developing skills of enquiry and communication) students should be taught to:

    a) research a topical political spiritual moral social or cultural issue problem or event by analysing informationfrom different sources including ICT based sources showing an awareness of the use and abuse of statistics

    b) express justify and defend orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues problems or events

    Developing skills of participation and responsible action) students should be taught to:

    a) use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about express explain andcritically evaluate views that are not their own

    b) negotiate decide and take part responsibly in school and community based activitiesc) reflect on the process of participating

    History Key Stage 3 www.nc.uk.net

    Knowledge, skills and understandingChronological understanding

    ) students should be taught to recognise and make appropriate use of dates vocabulary and conventions thatdescribe historical periods and the passing of time

    Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past) students should be taught:

    to describe and analyse the relationships between the characteristic features of the periods and societies studiedincluding the experiences and range of ideas beliefs and attitudes of men women and children in the past

    about the social cultural religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied both in Britain and the widerworld

    to analyse and explain the reasons for and results of the historical events situations and changes in the periodsstudied

    to identify trends both within and across different periods and links between local British European and worldhistory

    to consider the significance of the main events people and changes studied

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    Historical interpretation) students should be taught:

    how & why historical events people situations & changes have been interpreted in different ways to evaluate interpretations

    Historical enquiry) students should be taught to:

    identify select and use a range of appropriate sources of information including oral accounts documentsprinted sources the media artefacts pictures photographs music museums buildings and sites and ICTbased sources as a basis for independent historical enquiries

    evaluate the sources used select and record information relevant to the enquiry and reach conclusions

    Organisation and communication) students should be taught to:

    recall prioritise and select historical information accurately select and use chronological conventions and historical vocabulary appropriate to the periodsstudied to organise historical information communicate their knowledge and understanding of history using a range of techniques including spokenlanguage structured narratives substantiated explanations and the use of ICT

    Breadth of study) During the key stage students should be taught the knowledge skills and understanding through three British

    studies a European study and two world studies) In their study of local British European and world history students should be taught about:

    significant events people and changes from the recent and more distant past history from a variety of perspectives including political religious social cultural aesthetic economic

    technological and scientific aspects of the histories of England Ireland Scotland and Wales where appropriate the history of Britain in its European and wider world context some aspects in overview and others in depth

    A world study after 1900 ) A study of some of the significant individuals events and developments from across the twentieth century

    including the two World Wars the Holocaust the Cold War and their impact on Britain Europe and the widerworld

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    The Winston Churchill Leadership Programme was developed in association with the Churchill MuseumLearning Department Copyright The Guy Fox History Project Registered Charity

    All rights reserved www guyfox org uk

    RESOURCESLeadership ResourcesFullan, Michael. Leading in a Culture of Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.Harris, Alma. The Changing Context of School Leadership in Effective Leadership for School

    Improvement. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

    Winston Churchill ResourcesBooksSir Winston Churchill. Pitkin Guide, Jarrold Publishing, ISBN 0 85372 498 9.Winston Churchill, From Army Officer to World Leader. (Twentieth-Century History Makers Series)

    Written by Simon Adams. Franklin Watts, ISBN 074964692 6.Churchill. Written by Celia Sandys. Contender Entertainment Group, ISBN 1843570491.Churchill The War Leader 1940 1945. Documents from Winston Churchills government. Public

    Record Office, ISBN 1873162685.Winston Churchill : A Brief Life. Written by Piers Brendon. Random House, ISBN 0712667733.

    Audio RecordingsWinston Churchill: Wartime Speeches 1939 1945. Audio CD of Winston Churchills speeches.

    Universal Music Company, ISBN 1858498309.Winston Churchill: 25 Years of His Speeches 1918 1943 ( Volume 2 ). Audio CD of Winston

    Churchills speeches. Universal Music Company, ISBN 1858498511.Winston Churchill: Memoirs and Speeches ( Volume 3 ). Audio CD of Winston Churchills speeches.

    Universal Music Company, ISBN 1858498767.

    Websiteswww.cwr.co.uk

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    Citizenship ResourcesWebsites

    UNICEF http://www.unicefusa.org

    Prevent Genocide http://www.preventgenocide.org

    Genocide Watch http://www.genocidewatch.org

    OXFAM http://www.oxfam.org.uk

    Fairtrade http://www.fairtradefederation.com

    http://www.fairtrade.org.uk

    Christian Aid http://www.christianaid.org.uk

    Action Aid http://www.actionaid.org

    http://www.actionaid.org.uk

    People & Planet http://www.peopleandplanet.org.uk

    NSPCC http://www.nspcc.org.uk

    ECPAT http://www.ecpat.net/eng/index.asp

    First Book http://www.firstbook.org

    People & Planet http://www.peopleandplanet.net

    RSPCA http://www.rspca.org.uk

    People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals http://www.peta.org.uk

    Charity Commission http://www.charitycommission.gov.uk

    Millennium Commission http://www.unltd.org.uk

    A World Connected http://www.aworldconnected.org

    How to Change the World http://www.howtochangetheworld.org

    Make a Difference Day http://www.csv.org.uk

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