The Tudors Dinasty
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Transcript of The Tudors Dinasty
Nina Rojas, JanetteQuispe Ccopa, SusanaMuedas, SilvanaGroup E
Tudor times lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603.
One of the most exciting periods in English History , it was a period of great change.
Henry VIII is crowned King of England in succession to his father Henry VII who started the dynasty of Tudor family.
This dynasty was founded by Henry VII and Isabel Plantagenet from Lancaster and York Houses.
This was a period of significant changes for majority of the rural population.
The population growth began to increase after the Black Death pandemic in Europe and the agricultural depression.
The exportation of woolen products increased specially to mainland Europe.
Henry VII negotiated Intercursus Magnus Treaty in 1496. (Commercial treaty)
However in the late 14th and early 15th century had low wages and a land shortage.
IMPACT OF DISSOLUTIONREVENUE COURTS ROLE OF WINCHESTERIMPACT OF WAR
The Tudor Government raised a huge amount of revenue from the dissolution of the monasteries.The King received The Clerical income from first fruits and Tenths ( Before to Pope ).The Tudor Government gained further revenue from Clerical lands by receiving rents from confiscated lands and by selling the lands.
Cromwell created six revenue courts or departments of states to allot the royal income .Each courts had its own officials, equipped with seals and habitat.This new financial system did not work with admirable precision.Its drawback was the multiplication of the departments whose sole unifying was Cromwell and fell on bureaucratic institutions.
Winchester ,The Lord Treasurer, produced further reforms to simplify the arrangements .This reforms united most of the crown`s financed under the exchequers court.The courts of general surveyors and augmentations were fused into a new court of Augmentations.Later this new court of Augmentations absorbed into the exchequer along with the first fruits and tenths.
Henrys war and Somersets war with France and Scotland cost England huge sums of money.They created the Privy Coffers, which was responsible for secret affairs,in particular for the financing war. The Royal Mint was used to generate revenue by debasing the coinage.Under the rule of Northumberland, the wars were brought to an end and The Mint generated revenue after debasement was brought to an end in 1551.
Considered as the last battle of the Wars of the Roses.
After defeating Richard III from the House of York, Henry VII from the House of Lancaster held the throne and married Elizabeth of York.
The Pretender: Lambert Simnel
John received financial and military support from his aunt Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, in the form of 2000 Flemish mercenaries, under the commander Martin Schwartz. Moreover, John was joined by a number of rebel English Lords in Mechelen, most of them Richard III's loyal suporters, such as Lord Lovell, Sir Richard Harleston and Thomas David.
The Yorkist rebellion started on 4 May, 1487. After arriving Dublin, Lincoln (John), recruited 4,500 Irish mercenaries, mostly Kerns, lightly armoured but higly mobile infantry. What is more, Lambert Simnel was crowned King Edward VI in Dublin on 24 May, 1487. When landing, Lincoln recruited more men. The number of the Yorkish army increased up to 8,000.
On 10 June, 1487 at Bramham Moor, Sir Lovell led 2,000 men on a night attack against 400 Lancastrians, led by Clifford. The result was an overwhelming Yorkist victory.
Around nine in the morning of 16 June, King Henry's forward troops, commanded by the Earl of Oxford, encountered the Yorkist army assembled in a single block, on a brow of a hill surrounded on three sides by the River Trent at the village of East Stoke.
In an unusual military manoeuvre, the Yorkists surrendered the high ground by immediately going on to the attack. The battle was bitterly contested for over three hours, but eventually, the lack of body armour on the Irish troops meant that they were cut down in increasing numbers.
Unable to retreat, the German and Swiss mercenaries fought it out. All of the Yorkist commanders: Lincoln, Fitzgerald, Broughton, and Schwartz, fell fighting. Only Lord Lovell escaped and, according to legend, died hidden in a secret room at his house. Simnel was captured, but was pardoned by Henry in a gesture of clemency which did his reputation no harm. Henry realised that Simnel was merely a puppet for the leading Yorkists.
Henry VIII ascended the English throne in 1509 at the age of 17. He made a dynastic marriage with Catherine of Aragon, widow of his brother Arthur, in June 1509, just before his coronation on Midsummer's Day. Unlike his father, who was secretive and conservative, the young Henry appeared to be the epitome of chivalry and sociability.
In 1521 he had defended the Catholic Church from Martin Luther's accusations of heresy in a book he wrote, probably with considerable help from Thomas More, entitled The Defence of the Seven Sacraments, for which he was awarded the title "Defender of the Faith" (Fidei Defensor) by Pope Leo X.
By the late 1520s, Henry wanted to leave his marriage to Catherine annulled, since she had not produced a male heir who survived into adulthood and Henry wanted a son to secure the Tudor dynasty.
Henry claimed that this lack of a male heir was because his marriage was "blighted in the eyes of God", seeing that Catherine had been his late brother's wife.
In 1527 Henry VIII asked Pope Clement VII to annul the marriage, but the Pope refused.
The Reformation Parliament was summoned in 1529 to deal with Henrys annulment.
It was integrated by parties who wanted to remain loyal to the Roman Church and the ones who were seduced by the Lutheran ideas.
In spite of Henry wishes, the Parliament resolved that they could not empower the archbishop to act against the Pope's prohibition.
Therefore, Henry decided to bring down Cardinal Wolsey, his Chancellor. After that, Henry VIII finally resolved to charge the whole English clergy with praemunire a law that forbade obedience to the authority of foreign rulers- in order to secure their agreement to his annulment.
After exhausting and vicious negotiations, Henry and the English Clergy agreed on the following:
1. that the clergy recognize Henry as the "sole protector and Supreme Head of the Church and clergy of England"2. that the King had spiritual jurisdiction3. that the privileges of the Church were upheld only if they did not detract from the royal prerogative and the laws of the realm4. that the King pardoned the clergy for violating the statute of praemunire, and5. that the laity were also pardoned.
Then the break with Rome started.
The Clergy subscribed a submission in which Church renounced all authority to make laws.
Cronwell became Henrys chief minister.
Henry married Anne Boleyn in January 1535 in Westminster Abbey, thanks to Tomas Cranmer, who became Archbishop of Canterburry after the death of Archbishop Warham, greatest oponent of the annulment.
The Pope responded to the marriage by excommunicating both Henry and Cranmer from the Roman Catholic Church (11 July 1533). Henry was to be excommunicated again in December 1538.
Reform brought to England Lutherans ideas such as: three sacraments only baptism, Eucharist and penance.
Wealthy Monasteries were expropriated by 1539 and few Carthusians were killed.
Some Tudor people lived in towns or big Tudor cities like London, Bristol or Norwich. Tudor England was a farming society. Most of the population (over 90 %) lived in small villages and made their living from farming.
It was generally designed for boys of the Upper and Middle classes. The girls who belonged to Royalty or Nobility had access to education too.The less wealthy girls were provided with little education and their skills were focused on life in the home. Above all they would be taught obedience to the male members of the family. Boys education: they started their education at home at the age of 4, at the age of 7, middle class children moved to grammar school while rich children study with private tutors at home.
2 types of school:The Petty School : conducted in a teachers house. Children learnt to read and writeThe Grammar School: Boys learned LatinAt 14, the Tudor education continued at University. There were only 2 universities at that time: Oxford and Cambridge.
Petty SchoolGrammar School
Plays were very popular at Tudors times. There were great playwrights for example: William Shakespeare and Christopher MarloweThe Globe Theatre was built in London at Tudors times and the first royal theatres were built during Elizabeths reign.Rich people enjoyed fencing and jousting contests & hawking.Poor people played a kind of football and hunting
Henry VII (1485-1509)Henry VIII (1509-1547)Edward VII(1547-1553)Jane Grey(July 1553)Mary I(1553-1558)Elizabeth I(1558-1603)
Henry VII (1485-1509)Won the throne at the Battle of Bosworth FieldKing of England and Lord of IrelandFirst monarch of the House of TudorHenry VIII (1509-1547)Second monarch of the House of TudorKnown for his six marriages and his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.Edward VII (1547-1553)Crowned at the age of 9Third monarch of the House of TudorDuring his reign, protestantism was established for the first time in England.Died of tuberculosis at the age of 15
Jane Grey (July 1553)Known as the Nine Days QueenMarried to Lord Guilford Dudley as pa