…THE STORY OF NEO-COLONIALISM? Latin American in the 20 th C.
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THE STORY OF NEO-COLONIALISM?Latin American in the 20th C
Heavily Influenced by:o(1) Lingering 19thc Social Problems(2) Global Developments1910-1920: Mexican Revolution
1920-1950: Democracy Questioned Amidst Great Depression
1950-1965: Cold War & USSRs Progress Champions Communism
1965-present: Cold War & USAs Progress Champions Alternatives
ReviewHistorical Context for 20thcMexico 1300-1910
Lower classes experience little improvement in quality of lifeAs a result, many celebrate indigenous heritageMurals of 20thc reflect Mexicos history & perspective of 20thc
Mexican Revolution via MuralsAs early as 1000 BCE Toltecs and Maya adorned temples and public building with murals. Murals told stories of everyday life (Mexican Realism).
Post-Spanish invasion = Christian murals
Mexican Revolution = native Mexican culture againTeotihuacan
1345 Aztecs built Tenochtitlan at Lake Texcoco
Snake on cloth represents Quetzalcoatl- goddess of creationThe city was an important religious center filled with pyramids topped with templesSlave laborer is identified by simple loin clothMountains and lake provide natural defense of cityImportance of family as mother carries child in rebozoWhat raw materials would be used to create mats?Aztecs called themselves MexicaMoctezuma II 1502Petates, or mats, were woven out of reed
Tenochtitlan Marketplace by Diego Rivera
Spanish ConquestHernan Cortes 1519Aztecs surrender 1521
Winged angel shows partnership of Church and CortesCortes is carrying an iron sword resting on dismembered bodies of Aztec victimAztecs had no metal to match irons strengthFire in background represents widespread destruction of Spanish soldiers and smallpox.What is this?Cortes is a machine symbolic of European technologyConquest by Jose OrozcoSmall pox decimated Aztecs
Video Clip: European Rule (United Streaming)
Absorption of the Indian by Jose OrozcoWhite European, Hernan Cortes, sits with an Indian woman, Malinche. Symbolic of mixing of two groups to create mestizo people.Mestizo make up majority of Mexicans todayDead mestizo shows unhappiness and ill-treatment of mestizoPartnershipYet, restraint many Mexicans consider Mayan Malinche a traitorLegend: Malinche was given to Cortes as a translator later they produced a son
Colonial Domination by Diego RiveraCross, Spanish flag and sword represent colonizationCuauhtemoc, last Aztec emperor, bowing to conquistadorsConquistadores use branding iron to brand Indian slaveBrutal labor of gold minesYoked to plowBag of goldDescribe the European facesEuro faces drawn as animalsHuge land grants given to Spanish - encomiendasRivera attempted to summarize 300 yearsTotal Indian population fell from 25 million to 1 million by 1700
Video Clip: Mexican Independence (United Streaming)
Fight for Liberty by Jose OrozcoMexican Independence 1810-1821Father Hidalgo (killed 1811) against Spanish ruleColor red death and violenceMasses of people popularity of independence movement among Indians and mestizos.Priests collar and cross role of Church in rebellionWhat do you think a fiery machete represent?Machete is symbol of agriculture and fire is revolt.Hidalgo and Father Morelos both executed during war by Mexican creoles (Spanish decedents)Creole Agustin Iturbide then lead independence from Spain, but without reforms of massesCriollos Spanish descent
Independence in early 19thcMexico is in political and economic chaos after independenceRace/Class Structure RemainsCreolesMestizosIndiansAfricansIturbede ousted in 1824 and Mexico becomes a republicSanta Anna is the most dominant political leader.
Mexican-American WarAmericans proclaim independence of TexasMarch 2, 1836French try to take Mexico in 1838.Mexican-American War (1846-1848)Mexico defeated.Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848.California, Texas, Arizona and New Mexico to US.US pays Mexico $15,000,000Property owners assured can keep property
Liberalism Re-Emerges in Late 19thcBenito Juarez elected president in 1858confiscated Church propertysuspended payment of foreign debt in 1861.France, Great Britain, & Spain protest
French occupy MexicoThe French occupy Mexico in 1861 and capture Mexico City in 1863.Louis Napoleon makes Archduke Maximillian Emperor (April 10, 1864)Maximillian was Austrian and never understood MexicoThere were many revoltsMaximillian is captured and executed with the rest of his family.Juarez is restored.
Juaraz 1831-1872 and the Fall of the Empire by Jose OrozcoJuarez - Zapotec Indian - first to bring legitimate reforms to MexicoMexican flag patriotism of middleclassViolent colorsControl of ChurchMachetes in hands of peasants1862 Mexico conquered by France (Napoleon III). Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico. Cinco de Mayo = Mexican victory, though French eventually won war.Juarez leadership came against European intrusion from Spain and France1867- Juarez conquered Mexico City and executed Maximillian Then continued his reforms until his death in 18721855 overthrew dictator Santa Anna, began reforms
Porfirio DiazOrder & progress Stability to industrializeDevelops industry with foreign capitalDevelops railroads with foreign capitalOil IndustryStandard OilBritish Petroleum
Repression History and Perspective of MexicoRepression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule)Note force used to control farmers (land fell into hands of huge hacienda owners).Sickle represents farm workersGovernment forces on horse heavily loaded with weapons1876 Diaz came to power dictator for 34 years.Welcomed foreign investorsPolice enforced Diaz laws
Foreign/Mexican owners discriminated against Mexican Workers & Mexican Middle ClassDid nothing for poorest MestizosNeglected EducationConfiscated ejidos (common land)
Reign of Porfirio DazRuled as a dictatorNew CreolesModernized MexicoMasses suppressedWorking class wages declined95% of rural population did not own any landMestizo population grew rapidly after 1850 Porfirio Daz (1876-1910)
By 1910 large portions of Mexican society fed up with DiazPolitical & social turmoil resultedDisplaysPolitical instability of 19th centuryFailure to fulfill promises of independenceFailure to integrate poor & indigenous Revolution was first and foremost a social movement
Cause: landlessness, oligarchy, foreign influenceCalls for Change: Diaz v. massesMay 25, 1911 Diaz overthrownNov. 6, 1911 Francisco Madero, leader of revolt = PresidentModerate position pleases no one: Madero & assassinationMadero unprepared & lack of land reforms led to open rebellionRadical efforts: Pancho Villa, ZapataModerates return: PRIPRI one party rule, limits foreign ownership, incorporates workers & indigenous into party
Revolution against Porfirian (Porfirio Diaz) Dictatorship 1911 unseated DiazPeasants lost lands and were forced to work on large haciendas for little wage conditions near slaveryGovernment forces used to coerce the farm hands to work.Peasants responded by rebelling against government.
Video Clip: Mexican Revolution (United Streaming)
Emiliano Zapata organized peasants from southern MexicoLand and Liberty
Francisco Pancho Villa - organized peasants from northern MexicoUnderstood new technology (machine guns) & role of media better than mostVilla raids New Mexico Farm on March 9, 1916.Impacts the reaction to the Zimmerman Telegram
RadicalsCan be divided into 2 groups:Agraristas groups led to revolt due primarily to agrarian grievances. Thus, main goal was agrarian reform (e.g. Zapata)Serranos groups led to revolt due to threats to way of life, varied based on region. Main goals included autonomy, political control, cultural independence (e.g. Pancho Villa)Both groups have common ground: they entered into revolution due to expansion under the Porfiriato
The Trench by Jose OrozcoMexican RevolutionBy 1910, dissatisfaction of Diaz regime lead to open revolt.Viva la RevolucionThree soldiers mirroring the Christian Trinity, add religious element to the movementThe carbines and rifle reinforce the atmosphere of revolutionRed violent and bloody nature of 10-year long revolutionSharp angles of bodies inject drama
Ratified on January 31, 1917 Conferred strong powers to the presidentLaid basis for land reformNo major redistribution until 1934Government ownership of mineral &d water resourcesPlaced restrictions on the church and clergyNew labor lawsUniversal suffrageRestrictions on Foreign Ownership8 hour dayMinimum wageAgrarian reform
Alvaro Obregn (1920-1924)Built schools and encouraged nationalismDiego RiveraMexico becomes a single-party systemParty of Revolutionary Institutions (PRI)Dominated politics until 2000 Lzaro Crdenas (1934-1940)Redistributed 45 million acres of land253 million would be redistributed by 1984Promoted economic nationalismNationalized railroads (1937) and oil (1938)
Land Distribution by Diego RiveraMost tangible result of revolution was the redistribution of hacienda land to landless1917 Constitution guaranteed lands and factory workers protectionNation Culture changed as Zapata and Madero became heroes.1910 2% owned land1940 33% owned land (President Lazaro Cardenas)Madero became president 1911
Over one million people diedRevolution lacked a plan, a philosophy, intellectual leadership, or political partiesFarming, ranching, and mining economies were destroyedOil industry improved during revolutionNo major bank or