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Transcript of The Southwest
IntroductionThe states in the Southwest are Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. They are home to 33 million people. The U.S. has been called a melting pot because of the many races and cultures it mixes together.
Arizona comes from Arizonac a native American word for little spring. Texas comes from Tejas, a Native American word for friend. 2People and HistoryA group led by Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explored the Southwest in the early 1540s for gold. They did not find gold, however, they learned more about the land and its people.In 1932 archaeologists found proof that a Native American group had lived in Clovis, New Mexico. The Clovis people had lived there more than 10,000 years ago.In 1800 Spain gave control of what is now Oklahoma to France. Three years later, France sold this area to the United States in a deal called the Louisiana Purchase.
Five tribes were forced to leave their land by the government and move to Oklahoma. They had to walk 1,000 miles westward in the middle of the winter. Many of them died. The route they traveled became known as the Trail of Tears.3Land in the AreaOklahoma and Texas are sometimes called Tornado Alley because of the major storms that go on there. In the Southwest there can be a variety of climate. There can be gentle winters and burning summers. There are many storms, too. Oklahoma has some of the worst storms and weather in the U.S.A. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long and a mile deep.Texas is the 2nd largest state. Alaska is twice the size of Texas.Snow birds are people who travel to warmer places. Like for instance people from the Northeast and Midwest fly to the Southwest where they live from November to April. These people are nicknamed snow birds.
Texas is the 2nd largest state. In the 1930s much of the farmland in the Southwest dried up and actually blew away. This became known as the Dust Bowl. 4Plants and AnimalsThe animals in the Southwest are mule deer, bighorn sheep, jackrabbits, kangaroo rats, ringtail cats, armadillos, cougars, bobcats, coyotes, deer, elk, antelope, opossums, raccoons, black bear, bear, foxes, prairie dogs, flying squirrels, bats, snakes, owls, hawks, turkey vulture, roadrunners, tarantulas, geckos, collared lizard, horned lizard, and scorpions. The saguaro cactus can hold up to 200 gallons of water at a time. It has a waxy coating and spikes to protect it from animals and heat. It doesnt get its arms until its 75 years old. They can live more than 150 years.
Only 1 of the many species of armadillos can roll into a tight ball. The nine banded armadillo. And some of our plants are tumbleweeds, wildflowers, saguaro cactus, and oak trees.
5Cities and TownsSome of our Cities and Towns in the Southwest are Oklahoma City, Dallas, Tulsa, Santa Fe, Albuquerque, El Paso, San Antonio, Austin, Houston, and Phoenix.In 1947, an alien ship crashed in Roswell. Some say the military took the aliens away but the military has not told anyone. Three of Americas ten largest cities are in Texas: Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio.
Ghosts towns are towns that had mines and people lived there as long as the mines were still going. When the mines shut down, the town emptied. Now there are more than 100 ghost towns in the Southwest. 6Rural LifeRodeo competitions grew out of contests that cowboys made up to amuse themselves and pass time. Rodeos are now one of the most popular sports in the Southwest.With outlaws like Billy the Kid, Butch Cassidy, and Bonnie and Clyde roaming the old Southwest it was hard to keep the peace. There had to be tough lawmen or sheriffs like Wyatt Earp or the Texas Rangers.Freed slaved joined the US Army and became know as buffalo soldiers. A ranch is a place where cattle live within fenced areas. Once ranches were established, there was no longer need for cowboys to round up cattle. The railroads moved closer to the cattle, and there was less open space and therefore, more ranches and less cattle drives.
Cotton is an important crop in Arizona and throughout the Southwest.New Mexico is home to some of the worlds most popular chili peppers.7Getting AroundSky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona is one of the busiest airports in the region.Most people in the Southwest drive by car. Texas, which has the nations highway system, has 77,000 miles of paved roadways.Every year thousands of people take mule rides to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. These trips are VERY bumpy and go on steep trails. The temperatures often climb above 100 degrees.The 1800s brought the railroad to the Southwest. The first rail link from the east to the west was completed in 1862, when tracks were laid from Santa Fe, New Mexico to San Diego, California. Railroads are an important way to move products around the region.
The Royal Road is an ancient trail used by Pueblo people. It went from Mexico City in Mexico to Santa Fe in New Mexico. It runs for 13000 miles. Check note number twomissing a word or two?8Work in the AreaMany people in the Southwest have jobs related to cross-border businesses including manufacturing, trucking, and warehousing. More than half the copper produced in the U.S. comes from mines in Arizona. Copper is used to make everything from electrical wires to coins.
There are many jobs in the Southwest. One is farming. They farm foods such as strawberries. Many people come from Mexico come to the Southwest looking for jobs.
9Free Time In New Mexico you can bring your snowboard and glide down dunes that are made from white sand.In the Southwest, Texas Rangers (baseball), Dallas Cowboys (football) are popular teams.
Crawfish is very popular in restaurants close to the Gulf of Mexico.Jim Thorpe was born in Oklahoma in1887. He was a star in football, basketball, and track in the early 1900s. Jim was so good that he won two gold medals at the Olympics in 1912.
10Conclusion The Southwest has warm weather, cloudless skies, modern highways, good food, and great people. This is why many people visit the Southwest.The Southwest has a history of Native Americans, Spanish, colonies, and American settlers.The climate in the Southwest is also unique. There are hot, dry deserts, deep, wide canyons, and wide open spaces that define the Southwest.
Works CitedStewart, Mark. Regions of the United States: The Southwest: Chicago, Illinois: Raintree, 2006.