The Roman Republic
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The Roman Republic
The Origins of RomeRomes GeographySite of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic locationLocated on Italian Peninsula in the center of the Mediterranean Sea.Built on seven hills along Tiber River
The First RomansLatins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of the region.Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 B.C.E. and 500 B.C.E.Etruscans native to northern Italy influence Roman civilizationDance, Etruscans, Dance!!
The Early RepublicEarly RulersAround 600 B.C. Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome.Kings build Romes first temples and public centersRomans overthrow cruel Etruscan kings in 509 B.C.Romans found a republica government in which citizens elect leaders.
The Early RepublicPatricians and PlebeiansDifferent groups struggle for power in early Roman RepublicPatricianswealthy landowning class that holds most of the powerPlebeiansartisans, merchants and farmers; can vote, but cannot ruleTribuneselected representatives who protect Plebeians rights
The Early RepublicTwelve TablesIn 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets.Called the Twelve Tables, they become the basis for later Roman law.Laws confirm the right of all free citizens to the protection of the law.Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners.The Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum
The Early RepublicGovernment Under the RepublicRome elects two consulsone to lead the army and one to direct government.Senatechosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign and domestic policy.Democratic assemblies elect tribunes and makes laws for common people.Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis.
The Early RepublicThe Roman ArmyRoman legionmilitary unit of 5,000 infantry, supported by cavalry.Army is powerful and a key factor in Romes rise to greatness.
Rome Spreads Its PowerRome Conquers ItalyThe Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek city-states in the south.By 265 B.C., Rome controls the entire Italian peninsula.Rome treats the conquered peoples justly. This enables Rome to grow.
Rome Spreads Its PowerRomes Commercial NetworkRome establishes a large trading network.Access to the Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes.Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome.
Rome Spreads Its PowerWar with CarthageRome and Carthage begin the Punic Warsthree wars between 264 through 146 B.C.Rome defeats Carthage and wins Sicily in the first 23-year war.Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, avenges this defeat in the Second Punic War.He attacks Italy through Spain and France, but doesnt take Rome.Rome TriumphsRoman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C.Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people in the Third Punic War from 149-146 B.C.
Hannibal crossing the Alps in the Second Punic War