The Power matrix of Supplier- Buyer Relationship Buyer Dominance Supplier Dominance (moral hazard)...

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Transcript of The Power matrix of Supplier- Buyer Relationship Buyer Dominance Supplier Dominance (moral hazard)...

  • The Power matrix of Supplier-Buyer RelationshipBuyer DominanceSupplier Dominance

    (moral hazard)Independence

    (adverse selection)Inter-dependenceLowHighRelative utility and scarcity of supplier resources for buyersRelative utility and scarcity of buyers resources for suppliersHighLowSource: Andrew Cox, 2000

  • Critical success factors to SATrustCooperationcommunication

  • Ways to Operate a CompanyInternal activitiesAcquisitionArms length transactionOutsourcingStrategic alliance

  • Stages of Strategic AllianceInitial EuphoriaHoneymoon periodDawning realizationAftershockDamage control

  • Conceptual model of alliance developmentAlliance conceptualizationAlliance pursuanceAlliance confirmationAlliance implementation/continuity

  • Types of allianceOpportunistic allianceComplementary strategic alliance

  • Why Strategic Alliance?Adding value to products/servicesImproving market accessStrengthening operationsAdding technological strengthEnhancing strategic growthBuilding financial strength

  • Types of AllianceThird-party logistics (3PL)Fourth-party logistics (4PL)Retailer-supplier partnerships (RSP)Distributor integration (DI)

  • Third Party LogisticsWhat is 3PL?Outside firms perform materials management and logistics functionsLong term commitments and multiple functionsWhat are the advantages of 3PL?Focus on core strengthsProvides technological flexibilityProvides flexibility ingeographyworkforce sizeadditional servicesresource flexibility

  • 3PLUse of an outside company to perform all or part of the forms materials management and product distribution function

    Relationship vs. transactional basedSingle-function vs. multi-functionLong-term vs. short-term commitments

  • 3PLDisadvantagesLoss of control3PL employees may interact with customers3PLs address this with uniforms, logos, etcSharing of confidential infoExamplesSimmons and Ryder Integrated LogisticsOn site rep, all logistics managed by Ryder, JIT manufacturingSonicAirRapid delivery of spare parts67 warehousesSophisticated software for inventory and rapid delivery

  • 4PLIt refers to the evolution in logistics from suppliers focused on warehousing and transportation (third-party logistics providers) to suppliers offering a more integrated solution. Among other services, fourth-party logistics providers include supply chain management and solutions, change management capabilities, and value added services in their offering.

  • Strategic Alliance:Types of SAQuick Response: Vendors receive POS data from retailers, and use this information to synchronize production and inventory activities at the supplier. The retailer still prepares individual orders, but the POS data is used by the supplier to improve forecasting and scheduling.Example: Milliken and Company: The lead time from order receipt at Millikens textile plants to final clothing receipt at several of the department stores involved was reduced from eighteen weeks down to three weeks.

  • Strategic Alliance:Types of SAContinuous Replenishment: Vendors receive POS data and use it prepare shipments at previously agreed upon intervals to maintain agreed to levels of inventory.Wal-Mart, KmartAdvanced Continuous Replenishment: Suppliers may gradually decrease inventory levels at the retailers store or distribution center as long as service levels are met. Inventory levels are thus continuously improved in a structured way.Kmart

  • Requirements for Effective Strategic AllianceAdvanced information systemsTop management commitmentInformation must be sharedPower and responsibility within an organization might change (for example, contact with customers switches from sales and marketing to logistics)Mutual trustInformation sharingManagement of the entire supply chainInitial loss of revenues

  • Important SA IssuesInventory ownership:Retailer owns inventorySupplier owns the goods until they are sold (consignment)Why would a firm do this?Performance measures: Fill rate, inventory level, inventory turns

  • Important SA IssuesConfidentialityCommunication and cooperationWhen First Brands started partnering with Kmart, Kmart often claimed that its supplier was not living up to its agreement to keep two weeks of inventory at all times. It turned out that this was due to the fact that the two companies employed different forecasting methods.

  • Steps in SA ImplementationContractual negotiationsOwnershipCredit termsOrdering decisionsPerformance measuresDevelop or integrate information systemsDevelop effective forecasting techniquesDevelop a tactical decision support tool to assist in coordinating inventory management and transportation policies

  • Main Characteristics of SA

    Criteria

    Types

    Decision

    Maker

    Inventory

    Ownership

    New Skills

    Employed by vendors

    Quick

    Response

    Retailer

    Retailer

    Forecasting Skills

    Continuous

    Replenishment

    Contractually Agreed to Levels

    Either

    Party

    Forecasting & Inventory Control

    Advanced

    Continuous

    Replenishment

    Contractually agreed to & Continuously

    Improved Levels

    Either

    Party

    Forecasting & Inventory Control

    VMI

    Vendor

    Either

    Party

    Retail

    Management

  • Advantages of SAFully utilize system knowledgeConsider the partnership between White-Hall Robbins (W-R), who makes over-the-counter drugs such as Advil, and Kmart. W-R initially disagreed with Kmart about forecasts, and in this case, it turned out that W-R forecasts were more accurate because they have a much more extensive knowledge of their products than Kmart does.

  • Advantages of SADecrease required inventory levelsImprove service levelsDecrease work duplicationImprove forecasts

  • Disadvantages of SAExpensive advanced technology is required.Supplier/retailer trust must be developed.Supplier responsibility increases.Expenses at the supplier often increase.Why? How can this be addressed?

  • Examples of SA Successes and FailuresWestern Publishing-Golden Books:Western Publishing is using VMI for its Golden Books line of childrens books at several retailers.POS data automatically triggers re-orders when inventory falls below a reorder point.This inventory is delivered either to a distribution center, or in many cases, directly to the store.Ownership of the books shifts to the retailer once deliveries have been made.In the case of Toys R Us, the company has even managed the entire book section for the retailer, including inventory from suppliers other than Western Publishing.Extra sales, increased costs to Western

  • Examples of SA Successes and FailuresVF Corporations Market Response System:The VF Corporation, which has many well known brand names (including Wrangler, Lee, Girbaud, and many others), began its VMI program in 1989.Currently, about 40 percent of its production is handled using some type of automatic replenishment scheme.This is particularly notable because the program encompasses 350 different retailers, 40,000 store locations, and more than 15 million replenishment levels. VFs program is considered one of the most successful in the apparel industry.

  • Examples of SA Successes and FailuresSpartan StoresSpartan Stores, a grocery chain, shut down its VMI effort about one year after its inception.One problem was that buyers were not spending any less time on reorders than they did beforeThis was because they didnt trust the suppliers enough to be able to stop carefully monitoring the inventories and deliveries of the VMI items, and intervening at the slightest hint of trouble.

  • Examples of SA Successes and FailuresSpartan Stores (continued)Suppliers didnt do much to allay these fears. The problems were not with the suppliers forecasts; instead, they were due to the suppliers inability to deal with promotions, which are a key part of the grocery business.Since they were unable to appropriately account for promotions, delivery levels were often unacceptably low during these periods of peak demand.

  • Distributor IntegrationParts are shared across the distributor networkSpecialized service requests are steered to appropriate dealers or distributors.What is required?TrustPledgesGuarantees from the manufacturerAdvanced information systemsDisadvantagesIncentives for dealers are they giving away competitive advantages?Skills and responsibilities are taken from some dealers/distributors.Examples - Caterpillar, Okuma

  • Information for Coordination of SystemsInformation is required to move from local to global optimizationQuestions:Who will optimize?How will savings be split?Information is needed :Production status and costsTransportation availability and costsInventory informationCapacity informationDemand information

  • Role of Information in Supply Chain Success

    Supply Chain Success

    Coordinated Decisions

    Global

    Scope

    Information

  • Information Technology in a Supply Chain: Legacy Systems

    Distributor

    Manufacturer

    Supplier

    Retailer

    Customer

    Operational

    Planning

    Strategic

  • Information Technology in a Supply Chain: ERP SystemsSupplierCustomerRetailerDistributorManufacturerStrategicPlanningOperationalERPPotentialERPPotentialERP

  • Information Technology in a Supply Chain: Analytical ApplicationsSupplierCustomerRetailerDistributorManufacturerStrategicPlanningOperationalSupplierAppsSCMMESDem PlanTransport execution &WMSAPSTransport & InventoryPlanningCRM/SFA

    Adverse Selection refers to a process by which practitioners fail to understand the pre-contractual pow