The jazz method for flute

y{ffi IYIothoil l,i lt I t i*. 1-l! ' I l, )tL4 ttt-r-#ttitso uRc E Lr BR A ISPLAY D c0P\ John O'Nleill Declicated to Richard Rowland, in memoty cf good times spent listening to music togetber. scHorf

Transcript of The jazz method for flute

Page 1: The jazz method for flute


l,ilt I ti*. 1-l! ' Il, )tL4

ttt-r-#ttitso uRc E Lr BR A


John O'Nleill

Declicated to Richard Rowland,in memoty cf good times spent

listening to music togetber.


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)Iany of the ideas in this book were inspiredbr- four great teachers: Don Rendell, who tookme under his wing when I was just beginning;Peier Ind, wlro introduced me to the conceptsof Lennie Tristano and told me to listen to patI{etheny; Lee Konitz, who gave me a newdirection and discipline for my improvisation;and the late \il7arne Marsh.

I would also like to rhank the foiiowingpeople:

Phil Lee, Jeff Clyne, Paul Clarvis and AnclyPanayi for their superb rnusicianship, profes,sionalism, patience and creative contributionduring the recording of the CD.

The staff at Schort & Co. Ltd.

All the musicians who gave permission fortheir compositions to be included in thisbook.

A11 my students, who playecl such animportant part in shaping the book.

Nick Taylor of Irorcupine Studio for hisengineering and mixing.

Henry Binns for his photographs.John Minnion for his line drawings.Bob Glass of Ray's Jazz Shop for his help in

compiling the discography.Y/illie Garnett for looking after rny insrru-

n tenls.My lamily and friends for their unwavering

suppoft and belief.

:^-'- :-r:n'Cataloguing-in-Pultlication Data. A catalogue recorcl for this-, . , ,- .r:iiable frorn the British Libraw

-a-'. : --.-<-r< l+ g

; .'..= .-:- :: .\ Co. Ltd. I-ondon

*.i -l-:,- ::<i..rri. Printed in England. \o part of this publication mar I-er:-:r. ,- - -:, -: ,rtJ in e retriet'al s\-stem. or transmitted, in any form or :..*rLT 1r-!:r- ---.tionic. mechanical. photocopying, recording or othersl<u,(:".,- --r= :::.r s'rifien permission of Schott & Co. Ltd, +8 G_-<r-t1,apf-r r ,,.t \:-: Loncion \\'1\'lB\.

- o::ul:e-- i-"i r. :N: :i GeotTrer \\'adslev, s :- :r:*-,E iL::: ;i-r:.'rr.rereph br- Dar id Redfern) O RedFerns. Lond. r-

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How to Use this BookSome Thoughts About PracticeAbout the Flute

P.{RT ONE: THE FOUNDATION TECHNIQTIESBreathing ExercisesFirst PrinciplesISlowing on the Head JointAssernbling ancl Disassembling tl-re

InstrumentHand Position and PostureFingeringTone DevelopmentTr-rning PositionTone QualityTonguingThe Attack

P.\RT TWO: PIAYING THE MUSIC:repter 1 The Staff; Leger Lines; Clefs; Ilars ancl

Bar-Lines; Time Signatures; NoteDurations; Pulse ancl; Taking a

Rreath; N4etronome Markings; Rests;Repelts.




Riffs; Crotchets; The'Pick-Up'; Slr-rrs. 21Low F ancl E; Dynamic Markings; 23The Pause; Crotchet Rests; Ties;Syncopation.C$ancl Ff; Sharps, Semitones ancl 26Accidentalsr Dotted Notes; TheNatural Sign.R[; Flats; Key Signatr-rres; Enharmonic 27Notes; First ancl Second Time Bars;Accents; Crescendo and Decrescendo.Middle D ancl E; The Break. 30Midcile F and G; hnprovisation. 32Sczrles; Chords; Arpeggios. 31Low Gfi/AI, Middle D+/Et, Ff and A; 353/4 Tine; Transposition; Use of Space;Tlrc Chromatic Scalc.Ear Training; Intervals; Inversions; 39Playing by Ear.Middle Ail/Ilt, Gf/At and R, Low Dg/El, ,13

and High C; Even Quavers; Beams;D. C. al Fine;Rallentando; Scale andArpeggio Practice: C Major and AMinor.High C{; Triplet Quavers; Scale andArpeggio Practice: G Major and EMinor.Swing Quavers; To Swing or Not To 49Swing?; D.S. al Coda;Anticipation; Thetslues Scale/Passing Notes; Repetition.High D and Dil/Eb; Off-Beat Phrases. 53The Dotted Crotchet Followed try a 55

Quaver; Modes.

@wChapter 16 Low C ancl C{/Df; 2/2 or Cut Time.Chapter 17 Construction and Interreiationship of

Major and Minor Scales; Enhermonit:Scales; Practising the Scales; ScaleVariations.

Chapter 18 The On-Beat Quaver Followecl by 63Two Off-Beats; Ascending MelodicMinor Scale.

Chapter 19 Consecutive Off-lleats.Chapter 20 Triplet Crotchets.Chapter 21 6/8 Tirne; 5/4Time; Irregular

Phrasing.Chapter 22 Harmony; Diatonic Chords; Chord 78

Symbols; II-V-I Progression; ChordIloots; Voice-Leading.

Chapter 23 High E, F, F{ and G; 82Hlrmon ir's,/Overl ()ncs.

Chapter 24 Semiquavers and Semiqlraver Rests; 86Grace Notes.

PART THREE: APPENDICES 901 Bibliography 902 Discography 973 Useful Accessories 934 Fingering Chart 945 Chord Progressions for the Tunes Insert




-rrepter 2:rapter J

lepter 4

rrepter 5

-:rlrptcr 6

:rrpter 7rrapter 8:rapter !

:rpter 10

.--rpter 11

rpter 12

rpter 1J


l'he publishers worLld like to thank thc lblkrwing for allowrng thelrse of their naterial in this publication:

.loltn Vinrti, rn for lhr' illrr.trrrtiunr.I{enry L}inns fbr the technical photographs.Ted Gioia, Lce K()nitz. Andreu' Panayi encl Don Rcnclell for thetrcompositions.Bocu N,lusic Ltd, BMG Nlusic PlLblishing l-td,.Nlarrcla Nlusic Ltcl ancl

Prestige l'lusic Ltd for their copyright rnusic.'l'he author and ptrblishers also wish to acknoileclgc, n,ith thanks.

Redferns N{usic Picture Lilrrary,/Photographers: I)avid Reclie rrr

(ltoland Kirk. p. 15: Lerl'Tabackin. p. 15r Rucl Shenk. p. 15: -J:uncsNloocly, p. 15: Irrank Iirster rvith the Courrt Basie Rand. p. 21: Stan

Getz, p. 27: Nlilcs Davis, p. J9l Jol'rn Coltr:rne, p. 50: llorace Sihtr.p. 73; Davc llnrbeck Quartet. p. 7,1; Charles Lloycl, p. 92). V illialtrGottlictr (l-ouis Armstror-rg, p. ,i2; -fheloniolts X{onk. p. :17; Ch.trii<Parker. p. 67). Charles Stenart (llric Dolplrr', p. 93).O Itedf-erns. Lonclon



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Mastery of the founclation techniques presenteci in Part One is the key to playing theflute well, so please ensure you are comfortable n'ith the exercises in this section of thebook before attempting the pieces in pzrrt Two.

Many of the chapters finish with suggestions for further listening, reacling or practice.Ytlu are advised to aclopt as m2rny of these suggestions as possible in order to gainmaximum benefit from the method.

If your speakers are connectecl properly the rhy,thm section will be hearcl frorl the leftspeaker and the flute frorn the right speaker. By using the 'Lralance' controls on yoLlrmusic system you n'ill therefore be able to adjust the 'mix' between flure ancl rl-rythrlsection, or indeed to filter out the flurte completely. This means yolr can choose to playu'ith or without the flr-rte for guiclance. There are also several pieces which give you thefurther option of playing a dr-ret part.

You should n()t eKpecrt to be able to play every piece immecliately w-ith the CD. It mayrequire several hours of practice to n'ork some of the music up to speecl. If the music istoo fast cio not struggle to play rvith tl-re recordecl accompanimcnt-such practice isfruitless and frustrating. It is f'ar better to practise slowly-at half-speed or evenslslvsl-2ncl graclr.rally br,rilcl up to the cl-rallenge of playing witl-r the cD.

It is particularly important tilat you develop your e21r as well as your technique anciability to read. \Xritl-r this in rdncl tn, to pla.v by ear as mtrch as possible, for example bymemorizing the tunes zrftcr vou har-e learnt to reacl thent or bv transposing them intootl-ier keys or different registers oi the insrn-unenr.

This book is not a rigicl clrssicll nrethorl. One r r r--Lr hrrle learnt to play r.vhat isrvritten r-oli shoulcl feei i'cc i,, .11:rr i:tvrh::ts. irlir(irr<it o:'irtrprovise, -\lany of the tunesnill benefit fr'orl bclrtg l1'c-i:c,: -:r .:-,:. -...,,,

Above all E\TO\ \ OL R.i-':

-:- .,)r:iblc. The room shoulcl:-: Ii iir clttttered-if there is a

-.: .L)L1ilcl will be cleadenecl.

- -.-,.:.r- mr,rffling effect. On the

tion techniques in panrc---",: --- lencounter the 'plateeu c- -. - . r - -

progressing zrt all. Do noi l-- . - -

dramatic leap forwarcl.Avoid practising n-hen i -- -.-r -- r:

ning or middle of the dar. ::---. - . - : ' :-r-Do not practise in a h:r-,-:--=,,--.- l

olein about the noise!. :- ::iltle. 20 minutes a day is- _ - -t' '-r '\fcl\.

- . r- ettectirre to play for short:r' ::rr thlrn to play for hours at a

:r-,i5ter. Very often you will-, . ng tirle that you are not-,:- rearly always followed by a

-,ir:ctive to practise at the begin-. trrrmits.,-Iing vour tirne.

Do not expect to proerc.. -,- : , : :r ---,rrl \-olr pr2rctise. The founda-

$@Mffi=ffi ,H,GIJTS ABOUT PRAC#il ffiTry to make the environt-nent r,be bright and well ventilatecl Ii :lack of bare wall space the ro,,::-,Soft firrnishings like thick crr:c,.other hancl this might be an ..i-. -,

It is very important to ilr-,-._-:much more valuable than i,r,: .

If you pracrise rnole inrc - ,

periods of 20 minutes to h., ,r-


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lWarm up properly-long notes or simple tongr-ring exercises are icle:rl.

You can do a lot of valuable practice without the instrument in your hands-.singing,clapping or listening to music for example.

Avoicl becoming obsessed by any one aspect of yor:r playing-there arc manydillerent skills to acquire.

Fear of failure is the biggest enemy, and usually what gets in the way of peoplcachieving their musical potential. You must learn to trust that all problems can be ovcr-come by practising with the right attitr-rcle. Believe in yourself.

l*ffi, t$ iry,H rliffif$lffiffi

The word 'f-lute' is a very generirl word which, accorcling to Tbe I'ietu Groue Dictionan),is used to refler to 'any instrllment having an air column confined in a hollow bocly andactivatecl by a stream of air from tl-ie player's lips striking against the sharp edgc of an

opening'. Different kincls of flutes were played in many ancient civilizations andcontinue to be played in different cultures throughor:t the modern worlcl.

There is erriclence to suggest that tl-re olclest transuerse or cross-blot'n, flute was thechinese ch'ih, which can be tracecl to the ninth century BC. The flute first appearecl in\festern Europe in Gerrnanic lancls and w'as establishecl as a solo voice cluring theBaroque period, most notabiy through the w'orks of J. S. Bach, Handel, Telemann andVivaldi. The instrurrent wiricl-i they rlu'rote fbr was s.,ooc1en, with only one key, butunclerwent various technical modifications until, in the midclle of the nineteenth century,it completely reclesignerl by Theobalcl Boehm, and transformecl into an instrumentwhich ckrsely resemblcs the modern orchestral f1ute. Very little was composed for theinstrument by any of the great nineteenth-century/ composers, but in the tnentiethcentLlryr therc has becn a resurgence of interest ancl the list of those who have u.rittenlor it inclucles such eminent figures as Debussy, Hindemitl-r, Milhaucl, Prokofiev,Poulenc, \raughan Williams, Neilsen, Berio, Boulez and liodrigo.

\(/ith tl-ie exception of saxophonist Wayman Caler, who played flute as his secondinstrurrent, making recorclings with the bands of Benny Carter and Chick Vebb in the1930s, and who therefore might be regarclecl as the f:nst iazz flutist, very little jrrzz

played on the flute before the 1950s. Its low yolur-ne and lack of penetration by coiltpar-ison u,.ith instruments sr:ch as the trumpet and saxophone made it cliflicr-rlt for it to finda role in the exuberant idiorns of New Orleans, Swing ancl Bebop. Hotvever, w-ith thcadvent in the 1950s of the generally softer sound of the \West Coast or 'Coo1' style, theflr,rte beg:rn to interest cornposers, arrangers ancl players. At the salne time jazz began tct

be strongly influenced by Latin American music, in u,hich the flute had alw'ays playecl a

significant part. This decade also saw the emergence of Herbie Mann, the first juzz

player to make a successful career for himself with flute as his primary instri-rment.In silbsequent years an increasing number of musicians have specialized on the f1ute,

ancl while the instrument has never been as prominent as the saxophone or trumpet as

a solo voice, it has gained in popularity to the extent that most szrxophonists make tl-re

flute their second instrurnent in preference to the clarinet. 'With the increasing inflr-renceof World Music it would seem likely that the flute, which has strong associations withdilli'rcnt kinds ol t'thnit rnusic. is to rentlin an intportar)t tone colottr in j,tzz.

FURTHER STIJDYReading:Joe.cunr E. BrnrNoL', Tbe./azz BookBennv KERxrELD, ed., Tbe Neut Groue Dictictnaty of.lazzStxNr-rv SADru, ed., Tbe Neu Groue Dictionarry of'Music and Musicictrts

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Part 0ne:

The Foundation Techniques

ift @ .W'#1+,+$ , ,ffi .ffi .# tGood breathing technique is essential for flute playing. The follon ing exercises will helpto develop this.

Stand in front of a mirror, preferably one in which you can see yollrself from thewaist up. Breathe in through the mouth. You may have raised the shoulders and lifteclthe chest to accomplish this. For the purposes of woodwind playing this is both unnec-essary ancl incorrect. Nor is it how you breathe when you allow nnconscious processesto take over.

Exercise L

Take hold of an average sized hardback book, lie on the floor ofl 1r6s; back. placethe book on your abclomen and relax (Fig. 1). Do nor try to breathe in any specialway. Simply observe the natural breathing process. Yor-r rvi11 notice that the bookrises as you breathe in and falls as you breathe olrt. In other s-orcls expansion oninhaling, contraction on exhaling.

Fig. 1

Now all you have to do is achieve this in a vertical rather than a horizontal nosirittnand as a slightly more controlled, conscious process.

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Exercise 2& Place the hands on the abclomen

(Fig. 2)ffi Breathe in through the mouth-a small

sip of air rather than a massive gulp.The hands shor-rld be pushed or-rt

slightly. Exhale.@ Now place the hands on the back

(Fig. 3). Breathe in again. You shouldnotice that the hands are pushed back-warcls. It is as if yor-r were breathing inthrough two holes in the back under-neath the hands. The point is that you

2 are not simply pushing the stornachout but achieving all-round expansionin the area of the waist and lower ribs.

This kind of breathing is called diaphragm breathing. The diaphragm is the prx'erfulmuscular floor to the chest cavity. In correct deep breathing the diaphragm mov<:s downto make room as the lungs inf-late, thr-rs bringing about the expansion described.

You must now turn your attention to the exhalation. The diaphragm is like a piece ofelastic. Left to its own devices it will simply spring back into position and the exhalationwill be very short-lived. You might liken this eff'ect to blowing up a balloon and thenletting go of it. The balloon flies around the room and within seconds has emptied itselfof air. If you let go of your breath in an trncontrolled way your note on the flute will beas erratic and short-lived as the flight of the balloon! You must exefi a braking influenceon the upward movement of the diapl-rragm, and c1o this by contracting the muscleswhich surround it.

Here is an exercise for practising controi of these muscles:

Exercise 3& Breathe in (as described in Exercise 2 above).@ Now breathe out making a loud whispered 'ah' sound. Keep the tllroat open ancl

relaxed. Tl're 'ah' should be as long and steady as possible-ten or fifteenseconds wor-rld be reasonable for a beginncr.

\What yor-r shor.rld notice is that the muscles around the diaphragm squeeze moreand more firrlly until the breath runs out. This effect can be likened to squeezingout a sponge. If you wish to achieve a steady flow of water you must squeeze firstgently and then ever more tightly.

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,F#Rt ''Fffi

In flute playing the souncl is created by the air-jet being split into tw.o eclual parts by thefar edge of the embouchure hole (see Fig. ,1). The souncl thr-rs proclucecl is callecl anedge-tone. Exactly the same principle is at work nhen sor-rnd is prccluced by blou.ingacross the top of zr ltottle. You should alu,ays bear in mincl that yoLt are trying to createan edge-tone.


It is not only tl-re direction of the air-1et but also its velocity r,'hich is critical. An eclge-tone ri,'ill only be procluced if the air-jet is mor,.ing quickly, enough. J'he folltx,ing crer-cises, which yor-r can practise whencver you har.e a spare monlent. niil clemonstr:rtehort' you can influence both the velocitl. ancl clirectictn of the air rvhicl-i yotr blolv:

Hold vor:r hand ytrst belou-t'oLrr mouth (sce F-ig. 5). compress the lips as if y,ou n'ereallout to sa\- the lettcr 'p ancl blos' air olrto rlle back of the hancl thror-rgl'i a small holeat the centrc of vottr lips. The uir-iet :houlcl leel colcl-a sign that the air is moving u,itl-rsufficient r-elocitr-. Il it f ecl: \\ rlr1lr \-olr arc ltl<ln,ing eithcr too gently or thrcti-rgh toolarge a hole. When playing the flute you should always think of blowing cold air.

Nor.v try to mo\e this coltl iet of air backw-ards ancl foru.arcls across \-r )ur'l'r-ircl. Tc)ircliieve this you l'il1 neecl to alter tl're position of tl're lower lip in relatiol . r .- :rpperone. 'ilfhen the lou,er 1ip is firrtl-rer back tl-re air-jet will be clirectecl lrorc !tl-ie lip moves fonvarcl thc rril i.s clirectecl fr-rrther ar.ay fiorr yolt. \\-ltr: :-

you n'ill constantly bc n'raking sr,rlrtle changes to thc angie of the rrir'-'c

As a beginner fltrte player yori will probably be kecr.:start trying to play some tllnes. Howcver. sincc the :t-

a gooci souncl, it u,ould be far bettcr for yolr to sp(:t-the head ioint, withor-rt having to worly altolrr or:-,.# Take hr>lcl of the heacl ioint of the flr,rte rrtcl : r

that yor,r gct a good close-up view, of \'olrr' :,

can also get a sicle-r,iew- by using a seconcl :t- :. -

ffi Press the lip plate firrnly br:r comfortrrhl., :'.

and the chin and rotate the l'reacl joirtr r.:- ,

meets the white, is jr-rst insicle the inncr .-. '-

---,.-,:..isl as

- ..': l-lute

Bfu 8ffi=ffffi fitADJO[\T.::' :10d


:-. iust' :--{.:.. )T SO

-r - \'OLl

'.:r lip- -i part

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W Inhale, in the same way as yoLl have learnt from the breathing exercises. ancl prer:the lips together, imagining yolr are about to say the letter 'p'. The corners oi ti,.mouth should f-eel firm but relaxed, neither pulling back nor pushing in.

# Try to exhale, but for the moment keeping the lips together, so that you expericnrcthe breath pressure building up behind the lips. The rnuscles around the diaphragnrshor-rld be contractecl, supporting the breath.

# Allow the breath pressure to force the lips slightly apart, so that a small aperturc i.*

formed at the centre of the lips, and direct the air-jet at the far edge of t1-rc

embouchure hole (see Fig. 4). You may find it helpfr-rl to imagine the syllable 'pe' es

in the r,vord 'perhaps' when attempting this.

Experiment s.ith rotating the head joint inwards and outwards, listening for the pllrestand strongest sound. In theory you shor-rld cover approximately one third of theemlrouchure hole u,ith your lol'er lip, u.hen blorving on the head joint alone.

You shor-rld also experiment with varying the distance between the lips ancl theembouchure hole.ffi Once you have established a good note sustain it for as long as possible, trying tt,

produce a completely even tone, r.r,hich does not vary in pitch or volurnc. This can

only be achievecl by a correct breatl-ring tecl-inique, as outlinecl in Exercise 3 of thebreathing exercises.

i $$BM,Bfi*F$ ' ,B#$ $$E{ffi8 f,[,il iffit4rffi,#t$* E'{T

Take holcl of the hcacl joint in one hancl ancl thc top part of the body tube in the otherand ease the l-read joint into the body tube making sure that you do not exert pressureon the key rods (see Fig. 6). If the joints are stiff clean with a tissr:c both parts ol tl'remctal u'l-iich come into contact. Rotate the head ioint until the ernbouchure hole is

alignecl r,vith the rnajority of keys on the bociy tr-rbe (see F-ig. 7).Holding the foot joint at the bottom to avoid exerting pressllre on the rocls, attach it

to the bociy tubc (see Fig. B), so that the rlain rod of the foot joint is in line nith theccntre of tl're lou'est key on tl-re bocly tubc (sec Fig. 7). The f-lute is nol,' assembled.


Page 10: The jazz method for flute

ffi{ +BP0SffiIOITA]\8ffi'fhe flr-rtc- is balanced. not held. lrr nlc.1r-r: oi a lever svstern. The left hancl inclcr rLrr{rrseryes as t1-ie fr:lcrlrtlt. uhilc thc r.rsht hir'rcl tl-ir-tntb ancl little finger. in c11nj,-rr-r.l: :t r..iritthe whole of the riglrt arrl. plrsh,rutu:rrci-s (see Fig.9), so that thc lip piutc r. :-.- -- :.::tlr-in position unclerneath lhc k.rncr. lip In orcler to achieve this obscn'c .-: ;.rrrgpoints:

- --i - -, ..:-;rghtfbrrr-arc1 reversal of: -: .-!llire. if moistrtre is allou,ecl' t:- -,,t- ii-rsrele the instrument it may

-'. 1-rt ihe lif'e of the pads, and shoulcl,:-cirlirrc be removecl by inserting a smallpiece of soft cloth or cl-iamois leather in thcer-e' of the cieaning rod-u,hich is r-tsr_rally

provicied wirh tl-re in5111psn1-anc1 puilingit t}rrough tl-rc dif'fbrent sections of the flute.

@ The index finger of the left hancl should be crookecl anr:comfortably go (see Fig. 10).

@ The flute should be positioned againsr the base of rl:-knr-rckle joint (see F-ig. 10).

# Becatise the right thumb is pushing rather than liftilgdirectly underneath the flute but slightly further bact ):l

@ The little finger of the right hand depresses rhe F, ._=

same way as the right thumb (see Fig. 12). Nlakc.-.:-.interpreting the fingering diagrams.

# Both elbows should be well au.ay fion-i rhe hr -.allow the chest to open, thus promoting cor-:c-. i:

.r ill

: :he

: - llOt

:- the- lcn

. ni1l. -rlso

FiIJ i{


Page 11: The jazz method for flute

Fig 11


Fig 12


necessaly in order to slrstainshoulcl yoll resort to trying tothe side ol'tlte lrotly.

the fbrwzrrd pr,rsh of the right arm. On no accollntprovide extra sllpport by holding the left elbow against

Goocl postllre is of vital importancc. Stand r,vith the feet approximately the same

distance apart as your shoulders and the weight ciistributed evenll, on the soles of Lrotl-r

feet. Tr-rrn tl-re hips and upper bocly to the left-this shor.rlcl feel natural since the rightarm is alreacly pushing outw'zlrcls (see Figs. 10, 13 and 14).

F-ig. 13

The chin shoulcl befeeling of length intowards the ceilingyour postrlre to f-eel

drawn in and the headthe back of the a string attached tolight and relaxed.

tiltecl slightly for-wards in order to induce :iImagine yoll are a puppet being drau't-i ttpthe crown of your head-this shor-rld help


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* The fleshy pacl at the end of the finger sho.lcl rnrlke conractFig. 15).

# The fingers should be gently cuned, not f-lat or contracrecl ('ee Fig

ffir\ R+ffin-ith the key (see

15 ).

The fingers move by means of a hammer action rvhich is initizrtecl at the knr-rcklc loint.Movement of the other finger joints shoulcl be kept to :r mininrr-rrn.The fingers should stay 2rs close as possible to tl-re keys. Do not \vaste energy!In order for the fingers to stay relaxecl and rnove efficiently the neck mr.rscles,shoulder joints, elbows ancl w.rists sl-rould also be relaxecl.

#EWfu Pffiffi.ffi,You shoulcl now' practise long notes in fiont of a mirror with the flr-rte fully asserrbled,follon'ing the same proceclure that you adoptecl for bloning on the heacl joint alonc.The best note to begin u-ith is Il. The fingering cliagram belou,,will show. you how tcrplay this note.

Key to fingering diagramsL.H. = left hand; R.H. : right-hancl; Th. = left hand thumb; fingers are numbered 1 to 4starting with the index finger.

Yor-rr first week's practice should consist of ten to fifteen minutes a day-no morei noless-trying to get this B sounding as convincing as possible. For variety you may play




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C, A, and G as well. This will be good preparation for your first tunes. Do not neglectthis practice or feel that it must be Eaot oLlt of the way so you can get on to 'real music .

If you cannot sustain a steady tone on one note you will never be able to play a tunceffectively.

There are so many variables which affect the flute sound that sometimes the heginnermay become confused. However, all these variables can be groupecl under one or otherof the following three factors w'hich are crucial to establishing a good flute sound:

Angle of the Air-JetThis might be aff'ected by the degree to which the head joint is rotated inwards oroutwards; by tilting your head back and forth; or by the alignment of the r-rpper ancl

lower lip-for example a person whose upper lip protr-r-rdes significantly beyond thelower one will naturally tend to blow dow-nwards more and needs to make allowancesfor this.

Speed of the Air-JetThis is affectecl both by l-row h:rrd you blow and by the size of the apertlrre bets,-eeny( )Ur lips.

Distance Between Lips and Embouchure HoleThis is influenced by the degree of inr,vard rotation of the l-read joint: by moving tl-re iipscloser to or further a\\.ay from the far edge of the embouchure hole; and by horv- highon yolrr lower lip the lip-plate is positioned.

The best way to practise is to concentrate on a single one of these rnain factclrs at zr

time, listening carefr-rlly to yolrr souncl ancl noting u,'hat changes bring about improve-ments.

Do not be discouragecl if you do not immediately succeecl in producing a goodsouncl. Learning to play w'ith a beautiful tone is one of the greatest challenges you w'illever face ancl it may take weeks or months of przrctice before you are satisfiecl u,ith yortrsound. Belou' are some of the most common problems experienced by beginner flutists.ancl some suggestions for rectifying them:# Breathy sound. While yoll are playing, or immeciiately after you have played your

note. look closely at the far sicle of the lip-plate, jr-rst beyond the embouchure ho1e.There shoulcl be a small area of moisture or condenszrtion, narrower than theembouchr-rre hole (see Fig. 16i). If there is a large patch of condensation (Fig. 16ii)this is a sign that the hole in the centre of your lips is too rride, which will accor-rntfor the breathiness of the tone. Using a miLror, check the width of the apertllrebetr,veen the lips, u.hich shor-rld never be wider than the embouchure hole itself. Ifthe area of condensation is to one side (see Fig. 16iii) this mc':rns that yor,r are failingto centre tl-re air-jet.

F-ig. 16 i ii iii

Another possible explanation is that air is being rvastecl by being bkrwn too fhr acrossthe embouchure ho1e. Try to direct thc air rnore clon,nrvards.

ffi The note sourids muffled and flat. The reason for this may be that the lips are tooclose to the far eclge of the embouchure hole. in which case yoll sl-roulcl experirnentwith moving them further zrwa)r, or you may be directing the air too much into thcembouchure hole. Having the lip plate too high on the low-er lip can also procltrcethese symptoms.

@ The note is much too high, or suddenly jumps into the higher register. Thismeans that you are compressing the lips too tightly ancl forming too small a hole atthe centre of your lips. The solution is to relax the lips a little more.


Page 14: The jazz method for flute

Tuning of the flute is achieved by rnoving the heacl joint in ancl out of the body tube,thereby decreasing or increasing the length of the instrument. If your note is too 'sharp'or high, you will need to pull the head joint out slightly-in facr this will probably bethe normal position for most flutes. if the note is too 'flat' or low you will need to pushthe head joint in. Should you find this confusing remember that shorrer tubes proclucehigher notes and longer tubes lower notes-think of the trumpet and tuba, or or!{anpipes! You should not fiddle with rhe adjusrer ar rhe top of the head joint.

If the head joint is already pushed in as far as it can go the solution to the problemmay lie elsewhere: tuning can be drastically affected both by you-for example yourbreathing technique and embouchure-and by external factors, particularly tempera-ture. Vhen the instrument is cold it will tend to be flat. As you biow into it your breathwarms the metal and the instrument rises in pitch. Significant changes in the ambienttemperature will have a similady marked effect, for example moving from a cold spaceIo a wlrm spacc. or vic'e-versa.

Do not despair if you feel that you are unable to tell whether a note is in tune or not.Playing in tune is a challenge even fbr advanced players. Just as your brain canremember diflerent fingering positions, so your ear can lezrrn to discriminate tiny differ-ences in pitch. Indeed, throughout the book you u,ill be learning how to clevelop yor:rear as well as your technique.

The qualiry of sound you produce on the flute will be greatly influenced by the qualityof sound that you hear in your head. In order to deveiop your concept of tone qualityyou should listen to the great exponents of your instrument as often as possible. Here isa list of some of the most important flute players in the history of iazz.

Flute SpecialistsHerbie MannSam MostPaul HornJeremy SteigHubert LawsBob DownesChris HinzeJames Newton

Saxophonists who 'Double'on FluteWayman Can,erFrank \Wess

Jerome RichardsonBud ShankBuddy ColletteBobby JasparJames MoodyEric DolphySahib ShihabYusef LateefRoland KirkCharles LloydLew Tabackin

Joe Farrell


Page 15: The jazz method for flute





For some suggested recordings by these players please consr:lt the cliscography(Appendix 2).

Listen also to the great classical flute players, like Je:rn-Pierre Rampal or JamesGalway.

It is also valuable to listen to players of other instrLlments rvhose sor,rnd yoll areattracted to, for example the trumpet sound of Lor:is Armstrong, Miles Davis or ChetBaker, or the saxophone sound of Ben 'Webster, Stan Getz or John Coitrane. Do notconfine yourself to jazzt Remember Duke Ellington's w-ords: 'There are only two kinds ofmusic-good ancl bad.' You rnight improve your tone jurst as much by listening to a

great opera singer like Jessye Norman or a great string player like Yehudi Menuhin.


Page 16: The jazz method for flute

Another vital foundation technique for playing the flute is tonguing. Theflute player's equivalent of a violin bow, or a drtimstick. It allows yor-rclearly and precisely, to repeat notes ancl to achieve all kincls of differentzriliculations.


tongue is theto stafi notesphrasings and

Exercise L

Imagine that yor-r are a ventriloquist.'' Sing any note that is comfortably within yourvoice range using the syllable 'doo'. Repeat the 'doo' sound slowly and in a steadyrhythm using one breath only. You should produce a continuolls sound as if yor.r

were singing one long note. Look at yourself in the mirror while doing this. Thereshould be no movement of lips, teeth or iaw. Only the front part of tl-re tonpaLle

lnoves. You w'ill find that the tongue rnovements have to be very deiicate to achievethis. It is also important that the tongue moves straight up and down.

Now you should try to apply this movement to the flute, by blowing long notesand tonguing at regular interwals, imagining the 'doo' sound :rnd remembering tosustain the air pressllre by contracting the muscles :iround the diaphragm. As in the'ventriloquist' exercise the tongue makes contact with the harcl palate at the roof ofthe mouth, just behind the top fiont teeth (see Fig. 17).

Do not try to tonglle too rapidly-a speecl of about one note every four secondswould be ideal to begin with.

- I am grateful to my flrst reacher Don Renclell fbr this erercise.


Page 17: The jazz method for flute

ii;irlltiliffii $ffi* dThe point at which the note begins is known as the 'attack'. Up r,rntil ns$,, yolr har einitiated the sotrnd try allowing presslrre to build r-rp Lrehincl the lips and then 'pLrfling'

the note or:t. Although this is a useful tcchnique lor prodr-rcing the first sounds it is nothow notes are usualiy Lregun. The normal proceciure for starting notes involvrs Lrsing

the tongr:c as a kind of valve, and should be practised as follow's:

1. Rreathe in.2. Set the embouchure, r,vith the size ancl shape of the apertllre betu,'een the lips

having been determined by your long-note practice.l. Move the tongue up to thc roof of the mouth.4. Allow- air-pressure to build up just behincl thc tongue. Ycru shoulcl experience rr

kincl of 'bottled-up' sensation, rvith the muscles around the diaphragm remriiningfirm and supporting the air-column.

5. Mo-ne the tongue clown, imagining the 'doo' souncl discussed abovc, bi,rt keeprngthe embor-tchure absolutely still. The note shoulcl sound irnn-rediatcly.

Altl-rough yor-r will probably find it usefr-rl to practise the attack by this cleliberate, stage-by-stage methocl, in a ptraying situation these live steps art: perfbrmecl in one rapicl,flolving movement.

Stopping the NoteThe note is stoppecl not by using tl're tonglle, but rather by closing the lips, w'l'rich givesa much cleaner encl to the note.

Dr-rring the seconcl u,,eek you shor-rlcl practise long notes ancl then the tongtringexercises.

You have now treen taught the vital foundation techniques of, the flute. Whateverkind of music you play these techniques for producing and articulating thesound will always be involved, so practise them diligently.

FURTHER STUDYReading:SttuRtoex V. Sloxr-:s and RrcHenn A. Coxoox, Illustratecl Method.lin'Flute. The first section

of this book presents an excellent in-cleptl-r :rnalysis, r,vith many finc illustratior-rs andphotographs, of the for.rndation techniques.


Page 18: The jazz method for flute

Part T\lro:

Playing the Music

is indicatecl byis on the staff.notes, but the


Do not worry about trying to memorize all these notes at once-you will oniy need toknow four of them in order to play the pieces in the first two chapters.

Leger LinesThe extra lines written above and below the staff are known as leger lines.


The sign at the beginning of the staff is a treble clef sign. The word clef is derived fromthe French word for a key. It shows the position of a particular note on the staff andthus is the key for finding the position of ail the other notes. Al1 flute music is written in

[:"r*Ot" .f"f,

$ a stylized fbrm of the letter G, curling to indicate the position of that

Bars and Bar-LinesVertical lines written across the staff are bar-lines. The spaces between the bar-lines arecalled bars. Bars divide the music into easily recognizable units of time. They do notrepresent stops or pauses. They simply make counting easier, ancl counting, as you willsee, is vital in the reading of music.

Time SignaturesIf you look at the beginning of 'Blues for Beginners' you will see two numberswritten one over the other. This is the time signature. It can be thought of as a

ffi,*{ ,$ffiffi:ffi,i

The StaffMusic is written on a staff (plural, staves), a group of five parallel lines.

Pitch, or how high or low a note is (see under Tuning Position, p 1,1)

the position of that note on the staff-the higher rhe nore the higher itN{usic uses a seven-letter alphabet from A to G to describe the pitch offlute range starts at C:


Page 19: The jazz method for flute

fraction, the top figure or numerator telling us the number of beats in the bar andthe bottom figure or denominator the kind of beat. In this case there are fourquarter or crotchet beats in each bar.

Note DurationsThe table below shows the note durations that you will encounter in your first piecesand exercises:

Symbol British Term American Term Number of Beatsto Count in 4/4 Time



Minim Half Note

rMhole Note

Quarter Note One


Fouro Sernibreve

Pulse and RhythmLook at 'Blues for Beginners'. Count in groups of four beats and clap on every first beat,holding the hands together to express the duration of the semibreve,* which is for:rbeats.

ciap: xxxxcount: I 2 3 4 I 2 3 4 t 2 J + I 2 J r,ett'.

rJflhat you are doing is counting the pulse and clapping the rhlthm.Rhfhm is the organizatictn of notes in time and is not necessarily regular, although

in this instance it is. Pulse-often referred to as 'the beat'-is usually felt rather thanheard and is nearly always regular. It is very often what we dance to in music. Pulsedetermines the speed of the music and helps us to measure the distance between notes.

Now you should practise counting and clapping with the CD accompaniment to'Blues for Beginners'. The claps should coincide precisely with the notes of the flute.This procedure of counting and clapping before playing should be careftrliy adhered tothroughout the book. Rhythm is the most basic element of music, and it is vital tomaster this aspect of each piece before proceeding further.

Taking a BreathThe commas written above the stave are sLrggested breathing places. Breaths should notbe taken where doing so would destroy the flow of the music. There is a parallel herewith speech, where breaths are generally taken at the end of sentences or phrases,except by small children who are still learning the art!

In 'Blues for Beginners' there are no spaces between the notes. In such cases youmust create a breathing space by cutting the note before the breath mark slightly short.You should take small sips of air at regular intelals. Most beginners drastically overesti-mate the amount of breath they need-small amounts will be sufficient provided thatthe breath is adequately supported by the muscles around the diaphragm. Inhalethrough the mouth, trying to disturb your embouchure as little as possible. Do notbreathe through your nose!

The following exercise may help you to become accustomed to the correct mode ofbreathing. Breathe at the commas. The rhythm should be regular and undisturbed by thetaking of the breath. Count slowly and steadily.

Countaloud: 12 3 412 3 4' 1.2 3 412 3 4',erc.

Metronome MarkingsNow you are ready to play 'Blues for Beginners'. The instruction J : IOO at the begin-ning of the piece is a metronome marking, meaning that the music is to be played at a

- Claps can only indicate the position of notes in time-not their duration.


Page 20: The jazz method for flute

\piaa: !-rl i:-( )ii:lLl l- .r.'-t:t l.: :l-:l\ :llr-t:--. ,,1 ., lt>....,: . -:. ^ .rl^.-'

Fir-rgc'rrng p()s1i1cns for iirc piecesclirrgrrrms on p. 1r.

:---,.c -\ :r..-:. :r,,,11c is li clerice nhich marks the pulserr.'trli..i )e ;r svorths hile purchase (see Appendix 3).

in thi.s chapter and the following one are shown in the

E- Blues for Beginners--


'A la Mode' and 'Progression' introcluce minims, and minirl and semibt'eve rests. A

minim is worth tr,vo beats in 4/4 time. The minim rest sits on tite ti-rird line. rnertsttring

from the bottom of the sLrff upu,,arcls, and reprcsents t\\.o beats of silence, while the

semibreve rest hzrngs from the fburth line, representing four beats of silence. Silence inmusic is just :is irlportant as sound, so make sllre )-olr collnt the rests carefully.

There is an optional harmony part to 'A la I'lode', rvhrch can be piayecl by a teacher

or more aclvanced player.

A la Mode

Medium Swing J 138



* 'I'hc numbers rctct'to tracks on the (lI).** All pieces are by -)ohn O'Neill r-rnless otherv"ise indicatecl






Page 21: The jazz method for flute


At the end of 'Progression'rL'perl fronr lhe beginning

is a double bar prececled by tr,vo clots. This me2lns that t.ouThere is only one repeat unlcss othem,-tse inclicated.


Bossa Nova J =


Riffs'C)trt for the Count' (ol'erleaO is a tn,clvc-bar bh-res consisting of a single phrasc u,l-ilch i.s

repeatecl thrce tintes. Short repeatcd phrases of this type are knorl, :rs riff.s. They u,,ereoften r,rsecl by big bands clttring the su,ing era as a nteans ol building excitement, w.ithclif-fcrent riffs sornetitncs being assignccl to each section of the bancl. The Cor-rnt Rasielland of the 1930s is a perfect example.

Frortk F'oster u,ith tbe (iottnt Bosie Bancl


Page 22: The jazz method for flute

CrotchetsThis is the first piece to urse crotchets, which are worth one beat each in 4/1tine.

The'Pick-Up'Yctu will notice that there are just two crotchets before the first bar-line, in spite of thefact that the time signature indicates four beats to each Lrurr. These two crotchets are anexample r>f an antacrusis, sometimes referred to l-ry iezz musicians as a 'pick-up'. Ananactusis is an unstressed note or group of notes at the beginning of a musical phrase.In this instance, the first stronEl accent falls on the C ancl not the G or A. Because of theanacrusis, there is only a two-beat rest in the bar before the repeat.

Out for the CountMediumBluesJ:150

SlursThe curwed lines above thea slur group. For example,first B.

Medium SwingJ : 138

You should tongue only theof tl-re following piece you

notes are the first bar

first note withintongue only the

Times Remembered


Page 23: The jazz method for flute


Third Attempt


FURTHER STUDYListening:Coult Besln, Jumping at the \floodside' from Sruinging tbe Blues. A classic example of

the use of riffs.

The four tunes in this section contain tw'o new notes-low F and E.


Page 24: The jazz method for flute

Dynamic MarkingsThe pieces in this chapter contain dynamic markings. These are abbreviations ofItalian words and are used to indicate volume levels. Here are some of those mostcommonly used:


Italiarr wordpianissimopianomezzopianomezzoforte



Meaningvery quietquietmedium quietmedium loudloudvery loud

Changes in volume on the flute are achieved by varying two factors-the degree ofcontraction of the muscles around the diaphragm and the size of the aperture betweenthe lips.

When playing quietly you need to contract the muscles more firmly and decrease thesize of the aperture; when playing loudly the muscles relax a little more to expel the airfrom the body more quickly and the apertllre increases in size.

The fbllowing exercise is excellent for prectising control of dynamics. Try to makesure that each note begins and ends at the same volurne and tl-rat you achieve sixdistinct dynamic levels. You can play this exercise using any of the notes you havelearnt so far.

The Pause

The sign rn is a pause, sometimes called a .fermata, w'hich means the note should beextended beyond its written value, at the cliscretion of the performer or musical director.In the exercise you should therefore pause on each note ancl take a new breath beforeyou play the next one.

*fCrotchet Rests

The sign I in 'Flat 5' is a crotchet or quarter-note rest. It represents one beat of silence in1/4 time.

TiesIn 'FIat 5' you will notice thar the last two notes are connected by a curved line. This iscalled a tie. It has the effect of joining the two notes together as one, so you do nottongue the second G, but simply extend it by four extra beats. Do not confuse ties withslurs. A tie always connects notes of the same pitch, whereas a slur connects notes ofdifferent pitch.

Flat 5720


Rock J

Page 25: The jazz method for flute

InterstellarMedium Swing J 130


Syncopation'25f is made more difflcult by the presence of syncopation, w}rich can be defined as

the placing of accents where you w'ould not normaily expect to fincl them-the effectbeing one of rhythmic surprise. Nlucl-r of the vitality of jazz derives from the extensiveuse of syncopated rhythrns. In this example it is the fourth beats of the flrst, third and

fifth Lrars which are syncopatecl.

E 251Medium-UpSwing ):b4


In 'Home Bass' you will notice after the first two crotchets a ckruble bar with dots placedafter it. This is an indication of u,here you repeat from.

The clynamic marking mp-f mcans ),ou should play mezz<tpiano the first time ancl

forte on the repeat.

Home Bass


FURTHER STUDYIt is important that you spend some of your practice time playing by ear. I'ry to merlo-rize some of the tunes yot-r have learnt so fhr and play them without the musie,

Inventing your own tunes would also be a goocl idea.Play the lower pafi of 'Third Attempt' from the previous chapter.


Page 26: The jazz method for flute

S.f,f.$,i E

Sharps, Semitones and Accidentals

In '|ames' you u'ill fincl middle Cf for the first time. This nore is inclicarecl by a sharpsign written in front of the C. A sharp rieans the note is raised by one semitone, n hichis the distance between one note and its nearest neighbour note, and the smallestinterval that is 'officially' recognized in the mainstream of .Western music. Signs whichalter notes in this way are called accidentals. Accidentals aff-ect every note of the samepitch in the bar, so in bar 3 of James' both C,s are sharp.

This tune is an example of the bossa-nova rhythm, made famous in ia,zz by the earlysixties recordings of tenor saxoph<tnist Stan Getz.

Dotted NotesThe first note is a minim with a dot placed after it. A clot placed after a note exrencls itsduration by half as much again. A dotted minirn is therefore worth three beats (2 + 1).



'South View'remain silent

Play l times

introduces Ff.

for eight bars.

8Thc sign EE at the beginning of the piece means that yo,Count carefr.rlly so that you know exactly rvhen to come in.

South ViewRock JIntro





Play lower part3rd & 4th times only

Page 27: The jazz method for flute

The Natural SignIn 'Minor Problem' the second note of bars 1, 3 and 5 is preceded by another kincl olaccidental, the natural sign l, which cancels any previous accidentals in the bar.

Minor ProblemMediumGroove ):1.3o

FURTHER STUDYListening:STex GEtz, Jctzz Samba; Stan Getz ancl

-[oao Gilberto. l3oth of these records areclassic.exarnples of the r:se of thehossa-nova rhl thnr in itzz.


The pieces in this chapter introduce B[.The flat sign is another accidental, meaning thatthe note placed after it is to be played a semitone lower.

As you will see from the diagrams there are rwo ways of fingering this note. One of theadvantages of ttrumb Bb (i) is that the thumb may remain in position on this key whileplaying any notes that involve depressing the second finger of the left hand, in other


Page 28: The jazz method for flute

words from A down to low E. For example, when moving from A to B[, as in the thirdbar of 'Roberto', the thr-rmb may remain on the B[ key. Thumb Bb may therefore beregarded as your first choice fingering for any piece or passage, like 'Roberlo', in whichall the B's are flat.

However, when you have to alternate between Bb and B natural, as in the first line of'Delta City' or the whole of 'Gangsterland', you should use the 'long' fingering (ii), sincethe thr-rmb B[ is rather awkward in such situations. You may also fincl the long B[ usefulwhen moving between B[and F, as in the sixth bar of 'Delta City'.

Key Signatures\il/hen accidentals are placed in between the clef sign and the time signature as in'Roberto' they form a kej, signature, u'hich tells yor,r w'hich notes are to be playedsharp or flat for the duration of the entire piece rather than lust for a single bar. In thiscase the placement of the flat sign on the middle line of the stave nleans that all B's areto be played flat unless otherwise indicatecl by an accidentzrl.

RobertoBossaNova ):96

Enharmonic Notes'Delta Ciry' introduces D[, q,hich is another name for the note C$. The note in between C

and D is both one semitone higher than C (Cf) ancl one semitone lower than D (D[).Notes like Cf and D[ which can be namecl in two ways are said to be enharmonicnotes. It is essential tl-rat yoti learn to think of these notes in boti-r w'a;,'s.

First and Second Time Bars

This piece also introduces first and second time bars. These are frequently used tosave space on repeats. The second time bars are played as an alternative-nc\-cr inacldition-to tl-re first time bars on the repeat.

Delta CityTraditional Blues r = 136


t! -


Page 29: The jazz method for flute

Crescendo and Decrescendo\7hen it is wished to indicate that the music should gradually get louder or softer thiscan be done in two ways: either by writing cresc. or decresc.- (Italian = crescendo ordecrescendo, meaning getting louder or softer); or by the signs -< and -.--.--.---._-

To practise this try the following exercise, using other notes for variation. Listen carefullyto ensure that you keep the pitch steady.




Accents'Gangstedand' introduces accents. The sign zr over the first note is a short accent,meaning that the note is to be attacked hard ancl then stoppecl short of its furll u,,rirrenvalue.* The sign > over the second note means that the beginning of the note shoulcl bepiayed with extra emphasis. This is achieved by a slight 'kick' of the diaphragm, similarto what happens rvhen you cor-rgh.

MediumswingJ =raoGangsterland

f f

f f









* Note for teachers: this is not the same as the classical staccato, which is lighter and shorter


Page 30: The jazz method for flute


The BreakOne of tl-re major technical problems of the flr-rte is crossing the 'break', or moving romidclle register D from the notes below. This involves considerable finger coorclinationand the exercise below- will be a useful preparatoryr stucly.

PIay the exercise slowly and evenly, with good tone, slurring thror-rghout, u,,ith theexception of the initial attack note.

Do not be discouraged if yoll are not immediately successful at crossing the breaka technical challenge even for more advancecl players.

'Breaking Point'rvill provicle sirnilar technical practice with CD accompaniment.

Breaking Point

It iS

BossaNova ) =128

'Transition' introduces E above the break. The fingering position for this note is exactlythe same as for the E in the lower register (see fingering diagram on p.23') . lWhether youproduce the higher or lower note depends firstly on the sound you hear in your headand secondly on subtle changes in the embouchure. In order to produce higher notesthe following adjustments to the embouchure are necessary:

@ The zrperture between the lips should be smaller.ffi Your lower lip should cover more of the embouchure hole (somewhere between a

thircl and a half).ffi The lips rnust move closer to the far edge of the embouchure hole.# The air-stream wiil need to be directed more dor,vnwards.


Page 31: The jazz method for flute



The best means of experiencing what is required is to practise daily, as part of yourwarm up, the following exercise. It is very important that the exercise be playedslurred. Try to imagine the sound of the second note before yor-r play it ancl listen care-fully to ensure that the two notes are in tune:


In free tempo

Sylvie's Dance


'K.O.' (overleaf) introducesFrom that of rriddle D-the

low D. Notice that the fingering position is slightly differentindex finger of the left hand also has to be depressed.


Page 32: The jazz method for flute

K.0.Medium Groove J : 136




FURTHER STUDYPlaying:Play the lower part of 'A la Mode' from Chapter 1, and the lower part of 'South Vieu,.lrorn Chapter 4.

See fingering diagrarns on pp. 23 and 12 respectively.

'Blue Jean' introcluces F and G above tl-re break. Your claily practice of octaves (see:

previous chapter) should now be extended to include these notes as well. Keep tl-rethroat open and relaxed ancl remember to support the air column by contracting themuscles around the diaphragm. Try to achieve the feeling of your sound 'floating on air'.

Blue Jean


MinorBlues ):74o


Page 33: The jazz method for flute

ImprovisationAfter yor-r have played the tr:ne of 'Blue Jean' try improvising with ther-rsing the following five notes:


It woulcl be a good idea to learn these notes by heirrt before attempting to improvise.Dr-rring this improvised section yoll may play wtratever you ieel using these notes

only. You can play the notes in any register, so you can also play low G, and E and D.

You need not worry about playing any 'wrong' notes, since all of these notes will soundfine wherever yoll play thenr.

Most beginner improvisers mzrke the mistake of neglecting the rhythmic aspect oftheir playing. The following exercises shoulcl help with this problern:

# Clap out a solo. or tap one olrt on your legs or on a table top. Be as aclventurolls as

you like, irut try to maintain a strong rhythmic feeling in what you do, like a good

iazz drummer.@ Once you are hrppy about clapping a solo return to the flute and try improvising

again, using only the note A and trying to retain the strong rhythmic f-eeling yor-r hadwhilc you wcre cllpping.

& Once yor-r feel comfortable improvising with a single note add the C, ancl try to play a

solo using jLlst two notes.ffi In a similar fashion add the remaining notes, one at a time, alu,ays fclcusing on

rhythm. It rnay be helpful to think of the scale as a set of 'tunecl drums', r,vith yourtongue as the 'cJn-ulstick'.

These exercises shoulcl have helped you to realize that the most important elementof any jazz solo is rhythm.

The follow'ing exercises will give you adclitional valuable practise at crossing the break.Play them slowly, graclually increasing the tempo.

N.B. The second and third exercises can be playecl as a duet


Page 34: The jazz method for flute



The word scale is derived from the Italian scala-'staircase' or 'ladder'. It is a series ofsingle notes moving up or down in steps.

ChordsA chord is a combination of notes sor-rnding together. Sintple three-note chords areknown as triads.

It is irnpossible to play chords on the flr-rte in the way that a keyboard player orguitarist cztn, although some players hzrve experimented u.itl"r multiphonics-theplaying of more than one note by use of alternative fingerings and advancecl blow'ingtechniques.

ArpeggiosAn arpeggio is a chord played melodically, sounding the notes one after the other,rather than harmonically, playing the notes simultaneously.

Scales and arpeggios are the 'nuts ancl bolts' of most jazz imprctvisation, although toachieve good results creative rather than mechanical use must be made of theml

Below are the scales ancl arpeggio of F major and D minor, Ycru will notice that theyshare the same key signature. They are known as relative keys. They contain the samenotes, except the seventh note of the D minor scale is sharpened, shown by an acci-dental and not in the key signature. There are yarious forms of the minor scale, thispafticular one being known as the harmonic minor.*

The scales and arpeggios should be committed to memory and played slowly, gradu-ally increasing the speed as your technique develops. Strive for rhytl-rmic and tonalevenness. Scales and arpeggios should initially be played slurrecl to develop smoothtechnique. Once this has been mastered they may be tongued as well.

F rnajor scale

F major arpeggio

* The constnretion of major ancl minor scales and arpeggios will be discussed at greater length in Chapter17, p 60.


Page 35: The jazz method for flute

D harmonic minor scale

ffifil# ' iE

D minor arpeggio

Once you are feeling comfortable with the F major scale and arpeggio try playing themwith track 24 on the CD. When yoLr can .manage this you should begin to improviscusing the scale notes.

'Devil Music' and 'Bird Waltz' introduce G#/Ab and Df/E[, both of which are furtherexamples of enharmonic notes.

Both notes involve coordination of the two weakest fingers. The fingering exercisesbelow are designed to strengthen thern and should be incorporated into your warm-upuntil yoLl have mastered them. Play them slowly at first 1 J = 60), gradually increasingthe tempo.

The line written above and below the notes in bars 9 and 10 of 'Devil Music' are tenutomarks, meaning that these notes should be held for their full value and connected as

smoothly as possible.


Page 36: The jazz method for flute

Devil Music





CTCSC. f'Bircl \Valtz' is a blr-res inspirecl by the music of Charlie Pzrrker (1920-1955), somerinesknown as Bird. He u,as one of the greatest ever jazz musicians ancl together with DizzyGillespie, Bud Powell ancl others createci I3ebop, lr itzz sryle rvhich dominatecl the1940s, and has continueci to exert a powerfurl influence ()n contemporary music.

514 TimeThis tr-rne introduces 3/4 or waltz time, in wl-iich there are three crotchet beats to eactrbar. 3/4 time u,as rarely heard in jazz before the 1950s. It hzrs become much morepopular since then, ancl is particlllarly associatecl r,vith the music of the lyrical and higl-rlyinfluential pianist Bill Evans.

T[anspositionI have written 'Bird \Waltz' in tu,o keys, C and B major. The process of moving a tllneinto a diff-erent key is knou,n as tfansposition. Trzrnsposition is one of the most effect-ive w'ays of improving your knowledge of keys, getting to know your instrument urndtraining your ear.

The note Gh in bar 8 is enharmonically eqr-rivalent to I,-f.

Bird Waltz (cMaior)

Jazz-Waltz ) = L32


Page 37: The jazz method for flute

on p. 26.


+*t loFSee fingering diagram

Bird Waltz 1rMajog:132JazzWaltz )

Ycru mzry recognize the scale irt the encl of 'A Song for Sophie' (:;ee p. 38) as the samefive-note scale with which yor: improvisecl the backing track of 'Blue Jean', but thistime starting on l) instead of A. This is a pentatonic scale sometimes referred to as therninor pentatonic. The sign /. indicates a whole-bar repeat.

From this tune onwards cletailecl indications of where to tongue (articulation rnark-ings) have been omittecl. You should experiment u,,ith many different possibilities forphrasing and expression. marking therl in your copy with a soft pencil so that they caneasily be alterecl. The foilowing points may help ro guide you:

@ The first note of any new phrase shoulcl nearly alw.ays be tongr:ecl.& Tongue only those notes rrhich require extra emphrtsis.# Avoicl 'phrasing to the bar-line' or tonguing the first beat of evcry bar. This kind of

phrasing is particularly inappropriate t() iezz.@ How to articulate a p:ISSage is ofien a riatter of individr,rzll taste. There is rrore than

one 'right'way.# You will learn a lot by listening carefully to the example on the CD ancl to the recorcl-

ings of great iazz players. J:rzz is a language th:rt is often best learnt by irnitation.

See fingering diagram on p. 12.




Page 38: The jazz method for flute

A Song for SophieMedium ) :726



Improvise using thisD minor pentatonic scale fade out

Use ofSpaceMake sure you do not clutter your solos with too many notes. The best jazz musiciansknow how to make effective usc of space. There are two ways of creating sprrcc in a

solo-one is by r.rsing silence and tl-re other is by playing notes of longer cluration. Ineither case you will find you have more time to be aware of r.vhat you and-just as

importantly-the other musicians are doing. As a restrlt your playing should becomemore relaxecl, expressive ancl coherent. Trumpeter Miles Davis is a fine example ofsomeone who uses space quite brilliantly.

Chromatic Scale

Now- that you have learnt G#/Ab and trow Dfi/El yor-r are abie to practise the chromaticscale, in which one moves by semitone steps fiom any note to the same note in thenext register. The example below shows a chromatic scale starting on F-. In order to giveyoll more practice with enhannonic notes I have written sharps in the ascending versionancl flats in the descencling version of the scale.


Page 39: The jazz method for flute

:$ffiii ffiffi;

FURTHER STUDYPlaying:As an exercise in transposition try playingany of the tunes you have played so farstarting on a different note. Other goodmaterial for transposition would be simplefolk tunes or nursery rhymes.Listening:CnqRrrn P,q.RxEn, 'Blues for Alice' from

Cbarles Parker.Brrr EveNs, 'Waltz for Debbie', from

At tbe Village Vanguard. A beautifulexample of a iazz waltz.

Mnns D,wrs, Kind. of Blue. Listen inparticular to the tn-lmpet solos forexamples of the use of space.

Reading:Ross Russut-, Bircl Liues.

Geny GrootNs, Celebrating Bird:The Triumph of Charlie Parker.Rosent RusNuR, Bird; Tbe Legencl ofCbarlie Parker.Viewing:'Bird' directed by Clint Eastwood.

Sighrreading is only one of the many skills a good jazz musician must acquire. Adiscriminating ear is one of the most vital assets, since effective improvisation dependson being able to translate the ideas in your head on to the instrument as qr-rickly aspossible.

Ear TlainingA lucky minority seem to develop fantastic aural perception at a rrery early age. At theother end of the spectrLlm true 'tone-deafness' is much rarer than people imagine. Forthe vast majority in between these extremes aural training can produce remarkableresults.

IntervalsOne important skill is the ability to recognize and sing intervals. Interuals are a meansof expressing the distance belween one note and another. You should begin to developyour sense of this by learning to sing the intervals of the major and minor scales. Thechart below indicates the names of these interuals in the D major scale, measuring themfrom the first note, also known as the tonic. The degrees of the scale are expressed as

Roman numerals:

Page 40: The jazz method for flute

Major scale (D)III WII

major 2nd major 3nd perfect 4th perfect 5th major 6th major 7th octave

The intervals between successive clegrees of the harmonic minor scale and the tonic arethe same, except I-III (which is a minor third) and I-VI (a minor sixth): these tl'o inter-vals are a semitone smaller th:rn their major crollnterparts:

Harmonic Minor Scale (D)I II III VIII

filalor 2t"Ld mlnof Jrcl peftect 4th pertect )th mlfrof bth ma,or 7th octave

It is impoflant to realize that the inter-v'als are thc same for every key. Thus, the distancebetween the tonic and the fiftl-r note of any major or rrinor scale, measured as anascending interual, is alwavs a perf'ect fifth.

In the exercises v,,Jrich lbllow tq, not to be too self-conscious about yor-rr singing.Accuracv of pitch is n'iore important than tone quality. Singing rvill help your fluteplaying and vice-r,ersa-the tecl'inique of supporting the breath and relaxing the tl-rroat

is irlmost iclentical.Sorne intervals are mr:ch l-rarder to sing than others. It is best to begin u,'ith trying to

recognize and sing the ascending interwals.

Exercises for singing intervalsIt u,oulcl be an aclvantage to do this exercise at a keyboard. You would then be ableto hear u.hat tl-ie two notes sound like wl-ren played together.

(i) Play slon'ly from D to the A above a few times to establish the sor:nd of theinten al in your l-read.

(ii) Play D.(iii) Imagine the sound of the A.(iv) Sing A.

Shoulcl yor-r fincl it difficult to pitch this interual sing up the steps of the scale untilyou reach the required note. Thc next stage is to imagine singing Llp to the notewithout actually vocalizing. Once this is mastered it will not be long before yolr can

find tl-re correct pitch without singin5l the notes in between.You should work tow'ards being able to sing the inten al without the preparatory

step (i), and in as many diff'erent keys as possible. Do not be surprised if it takes yor-r

several days or weeks to master a particular interval.

major 2r.d minor lrd perfect 4th perfect 5th minor 6th major 7th


Page 41: The jazz method for flute

Once yotr are conficlent with fifths you can progress to other inten als. A recommenclc,Jorder of study is: perfect fifth, perfect fourth. octave, major second, major third. mrnorthird, major sixth, rninor sixth, major seventh.

Some students find it helpful to use mnemonics fbr the interuals. For exarnple, thefirst two notes of 'Oh When the Saints Go Marching In' are a maior third apar-t. Someother possibly helpful rnnemonics are 'Here Comes the Rride' for a perfect fourth,'Twinkle Twinkle Little Star' for a perfect fifth ancl 'My Bonny Lies Over the Ocean' for a

major sixth. You might wish to substitute some tunes of your own-the more farniliarthe better.

Having developed an ability to sing ascending inten'als, you shoulcl next przictise

descending interuals. These are named in the major ancl harmonic mirror scales as


InversionsThe interval which measures the distance betrveen the same pair of named notes br,tt inthe opposite direction, e.g., from D down to E rather than up to E, is knou,n as aninversion. The original interval ancl its inversion always acld up to nine. e.g., seconclsbecome sevenths and fourths becon"re fifths; major interyals become minor n'heninverted and minor intervals bccorne major; perfect interv-als remain perfect.

Yor-r should practise singing clescending intervals by adapting the exercises givcnabove. A suggested order of stucly is: perfect fourth, octaye, minor third. rninor seconcl.perfect fifth, malor third, minor sixth, major sixth, minor seventh.

Playing by EarPlaying by ear is one of the rnost enjoyable ancl eff-ective ways of improving your auralperception. Any material will do-nursery rhymes, hyrnns, folk tunes, songs you hear onthe radio, T.V. themes, advertising jingles-bnt the rnost relevant exercise would be toget hold of itzz recordings and learn to play jazz tunes. You lvill also clevelop yollrsound, sense of time and phrasing by listening to tl-re j'azz maslers in this w'ay.

If you cannot afford to br-ry the records, visit your local music library, which will oftencontain an excellent record collection. This is a good way to become farniliar urith thejazz heritage. Yolr should start with simple meloclies. Recordings by singers, frrr exampleti-ie 1950s recordings of Frank Sinatra. are also goocl source material.



minor 2nd minor 3rd perfect 4thperfect 5th minor 6th minor 7th octave

r(urr) vrr


minor 2nd major 3rd perfect 4th perfect 5th major 6th minor 7th octave


Page 42: The jazz method for flute

Proceed as follows:1. Play the recording several times.2. Sing the melody with the recording, trying to imitate as closely as possible with

your voice the inflections of the instr-ument or voice. This technique of imitatinginstrumental sounds with the voice is known as scat-singing. Louis Armstrong, EllaFitzgerald, Chet Baker, Al Jarreau and Bobby McFerrin are five of the very best scat-singers.

3. Sing the melody without the recording-rhis is much harder!4.P1ay the melody with the recording. This will develop the ability to translare whar

you hear in your head to your fingers-a vital skill for musicians who wish toimprovise.

5. Play the melody without the recording.

You may find this difficult at first but please persevere-it becomes easier with practice.This sort of exercise will develop your playing considerably.

Later on you can progress to more intricate melodies and even jazz solos. Some sortof device for slowing the music down to half-speed is invaluable. This coulci be either areel-to-reel tape-recorder which records at both lTiz and 33,,4 ips or a record playerwhich slows down to 16 rpm, preferably with sliding pitch control to facilitate tllning.Cassette players with slow-down facility are also available. These items can be relativelycheaply acquired through small-ad pages of newspapers, junk shops or second-hanclaudio equipment shops. The ability to slow dou,,n solos opens up a whole world ofdifficult music to yolrr ears. Charlie Parker is said to have used this method to stucly themusic of his idol Lester Young.

FURTHER STUDYPlaying:This game can be played with yor-rr teacher or anotherso that neither player can see the other's fingerings,any note. The other player must try to sound the sameregularly at this game you will be surprised how easy iton the first attempt.

flute player: position yourselvesand take it in turns to soundnote in response. By practising

lrecomes to iincl the correct note

Reading:Peur HrNurr,rtu, Elementarl,Training for Musicians.Not for the faint-heartedl Thisbook contains at least twoyears' study. But well worththe effort.Listening:Lours AnnstnoNc, 'Basin Street

Blues' from Hct 5 ancl Hot 7.

Eu-a Frrzcnnqm, 'Rockin' inRhyhm'from Sings tbe DukeEllington Songbook.

CHat Bersn, 'But Not For Me'fromTlse Toucb of Your Lips.

Ar. JennEau, 'Roof Garden' and 'BlueRondo a la Turk' from Breakin'Aruay.

Boney McFennrN, .Walkin" fromSpontaneous Inuentions.

The above recordings are all examplesof scat-singing.


Tr,, A'*t"ons

Page 43: The jazz method for flute

ar !1 r!11:11::: :l 1:r:::::i.i-::iaia:iiai iaiiai illil

', F,t S +

Even QuaversIn classical music quavers, or eighth notes,crotchets but in jazz they can be interpretedwith the classical interpretation, sometimesquavers' or'straight eighths'.

NSingle quav(rs are writtcn thrrs p .)

Beams'When there are two or more quavers

are invariably given half the value ofin different ways. This chapter will dealreferred to by iazz tnusicians as 'cven


they may be connected by a beam, e g ,[-: ". J-]T:Perform the following exercises:

) :10-60Count: 7 2

Quavers can also be counted in this way:

and and and and

To perform the drumming exercise below sitthe palms of your hancls resting on the topslowly at first.

on a chair with your feet on the floor anclof your thighs. You should attempt it very


Right Hand


Page 44: The jazz method for flute

These notes are introduced in the following two pieces:

See fingering diagrams on pp. 27 , 35 and 12 respecrively.

The House in the ForestBossaNova )=tsz




Improvise using C major scale: fade out

'Tongue-Twister' is an exercise for rapid tonguing, but do not strive for speed at theexpense of even tone and rhythm. It is better to begin slowly and graclually increase thetempo, using a metronome if one is available.


Page 45: The jazz method for flute

'Lullaby' is an example of a tune in a iazz-rock style. Tiris style alu,'ays

quaver interpretation.If you experience problems with the tiecl rhythms, e.g. in bars 2 ancl

phrase first without the tie. This will help yoLr to hear the correctn()tes.

calls for an even-

4, try playing theplacement of tl-re

D.C. al FineThe direction D.C. al Fine is short for Da Capo al Fine (literally 'from the beginning tothe end') ancl means repeat from the start of the piece and stop at the worcl l,-ine.

RallentandoRalI. is an abbreviation of rctllentandct, meaning 'getting slower'.

See fingering cliagram on p. 72

Lullaby Tecl Gioia



Light Rock ) = B2lEven Js.1

rall. 12nd rime only)



1991, Ted Gioia. All rights reserved. Used by permission


Page 46: The jazz method for flute

Scale and arpeggio practice: C major

A minor


FURTHER STUDYListening:Tro Grom, 'Lullaby in G' from Tbe End of tbe Open Road.Playing:Extend your practice of octaves to the new notes you have learnt in this chapter

Thiplet QuaversTriplet quavers occur when a crotchetbeat is subdivided into three. Thev arenotated like this:

Count:Perform the following exercise: '---.


landa Zanda 3anda 4andaaaaaaaaaaoaatttttttttttr




One way of counting this rhyhm is:

Page 47: The jazz method for flute

This exercise for rhythm and ar-ticulation would make an ideal daily warm-up, andshould be practised on different notes throughout the flute range:

J = 50-100

Moon TirneBallad ) = st

'The Loneliest Monk' (overleaO isdedicated to the late TheloniousMonk (1917-82), a pianist andcomposer whose extraordinaryoriginality was coupled with a

wry humour.

Page 48: The jazz method for flute

See fingering diagram on p. 26

Slow blues The Loneliest Monkt_rl =86a rOc

Scale and arpeggio practice: G rnaior3


in G major r-rsing track 34 on the CD

FURTHER STUDYListening:Tssroxrous Moxr, The Composer


Page 49: The jazz method for flute

Gi+fl P.i:P]:ffi.


This chapter deals with quavers which are played with a 'swing' rather thzln with eveninterpretation.

Swing QuaversIt is important to lrnderstand that there is no visual distinction betu,een sw'ing (ctr 'jttzz')qlr2rvcrs and even quavers. The notes are written the same way but interpretecl cliff-er-

ently, the on-treat quaver having a value of two thirds of a beat and tl're ofl'-beat qllziverone third of zr beat. Swing qllavers are therefore closely relatecl to triplet qlravers:



but to notate them as tl-iey are played would be untidy ancl unnecessarily cornplicated

Pr:ictise the follou,'ing exercise


Scat-singing (see Chapter 10,

p. 42) is an excellent way ofestablishing the correct 'fee1'

for iazz rhytl-ims. One u.ay of5(etting jazz qLruvcr: is:


be doo bedoo be cloo be doo

There are many other possibilities. Try inventingyour own sounds. Vhen the off-beat quavcr is

follor,ved by silence, as in "Trane Refrain' I prefer2r more emphatic scat-sound:

To Swing Or Not To Swing?You may be wondering how yoll are to know whether the qtiavers should be played'straight' or 'swung'. In many cases this is indicatecl Lry the expression markings at thebeginning of the piece. Son-ietimes the composer/arranger specificaliy requests thedesired quaver interpretation. In other cases the icliorn dictates what is required. Forexample, if the piece is marked 'j'azz-rock', 'latin', 'bossa-nova' or 'calypso' the qlra\rersare playecl even, but 'swing', or 'medium blues' indicates iazz qrtavers.* If in cloubt. tn-both ways and make an artistic cl-roice!

With jazz qu:rvers a little extra emphasis is generally given to the offl-beat quaver. TL)

achieve thrs jazz musicians often slur from off-beat to on-beat. Tonguing all the on-beat-s

can make the music souncl labourecl. In order to practise this kincl of phrasing scales

should be played as follows:

* At fast tempos, cven in rnusic in a srving icliom, the qlravers arc playecl stmigl'rt, since a srrrooih ss inginterpretation is impossible to achieve.

Count: landa 2anda 3anda landa


Page 50: The jazz method for flute

gazz ) sS

You should also practise tonguing on every other off-beat qu2rver:

D.S. al CodaThe term D.S. al Cocla, ansign to the taii'. A cocla isthis instruction you repeat

abbreviation ofan extra sectionfrom the sign .fi

Dal Segno al Coda, means literally 'from thewhich is adcled to a piece. \7hen you meetand then go to tl-re coda at the coda sign.S.

) : Mo (Swing .b s)The Magician

FE --


D.S. al Coda

"Trane Refrain' is an example of therninor blues form which was often usedby saxophonist John Coltrane(1925-1.967), one of the most influentialmusicians in the history of iazz.


Page 51: The jazz method for flute

AnticipationWhen an off-beat quaver is followed by a rest, as in the first six bars, or when it is tieclover, as in the final six bars, it is often easier flot to collnt the on-beat wl-rich imn-iecli-ately follows. This is because the off-beat qlraver fr:nctions as an anticipation of thefollowing beat. It can therefore feel rushed and uncomfortable to coLlnt the next beat,especially if the tempo is fast. Try to 'feel' this beat w'ithout consciously counting it.

'Thane RefrainMedium-Up Swing J 170





'Biue Monk' is one of Theloni<;us Monk's most celebrated compositions.

The Blues Scale/Passing NotesIn 'Blue Monk' there is a twelve-bar improvisation section. The suggestecl scale fbrimproviszttion is often referred to by iazz educators as the blues scale. It is similar to theminor pentatonic scales you used for 'Blue Jean' in Chapter 7 and'Song for Sophie' inCl'rapter 9 br-rt it has one extra note-the flattened fifth, which in this casc is Fb (enhar-monically equivalent to E naturai). This note has a very strong trlues f'eeling. It sor-rndsextremely dissonant or restless when playecl by itself and is more often used by jazzmusicians as a passing note, or connectinll note, as in bars 1 ancl 3 of the upper part.


Page 52: The jazz method for flute

1 Blue Monk Thelonious MonkBluese :100 1Sn-ingJs)

'A .- o!,o ? - ? +\* l'F f))

A ^)t^ .->3


oa !.1Ar -?4

Improvise on this scale:CODA 5

'^ --a

RepetitionA key n'ord to remember u,'hen irnprovising is repetition. Many beginner improvisersmake the mistake of simply running up and down the scale rather aimlessiy. Repetirionof single notes in interesting rhythms is a goocl way of breaking this habit. SaxophonistsLester Young and Sonny Rollins provide masterly examples of how effective note repeti-tion can be in a )azz solo. Eqr.rally important is the use of riffs (see Chapte r 2, p. 21.), forwhich you wili find no better model than guitarist Charlie Christian. Experiment byinventing your os,,n riffs on 'lllue Monk' r-rsing the given scale.

FURTHER STUDYListening:JouN CorrneNE, 'Mr P.C.' frorn Giant Sreps as an example of a minor blues.Tuul-oNrous MoNn, 'Blue Monk'from The Composer.CseRrrE CrrnrsrnN, Tbe Genius c1f the Electric Guitar.

D.C. al Codaa 1962. Bocu Music Lrd. All rights reserwed. Used by permission


Page 53: The jazz method for flute


Bossa Nova

Off-Beat PhrasesSo fhr all the phrases which yor: have playeci have started on rhe beat.chapter featlrre phrases which begin off the beat.

To begin with you may find it helpfurl to indicare rhe posirion ofcounting as follows:


The pieces in this

every qllaver by

\When yor,r play phrases which begin off the beat you will therefore Lre entering on the'and'. T1-ie example below- shows l-row this counting methocl couicl be applied to the firsttr'vo bars of 'A Ikrssa for Bettv'.

landZand3 and 1 and Tand2and 3 and 4 and 1. etc.

Eventually you will probably be able to clispense witl-r counting theThe syrlibo1 y is a quaver rest, w()rth half a beat. The noten'l-rich follor*,.s it in the second bar is a dotted crotchet, rvorthone and a half beats. The off-beat clotted crotchet can thereforcalso be written:

A Bossa for Betty


1 and 2 and 3 ancl I and

13tt lEven .D s;


D.S. al Coda


Page 54: The jazz method for flute

-: .-,-.-. ,r-,r.-i.iS ott--beat entries in a jazz-quaver context. Remember that an on--":- ,,--.,:i rcS: 1s \\-orth rwo thirds of a beat! The off-beat quaver is therefore later than:" :r- ." .- rre playing with an even-qllaver interpretation. In order to achieve the.Lr)irec[ interpretation listen to the CD and then try scatting what the flute is playingusing the syllables written between the staves.

Sister CarolineMedium Blues ) : 716 (Swing.Ds)

.)rbe doo dat


r ,,tA


be doo da-


A h >/7 7

'Happy Feet'

Jamaica.At the end

of which vou

is rhythmically influenced by Reggae, a dance style which originated in

of this piece you can improvise using either of the given scales, the secondmay recognize as the blues scale starting on D.


Page 55: The jazz method for flute

Happy FeetReggae ) : L28(Swing.Ds)


cs*p,iffffiH +6

The Dotted Crotchet Followed by a QuaverThe new rhyhn-r that you will meet in this chapter is the clotted crotchet followecl by a

quaver. The exercises overleaf will help you to understand how this rhythrn relates topreviotts rhythms you have learnt. Tl-rey should be performed using both even- ancl iazz-quaver interpretations. It is particularly important that you collnt the beat imrnediatelypreceding the off-beat quaver.

lmprovise using these scales


Page 56: The jazz method for flute

2and 3 and4and(Even.b s)

Count: l and

(Swing .D s)doo do bedoo doo

doo-- o bedoo doo


o be doo doo

doo datdo

doo- - o dat

N.B. (b) and (c), ancl (e) ancl (f) are identical rhythrnically but notate.l differently

AikidoRock 138

land 2and3and4and

land Zand3andland

land 2and3and4and

1 and 2and 3 and 4 and

doo- - o datlandZand3andland


Page 57: The jazz method for flute



MediumBlues J = 158



Red Alert

E.- ---],-.------- 1 AX


D.S. al FineModesThe improvised solo at the end of 'I'Sfill Call You' uses the Phrygian mode. A mode isanother name for a scale. Using the notes of each major scale it is possible to create sixadditional scales or modes using each different degree of the scale as the 'home' note.Playing the E[ major scale starting on the third degree produces G Phrygian. This modeis highly evocative of Spanish music, which has inspired such famous iazz mostcrans as

Gil Evans, Miles Davis and Chick Corea.

I lvill Call You) = 1.24 ( s


Improvise using this scale (G Phrygian):

Page 58: The jazz method for flute

CII P":, 8

FURTHER STUDYListening:Mllns Devts, 'Flatnenco Sketches' from Kind o.f Blue, one of the first recorclings to

explore modal improvisation. This is perhaps the most famous example of the use oithe Phrygian mode in jazz.

N{rrps Devrs with the Gr Er,.rxs Oncutsrm, Sketcbes o.f Spain.cnrcx coREA, 'Spain', 'Seior Nlouse' and 'Armando's Rhumba' from cbick corea.Playing/Singing:Listen to 'So What' from Mrns Dar-ts' Kind oJ'Blue. The rhythm of the answering phraseplayed by the saxophones and trumpet in response to the bass figure is a dotteclcrotchet fbllowed by a qr-raver. Try first singing and then playirrg this phrase along withthe recording.


Low C and Cg

Tl-ie lowest notes on the flute present ir considerable technical challenge. The musclesarouncl the diaphragm have to work harder to slrpport the longer vibrating column ofair and the fingerings for low C and Cf demand considerable strengtl-r, clexteriry andcoordination from the third and fourth fingers of the right hand.

As if all this were not enough, tiny leaks higher up the instrument can easily make thevery low'est tones difficult to produce without resorting to the use of excessive fingerpressLlre, so make sure your instrument has been tested ancl found to Lre leak-free by ateacher, professional player or woodwind technician before proceeding ftrrther.

You should now incorporate long notes on C and Cfi into your daiiy warm-upr. ycrumay find it helpfiil to bear in mind the following points when arrempring ro producethese notes:& Maintain firm support for the breath with the muscles around the diaphragm.# For the lon'est notes remember that you shor-rlcl cover less of the embouchure hole-

r-rsually no more than one qllarter. You can check this using a rnirror. In order toensure that the air jet is split in half it will therefore be necessary to blow acrossmore.

@ These notes often tend to be excessively breathy, flat in pitch and iacking projection.You can counteract this by pushing these notes almost to the point where they breakup into the octave above.


Page 59: The jazz method for flute

The Bottom Line


212 or Cut TimeThe next piece is w-ritten in 2/2 time, meaning that yor-r should count trvo minirn beatsto a bar. AII notes ancl rests therefore have half their valure in 1/4 time. For example, a

crotchet is north half a beat. Sometime:i this time signature is inclicated by CI , n.hichstands for cut time.

0h \then the Saints Go Marching In Traditional arrangedbyJohn O'Neill

Ballad ) =94I

Claret and BlueSlow Blues .l :58


Page 60: The jazz method for flute


Tn inlprovising or er the backing track to 'Claret and BIue' using the blues scale (seep i1) starting on A:

Scale Practice:

Play the scale of C major (see Chapter 11) over two octaves, starting on low C.

Construction of Maior and Minor ScalesThe illustration shows the distances between the component notes of the scale of Cmajor, measured in tones and semitones. Semitones have already been discussed (seeChapter 4, p. 26'). A tone is equal to two semitones. Do not be confused by the wordtone. It has three possible meanings:

1. A means of expressing a particular distance between one notethe previous paragraph.

2. Sound, with special reference to quality, e.g. 'you have beengood tone on the flute'.

3. In American usage 'tone' is synonymous with the 'note', e.g.tones of the C major scale'.

TT: toneS : semitone

Although the number of sharps or flats is different for every major scale the interrela-tionship of the notes is always the same. The sequence is always T T S T T T S.

For harmonic minor scales the sequence is as follows:

Notice the interval of a tone plus a semitone between the sixth and seventh degreeswhich gives the scale its exotic 'Middle Eastern' quality.

Interrelationship of Maior and Minor Scales

The diagram opposite will help you to understand how the major and minor scalesrelate to one another.

It is called a cycle of fourths/fifths because the distance between each scale and the


and another-as in

trying to achieve a

'Play the first three


Page 61: The jazz method for flute

next one in the cycle is a perfect fifth if measured downwards and a perfect fourth ifmeasured upwards.*It is important to note the following points about the cycle:

1. The direction of movement is clockwise, following a fundamental tendency ofchords to move by intervals of a fourth upwards or a fifth downwards.

2. It is a cycle of increasing 'flatness' or decreasing 'sharpness', proceeding from oneto seven flats, and from seven to one sharps.

3. Each major scale contains only one altered note in comparison with the previousscale in the cycle. This is the fourth note of the new scale, which is flattened byone semitone. For exampie, the only difference between C and F major is the B[.

4. Sharps and flats cannot be mixed in the key signature.5. Each harmonic minor scale starts on the sixth degree of its relative major and

contains the same notes except for the seventh note which is raised by one semi-tone. The seventh note of both major and minor scales is often referred to as theleading note because of its tendency to lead back to the key note.

Cycle of 4ths/5ths

J- En harmon icalll' Equivalent -1I scales

\Gi-labr"l tAfrmiBomt/

'Enharmonic Scales

Notice the three enharmonic scales.

different ways (see Chapter 5, p. 2B).

written differently but sound the same

Each of these scales can beThe example below illustrates

thought of in tu,othis. The scales are

*For more information on interuals see the section on 'Ear Training', p. 39


Page 62: The jazz method for flute

Practising the ScalesStart with C maior and A minor scales and zrrpeggios and proceed through the cycle.

Practise the scales over the entire range and not simply from keynote to keynote.Flute technique is more difficult at the extremes of the instrument, so it is essential thatyor-r practise in these registers constantly, otherwise your effective range will be limited.

Start on the lowest available key-note, play up to the highest note in that scale whicl-ryoll are able to play, down to the lowest note in the scale on the instrument and thenback up to finish where you started, The example below shows l-row this would applyto the G major scale and arpeggio.

Scale VariationsI would slrggest practising eacharpeggio every day for at least a

should start to practise variations.

arpeggio and relative minor scale andyou have mastered the basic scale youtwo examples in the key of G major:

scale with itsweek. Once

Below are iust

You should also experiment with many diff-erent rhythms and articulations. The possibil-ities are endless. The complaint that scales are boring only comes from the unimagina-tive! If you want to learn to improvise yolr must learn to be creative in your practice.

FURTHER STUDYPlaying:In order to make your practice of major and minor scales and arpeggios more enjoyableI strcrngly recommencl that you purchase Volume 24 of Jamey Aebersold's play-alongseries, entitled 'Major and Minor', which contains backing tracks fbr all keys. However,please be aware that Jamey uses a different form of the minor scale-the Dorian minor(see the next chapter). Appendix 2 contains further details about this series of play-alongs.


Page 63: The jazz method for flute

ffi:ffi#i j,triffi'#


On-Beat Quaver Followed by TWo Off-BeatsAnother extremely common rhythm in jazz is the on-be:lt qlraver followecl by trvoconsecutive off-beats. This may be encountered in vzrrious 'disgr-rises' as u.i1l be apparentlrorn tlre iollowing exelcises.

(Even J s)

Count: land2and(a)

N.ll. $7hen clappecl (b), (c), (c1)

thenr is only the rJuratictn of theancl (e) souncl thenotes ancl not their

(Swing J s)

doo be doo dat

doo dah dat

doo dat

doo dat dah

same, since thc clifference betweenrhvthmic position.

doo dah dat


land2and 3 andland

land2and 3 and 4and

land2and 3 andland

land2and3ancl land

doo dat bedoohedoobeland?and 3 and4and


Page 64: The jazz method for flute

The instruction 9ua ad lib. at the beginning of 'Country Road' means that this piece mayalso be played an octave higher.

Country RoadLarySwing ):n

Sua adllb.

------- ----'----- --='-----

'Euphrates' uses the modes of D Dorian (scale of C major starting on D) and Eh Dorian(scale of D[ major starting on Eb). This scale may be thought of as a variation of theminor scale since the first five notes are identical with those of the harmonic minor. It is

the most commonly used mode in iazz.

Ascending Melodic Minor Scale

This composition also introduces the ascending melodic minor scale. This is anothervariation of the minor scale in which the sixth note is raised by one semitone. Anotheru,ay of thinking of it is as a major scale with the third note lowered one semitone*.

*Classical musicians use a different fbnr-r of the n-relodic minor scale in which the sixth and seventh notesare lowered by a semitone as it descends, i.c:

Jazz mr-rsicians pref'er to use the notes of the ascencling fbrm whether the scale is played rising or falling,hence the name by which it is known,


Page 65: The jazz method for flute

It is qr,rite possible that yolr may get lost in yc,iur improvisation to begin r.itlt. Il thish:rppens try the following sequence of exerciscs:

1. Play the CD and count carefully through eurch eight-Lrar secrion.2. Play a solo in semibreves only-onc note to each bar. This wiil give you time tcr

collnt the bars.

3. Play a solo using only minims.4. Play a solo using only crotchets.

Practising in this r.vay rvill help you clevelop your 'internal clock' u,hich mezrsures thepassing of time in music. Er.entually you will be able to 'feel' a t\\,'o-, four-, or eigl'it-barphrase withor-rt actuaily counting it.

Euphrates Don Renclell) : l2(,1Su,ingrhs)

G Ascending Meloclic MinorTII L



D Dorian

CODAD Dorian

D.S. al Coda

fade out4

1991, Don Renclell. All rights resencd. Llsecl by pcrmission


Page 66: The jazz method for flute

'Endless Night' is an exampleother South American ciances it

of the tango, a passionate Argentinian dance-fbrm. Likerequires an even-quaver interpretation.

Endless NightTango = 12+ lfren .b s.y)


D.S. al Coda

c..*Itip ffi

FURTHER STUDYListening:Mtt.Es Devrs,'So Wl-rat'from Kindof Blue. This is zl celebrated example of tl-re use of theDorien ntocle in jazz.


Consecutive Off-BeatsYou are already familiar with rl-rythms which18, p. 63), but it is not uncofirmon to find aquavers consecutive off-beats can be counted

involve trl'o consecutive off-beats (Chapter

whole string of them. \When playing evenas fbllows:

3 and 1 and

Yith jazz quavers counting becomes more problematic. At slow tempos you couldadopt the following approach:

Count:1 and 2 and


Page 67: The jazz method for flute

(doo) be (doo) be (doo) be (doo) be

However, at faster tempos there is no space to collnt the on-beat (see Chapter 11,

Anticipation, p. 51) and you will have to rely on cleveloping the correct 'feel'.Perform the previous exercise setting the metronome at about 80 beats per uinutc

and gradually increasing the tempo to 160.

You will probably notice one of two tendencies as the tempo increases: either the off-beat quaver becomes even rather than swung, n'hich is a sign of rushing or playingahead of the beat, or the off-beat gets closer and closer to the following beat, which is

symptomatic of playing late or behind the beat. You will also notice a point w'here tosay the 'cloo' begins to feel uncomfortable and rushecl; so dispense with vocalizing theon-beat and try to feel the rhythm.

'My Little Sr-rede Shoes' (overlea0 is one of Charlie Parker's most famous compositionsand one of the earliest examples of the calypso rhlthm i:n jazz. The calypso is zr danceform which originatecl in Trinidad. It is characterized by a strong 'two-in-the-bar' feeling,which is achievecl by the bass playing rnainly on the first and third beats of each bar.

.srrl::::;iii nrilr !



Page 68: The jazz method for flute

My Little Suede ShoesCalypso J : 158 (Even.b s)


Charlie Parker


D..5. al Coda

a [)5611967, Atlantic Music Corp. Sub-published in the UK and Eire by Maracla Music Ltd. All rights reserwecl. Used by permission

'Do^T' was written by Sonny Rollins (b. 192Y, who established l-rimself in the band ledby drummer Max Roach ancl trumpeter Clifford Brown and rvhose unmistakable tone,and unique sense of phrasing and rhythm make him one of the greatest jazz soloists.

Doxy Sonny Rollins

Medium ) = 72o(Swing.Ds)


e D63, Prestige Music Ltd. A11 rights reserved. Used by permission

Page 69: The jazz method for flute

Ancly Panayi (h. 1964) studied flute and composition at Trinity College of N{r-rsic, Londorrand is also an zrccomplishecl saxophonist. He is active on the iazz scene zrs a leacler ofhis ou,n groups ancl as a member of other ensembles including the D;lnk*.ortlrGeneration Band. He won the Marty Paich arranging prize in the BI3C Big RanclCompctition of 1987. He can be heard on thc accompanying CD.

I'm In Love Andrew Panayi

Bossa ) : B64


CODAImprovise using this scale (Bh mlxolydian)

facle out

e 1994, Anclrerv Panayi. A11 rights resen,ed. Used by pennission


Listening:Cuenrre Pemrn,SoNrl Ror-r-rNs,


'My Little Suecle Shoes' fron"t C'harlie Parker'Dor1.' from Prestige Years Vo/. 2.


Page 70: The jazz method for flute


\_,/ \_,/ \_,/123123t23rCount:

t- 3-----t r- 3---------t



Tfiplet CrotchetsTriplet crotchets are exactly twice the length of tripiet quavers and therefore involvegrouping three notes against two beats. The following ciapping exercise u,ill help you tounderstand the relationsl-rip between triplet quavers and triplet crotchets:

ffiJ-l: fD[l23


Once you have masterecl the above try this exercise for tapping triplet crotchets againstregular crotchets:



The triplet quavers have been written to enablecally but you should aim at being able to countcrotchet rhythm.

Triplet crotchets should be played absolutelysecond one early and the third one late so thatthan -, 3__-l

)) )

The final section of 'Tango Cool'will give you a goodtwo rhythms.

you to work out the rhythrn mathemati-the crotchet pulse and 'feel' the triplet

evenly-a common fault is to play thethe rhytltm rescml'rles ) J ,ft rather

opportunity to differentiate these



Page 71: The jazz method for flute

Tango Cool Ted Gioia) : 9o (Even .b s)

Intro 4


-t E

L-- g----r

O 1991, Tecl Gioia. All rights reserved. Used by permission

Page 72: The jazz method for flute

Frankincense.i :13r, ---\ ^

Don Rendell



L- B --=1,3,



r3, 3


a D93, Don Rendell. All rights reserved. Used by permission

Page 73: The jazz method for flute

'Peace' was written by Horace Silver (b. 1928), who first received public acclaim as

member of Miles Davis' rhythm section of the early 1950s and later beczime famous as

composer and bandleader in his own right.

Peace Horace Silver

Ballad ) = 54 (swing .D s)



r8-------r rall.r_ 3 ____t

.--s -)O Copyright 1971 Ecaroh Music for the'World. Administered by BMG Music Publishing Limited in the United Kingdom and Eire.

So far you have improvised using different scales. The next piece gives you the opportun-ity to improvise with a sequence of three arpeggios-C, F and G major, indicated by thesymbols C, F and G. Play just the arpeggio notes to begin with. In other worcls in thefirst bar you can play either C, E or G, in the second bar F, A or C and in the third bar,G, B or D. This sounds simple enough but you will discover that it is quite a challengeto keep track of where you are in the sequence. If you find that you keep losing yourplace try playing just the lowest note of each arpeggio until you begin to feel therhythm in which the chords are moving.

t;:;:;Bg;;;:*rg*l*i;ii;i::,;:,38,:iI::,*'li*i?*,:;[,iJ --)

Page 74: The jazz method for flute

Thiad Exercise

FURTHER STUDYListening:Tno Gron/MeRr Lrwrs, 'Tango Cool'from Tango Cctol. Smrnn, 'Peace' from Blowin'tbe Blues Autay.

increasing experimentation with time signrturesDave Brubeck, alto saxophonist Paul Desmondthe first to experiment widely with unusual time


Since the earlyother than 3/4and trumpetersignatures.

1960s there has beenor 4/4 in iazz. Pianist

Don Ellis were among

t1 iilEfl llfl ;IEEIEiffi #Erp*iEaglll*r

Page 75: The jazz method for flute

6/8 Time5/8 time means that you count six quavers to a bar, although at

nearly always counted in two (dotted-crotchet beats), with eachthree. The exercises below show both possibilities for counting.

faster tempos this isbeat subdividecl intcr

'Mingr-rs-Thingus' is w'ritten in the bluesy 6/8 sryle often favourecl by the great cloublebass player and composer Charles Mingus (.1922-1979).

The instnrction Rit. is short for'ritardando', an Italian worcl meaning'holcling back'. Ittherefore means the same as 'ralientancio', which y()u encrountered in Chapter 11.


Count:1 2 3 4 5 6

5/4 TimeLike many of the more complex time signatures, such as 7/4 or 77/1,5/4 is nearirtlways subdivided into a combination of two- and three-beat groupings. Yor,r will plol.-ably find it easier to count these groups of two or three rather than the 2rctu2rl nurrbcr' ,

beats in the bar. In 'Pan Pipes' the subdivision is three fblloweci by two.

Page 76: The jazz method for flute

i,ii,Ui ,^i.'*l ii. . ' :: i jtJi..,,+ Jrlrlly; i.The instruction tacet means literally 'is silent'. In other words the lower paft only ,oinsin at the end of the first time bar.

In the improvised section at the end you could also use the F blues scale (F, At, Bt, Ct(=B), C and Eb).

Pan PipesJ : 158 lEvenJs)

3Tacet 1st time

D.S. al Coda

CODAImprovise using the following scale (F Dorian):


Page 77: The jazz method for flute

lrregular PhrasingIrregular pl-rrasing occurs whenthe bar. In 'Straight, No Chaser'difficult to know where the 'one


cirtrnnr REsouRcE LIBRARY

a phrase is repeated in unpredictable positions ri-ithinthe pl-rrasing is completely asymmetrical, making it ven-' is. Carefr-rl counting is the only soh-rtion.

Straight, No Chaser Thelonious Monk

MediumBlues):M4 (Swing J s)

o.r r"paurl

@ 7962, Bocu Music Ltcl. All rights reserved. Used by permission

FURTHER STUDYListening:CH,q.nrEs MTNCUS, 'Better Git It In Your Soul' from Min,qus Ah Um.

use of 6 8 time in itzz..Derrn Bnuenct<, Time Out. Feattres Paul Desmond's composition

most famous tunes in an unusual time signature.TrmroNrous MoNK, 'straight, No Chaser' lrorn The Composer.

Playing:LonsBnnc, Joux, ed., An lrish Tunebook Parts One ancl Two. These books contain much

enjoyable and exciting mtisic in 6/8 time. They also provicle excellent practice fortechnique, rhythrn and articulation and good source material for playing lLty ear ancl


A fine example of the

'Take Five'. one of the


Page 78: The jazz method for flute

HarmonyUp until now your attempts at improvisation have largely been confined to differentscales or modes. In order to become a complete musician you will also have to studyharmony. Harmony is concerned with simultaneozs sounds. It is one of the three greatbuilding blocks of music-the others being rhythm, or the organization of notes intime, and melody, which deals with the ordering of successlae sounds. It is not theintention of this book to deal with harmony in depth but rather to whet your appetite.

In Chapter 8 you were introduced to the idea of a triad. You can form a triad bytaking any note of any major or minor scale and adding diatonic notes at intervals of athird. (Diatonic notes are those which belong to the scale in question.) Observe that thenotes will either all be written on lines or all on spaces:

This procedure of building chords by stacking up notes in thirds can be extended to as

many as seven notes, in which case all the notes in the scale are being played simultan-eously. The example below shows a rearrangement of the notes of the C major scale.

If you have access to a piano and rudimentary knowledge of the keyboard you willbenefit by exploring some of these exotic possibilities. If not, you should considertaking up the keyboard as a second study. Many iazz musicians have found that know-ledge of the keyboard opens up exciting new possibilities in improvisation. DizzyGillespie, Bob Brookmeyer and Gerry Mulligan are just three famous examples.

Diatonic ChordsIn modern jazz the four-note chord (with added seventh) is the basic unit of harmony. Itis therefore important for you to get to know the diatonic four-note chords in eachmajor and harmonic minor scale. Below are examples for the keys of C major and Aminor.

FA7 Bm7b5


Amh z




CATf 5








C major


Page 79: The jazz method for flute

Chord SymbolsBelow each chord is a Roman numeral which identifies fhe scale degree on which it isbased. Written above each chord is a chord symbol, which is a kind of harmonic short-hand used by jazz musicians to identify different chord types. You need not know all ofthese at present. The following are the most impoftant:




major seventh (major triad + major seventh measured from lowest note)seventh (major triad + minor seventh)minor seventh (minor triad + minor seventh)minor seventh with a flattened fifth. This chord is indicated by some iazzeducators with the symbol @

cL7 CmTbj

The following tune will serve as a model in this exploration of jazz harmony.

Fall'90120 (Swing -l) s)



:z::l;; 7,


Page 80: The jazz method for flute

Relow if the chord progression to 'Fall '90'

Dm7 G7 CL7 F L7 Rm7b5 E7

Bm7b5 Arn6 Am6

BmTbs Am7 D7 GrnT C7 Am6 Efim7b5

E7 Am6 Am6

If yotl look at the clirection of movement or resolution of the cl-rords you will see thzltmr:ch of the time it follorvs the direction of the cycle of fotrrths/fifths (p. 6t).

II-V-I ProgressionThe l-rarmony of this tr-rne largely consists of movement from the II chorcl to the V chorclto the I chorcl in the keys of C rnajor ancl A minor.* This is the II-V-I progression, byfar the most common chorcl progression in j.-tzz.

The follon'ing sequence of exercises will help to fhmiliarize you r,vith ti-ie chorclprogression of 'Fall '90'. It may take you a long tirne to master thern, but please perse-vere-the knorvleclge you gain u,i1l sharpen your ear and help yor-rr improvisirti()n robecome more sophisticated. A similar sequence of exercises could be used for learningthe harmony of any stanclard tune.

N.ll. Chords are written for reference only. AII these exercises should be memorizecland played by ear.ffi Sing and then play the root progression. The root is the scale degree on w-hich the

chorcl is built. There are different ways of performing this exercisc, since you have a

choice of w-hether you move up or down to the next note, e.g.:



- Tl-rc Am6 chorcl (A C-E-Ff) has been sr-rbstituted for the Arrr!7 br-rt its harmonic function is the same

Page 81: The jazz method for flute

# Sing and play the chord progression, one note to each beat, e.g.

N.B. For the bars with two chords you should play just the root and the third. e.g

Am7 D7 Gm7 C7

The arpeggios can also be played descending, e.g.:

Dm7 G7

As a further variation, the arpeggio shapes coulcl be transposed to different registers ofthe instrument. This principle could also be applied to the exercises which follow.

Voice-Leading# Improvise a melodic line in semibreves, using chord notes oniy. This is an excellent

exercise for voice-leading, or the smooth connection of one chord w-ith another. It is

usually better to move from one chord to the next by moving in small steps, althoughbigger interuals can be used for dramatic effect. Feel free to repeat notes if they arecommon to both chords, e.g.:

Dm7 G7 c^^7 FA7 Rm7b5 Am6

# Improvise a line in minims, using chorcl notes only, e.g.:

Dm7 G7 cL7 FL7

# Improvise in crotchets using chord notes only. This is closely relatecl to the 'walkingbass' technique used by jazz bass-players. You may need to make room for breathingspaces, by leaving out notes here and there, e.g.:


r at at

Dm7 CA7 FA7


Page 82: The jazz method for flute


& improvise in free rhythm using chord notes only, e.g.:

ffi Improvise freely using additional notes from the C major and A minor scales and anyothers which sound good!

FURTHER STUDYPlaying:Jnnnv CcrrnR, ./eny Coker's Jctzz Keyboarrl. An excellent book for developing j:tzz

keyboarcl skills, for pianists ancl non-pilnisrs.LtoNrr GnrGSoN, Practical .lazz. A thorough exploration of jazz harmony and its rele-

vance for improvisation.


This chapter introduces E, F, F{ and G from the high register of the flute. it can be taxingboth for the lips ancl the fingers to play in this area of the instrument, E ancl Ff beingparticularly clifficult to produce. Some instruments have a so-called 'split E' mechzrnism,which facilitates the blowing of this note. However, it unfbrtunately also tencls to makethe F{ harcler to achieve, so should not necessarily be regardecl as the solution to theproblem! When playing these higher notes it rvill be helpfLrl to bear in mincl thefollowing points:# Maintain sllpport for the air column at al1 times.ffi Keep the throat open and relaxed.& The aperture between the lips should be as small as possible.ffi Yott neecl to cover approximately two thirds of the embouchure hole with yor-rr lower

lip.# In order to continue to split the air-jet in half it will be necessary to blow more down-



Page 83: The jazz method for flute

Harmonics/OvertonesOne of the most effective ways of developing an as,,arelress oi li-.c -.-.-."*:r :' :embor:chr-rre nhich are necessary over the rangc of the flute is to pr:ieti.r ..harmonics, or oveftones, wl-rich are seconclary tones sor-rncling r'r'ithrn it llrt>ra rr<>wn as thc fundamental. It is the clifferencc in the combination of ovefic)nes. orharmonic spectftim, u,.i-iich explains the clifference in timbre bctrveen c1ifl-erent musicalinstrLlments. In fact, without rezllizing it, you have alreacly been playing overtones, sinccall the notes above miclclle D are harmonics of notes below!

In the fbllowing exercises yor-r should linger the lou,est or fundamental note all thetime and attempt to produce tl-re upper notes or overtones by varying the anglc ancl

speed of the air-jet ancl the distance between the lips and the far eclge of the

embouchure hole. It is essential that you really im:rgine the sound of the or.ertones inyourr head. If you find it difficult to do this first play the note using the 'official' fingeringand then try proclucing it using the harmonic fingering. f'hese are exccllent w-arm-up


Slowly, in free tempo


You shoulcl tlso incorporaie one or trr,-o of tire fol1os'ing fingcr exercises into yr>ur ciaily


Slowly lJ : ;zr. gradually increasing tempo



Page 84: The jazz method for flute

'Danny Boy', also known as the 'Londonderry Air' isattracted many jazz musicians, including Ben \Webster

a traclitional Irish tune which hasand Bill Evans.

Danny BoyTraditional arranged by

John O'Neill and Phil Lee

BalladJ :110(Even,bs)

Although the next two pieces areyou to work out the rhythms if you

both in cut time (see Chapter 16 p. 59) it may helpbegin by counting four to a bar.

St Thomas Sonny RollinsCalypso J = 110

8lErren J s;

e D63, Prestige Music Ltcl. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission


Page 85: The jazz method for flute

'Blue Samba' is a composition by Lee Konitz (b. 7926), who stafted hi-i ;r: r:-- r-,.,

career in the band of Claude Thornhill and, after studying with Lennie Trrsrai' . ,--. .-oped into one of the most creative improvisors in )azz. Lee requested this rlrflc . ;written in fifteen keys (including the three enharmonic keys). That woulcl be an irrrrr-esting project for you!

'Blue Samba' is an example of the szlmba rhythm which, like the bossa nor-a, is a

dance style originating from I3razrl. It is the samba sound which is at the heart of thefamous carnival which takes place every year in the streets of Rio de -|aneiro.

Blue Samba Lee KonitzJ : roo (

O 1991, Lee Konitz. All rights reserved. Used by permission

FURTHER STUDYPlaying:Take any of the tllnes yolr have played so far and transpose them to the high registcr otthe instrument. Apparently'simple'tunes can become \-en-ankwarcl nhen movecl tct adifferent register of the instrurnent!Listening:BsN 'Wnesrnn, 'Danny Boy' from King cf the Tertors.Soxny RoLLINS,'St. Thomas' from Tenor Madness/Saxoplt()ne ColossLts.

LrE KoNrrz, 'Blue Samba'from Zounds.


Page 86: The jazz method for flute

cH P,$ffiffi ISemiquavers and Semiquaver Rests

Semiquavers, or sixteenth notes, are half the length of evcn qLlavers. Rhythms nhichinvolve semiquavers can look very complicated-strclclenly the manuscript becomes veryblack!-but try not to be intimidated. If you look carefi-rlly at the rhythn'r exercises belor,vyou will see that the mathematical relationship betu,een tire notes in the semiquaverexamples in 2/4 is the same as in the quaver examples in 4/4 whicl-r are written next tothem. It is only the unit of time that you :rrc counting which changes.

For this reason you may initially find it helpful to count thc quaver beat when playingsemiquaver rhythms. This means that the first erample rvolrlcl be coi-rntecl as follor,vs:

Another option u,or,rlc1 be to cctunt like this:

and and

to the other excrcises, but w-ork tonarcls being able

J : 100 (EvenJs)r23

Yor-r cor-rld applyto count crotchet

The sign { is a

J:50Count: 1

the sarnc principlebezrts.

scmiqtiaver rest.

(Even J) s)


I aanda 2 a and a


Page 87: The jazz method for flute

Drumming exercise

The following exercise wili provide excellent practice both tor rhythrn ancl articulation.It shouid be played for a few rninlrtes zlt each practir:e scssion as part of your warm-Llpuniil you have masterecl it. I,lay it <tn various notes throlrghout the range.

-3- .? I

Page 88: The jazz method for flute

Grace NotesThe G{ written before the A inshould be played on the beatimitate the example on the CD.

bars 1.2 and 15 of 'It's A1l Yours' is a grace noteand 'crushed' against the note which follows. Try


It's All YoursSlowBallad ) :56 (Even.Ds)

rall. -


Page 89: The jazz method for flute

In the improvised section of the following piece yctr,r conlci rii.,(G, Bt, C, Dt, D and F).

0n the Street70 (Even.Ds)

lmprovise using these scales until fade


C T)orian G Mixolvdian


Page 90: The jazz method for flute

Part Three:


BIBLIOGRAPHYThe following publications are those to which specific reference is made in the sections entitledFurther Study.

BeRrNnr', Joacunt E. TbeJazz Book(London, Paladin, 1984). Usefr-rl both as a reference book andas an introductlon to the subject.

Cot<uR, Jenav. .lerry Coker's Jazz Keyboard (Florlcla, Columbia Pictures Publications , 1984)GIoorNs, Grny. Celebrating Bird; Tbe Triumpb dCbailie Pailaer (New York, Beech Tree Books,

William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1987)GnrcsoN, Lroulr. PracticalJazz (Lonclon, Stainer and Bell, 1988)HrNolurtu, Ptur. Elementary Training.for Musicians (Mainz, Schott, 1946)KrRxnrro, BAnRy, ed. 7he Neu Groue Dictionary o.f Jazz (Macrnillan Press, 1988). A

significant investment but worth every penny. The most complete and authoritative referencework on the subjcct.

Rrrsxrn, Rosenr. Bird; Tbe Legend of Cbarlie Parker (New York, Citadel Press, 1962)RLtssrrr, Rctss. Bircl Ziaes (New York, Charterhouse, 1973)S.r.orl, SleNlev, ecl. Tbe New Groue Dictionaty of Music and Musicic.tns (London, Macmillan, 1980)StoxEs, SurnroeN, \7. and CosooN, RrcseRn A. Illustratecl Metbodforl.-lute (Cr-rlver City, California,

Trio Associates)

These books are recommended for general backgror:nd and interest:

Anntny, Nzlr. Music; An lllustrated Encyclopedia (London, Harnlyn Publishing, 1986). A usefulgeneral reference work.

Gtora, Tno. Tbe Imperfecr,4r(New York, Oxford University Press, 1988). A unique and thought-provoking discussion on the place of jazz in modern culture.

GnruE, Krrw. Jazz at Ronnie Scott's (London, Robert Hale, 1979). A fascinating collection of anec-dotes and aphorisms by musicians who have played at the club.

Hrxtorn, Nel ancl SlnuRo, Nrt. Hear Me Talkin' to Ya: tbe Story of Jazz by tbe Men Wbo Made h(New York, Rinehart, 1955). Cornplemenrs perfectly the Kitty Grime book mentioned above.

'fhe books below are recommended as supplementary or additional material:

Becn, J.S. trans. GuENtuun, Rrr.rri. Tbe Flutist'.s Bacb (Miami, Belwin Inc.). Transcribed from theworks for solo violin and cel1o, these studies are masterpieces of melodic invention.Intermediate to advanced.

GERsuwrN, GeoRrlu, arr. l)n Suur. The Music of George Gersbruin .for .llute (London, lfisePr-rblicatlons, 1987). Beautiful melodies, of beginner to intermediate standard, suitable forreading or learning by heart.


Page 91: The jazz method for flute

l ifl' ;ffi #:

GIUFFRT:, Jruuv. Jazz Pbrasing and InteTpretatioz (New York, Associated Music Publishers. i969).A thorough exploration of this subject by a woodwind player who is one of the great voices ofjazz and a highly respected teacher.

KERN, JrRonr, arr. Dn Stttpr. Tbe Music of Jerome Kernfor Flute (London, li7ise Publications). Ofsimilar value to the Gershwin book noted above.

Larrrr, Yusrr. Flute Book of tbe Blues (Teaneck, New Jersey, The Alnur Mr-rsic Company, 7965').Effectively a set of thity six variations on The Blues in various keys, this book presents anenjoyable way to develop 'feel' and sight-reading skills in the jazz idiom.

Ran, Jeuns. Prog4ressiue Jazz Studies for Flute - Easy leuel (.London, Falrer Music). Useful supple-mentary material for developing reading skills.

RnNoELt, DoN. Robbins Flute Tutor Par"t Tuo (London, Robbins Music Corporation Limited, 1972).This book contains many studies and exercises for developing tone and technique, particularlyin the high register, and improvisational skill, and is recommendecl for students moving onfrom this book.

SHeNeeuv, Eo, and Isecorr', SruaRt. Dick Hyman's Professiona.l Chorcl Chang4es and SubstitutionsFor 1OO Tunes Euery Musician Sbctuld Knozzr (New York, Ekay Music, 1986). Valuable forbuilding a repertoire of tunes. The melodies ancl chords are accLlrate and there is the addedbonus of lyrics, which are indispensable for learning how to phrase a tune properly.

\7oNc, Henn, ed. Tbe Ultimate Jazz Fake Book (Winona, Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,1988). Like the Dick Hyman book, this is an excellent source of tunes to learn and alsocontains lyrics.

DISCOGRAPHYEvery effort has been made to ensllre that this discography is as up to date and accllrate aspossible at the time of writing, but since recordings are being deleted and reissued all the time itis impossible to glrarantee that all are currentlv avaiiable. Similarly, if a recording is not iisted inthe format yor-r require, e.g. CD, record or cassette, you should not iump to the conclusion that itis permanently unavailable in that format.

Should you fincl it difficult to obtain any of the recordlngs, try looking in one of the manyspecialist jazz record shops, most of which hal'e second-hand sections and also import record-ings lrorn other countries.

This discography was compiled with the expert assist:rnce of Bob Glass of Ray's Jazz. Shop Ltd.180 Shaftesbtiry Avenue, London.

Key: CD : compact disc; LP : long-playing record; C : cassetre

AnusrRoNc, Louts. Hot 5 and Hot 7 (19211928) (Gianrs c>f Jazz GOJCD 0242ICD))Baxrn, C,:pt. Tbe Toucb of YourZrps (Steeplechase SCS-1122 [Lp])BesrE, Couur. Suinging tbe Blues (That's JazzTJCD 0001 [CD], TJMC 0004 [C, Lp])Bnunncx, Davr.. Time Ozrl(CBS [Sony Musicl l606ltt lLp],4606112 tCDl, 4604114 icl)Ctrrusreu, Cuenlte. The Genius of tbe Electric Guitar frorn the CtsS Jtzz Masterpieces series r(-F'

lSony Music) 4606122 lcD], 4606121 [Lp], .16061241C1')

Cr-tnr, Devn. Tbe Rigbt Time (Miles Music MM07,1 tLPl)Corrrrn, Buooy quintet featuringJarlns NrwroN. Flute Talk$oul Note 121 165-2 [CD])CoRse, Cutct<. Return to Foreuer (ECM 7022 811978 2 tCDl)

-Ligbt as a Featber (Polydor 827 148-2 [CD))

Both the above recordings feature the flute playing of Joe Farre11.

Devrs, Mrrrs. Kinclof Blue (CBS lSony Music] CD 62066 tCD1,62066 tlpl)

-Sketcbes of Spain (CBS [Sony Mr-rsic] CD 62327 [CD], 40320223 tC, Lpl)

Evaus, lltt. At tbe Village Vanguard (London Records FCD 60017 [CD])Fttzctnern, Erra. Sings tbe Duke Ellington Songbc-tok (Ven-e lPolygramJ 8370352 tCD] )

Gnrz, Srax. Jazz Samba (Verue [Polydorl 8100611 [LP]. 8100612 tCDl, 8100614 tcl)

-Stan Getz andJoao Gilberto (Verve [PolydorJ 8100.i8 2 [CD] 230 z+07 1 [LP])


Page 92: The jazz method for flute

Gror-r, Tso. The Encl of tbe Open Road (Quarter Q-1001-CD tCDl)

-witl-r LEwrs, Mnnx. Tangct Cool (Quarter QCD 1006 tCDl)

HonN, Pelt. Tlte.[azzYearsG3\ack Sun 15015-2 [CD])J.,rnRr,rr:, Lr, Breakin'Away (\Wzrrner Bros 256917 [CD])Krnr Ror-eNo. Petite Fleur (Moctn Records MCD 027-2 [CDl)Korrrz, Lyr.. Zouncls (Soul Note SN 12i-219-2 tCDl)LA'r'r:RF, Yusur.. Easlern Sr,tunds (prestige OJCCD-612-2 (p-7319) tCI)l)Levs, Hursnt. My Tinte lVill Come (Music Masrers 01612-65100-2 tCDl)MINN, Hsnerv.. Memphis Ltnclerground (Atlantic 7561 81361+-2 [CD])Merr, HF:Ren andJ.rspen. Bogey. Flrne Scttrfil€ (Presrige OJCCD-760-2 (p-7101) [CI)l)McFrnnrN, BoBev. Spctrttarteous Inttenti<tns (Illue Note CDp 74621)82 [CD], BN2 57 [Cl, BT'U5 110

tLP])MtNcus, Cu,qnrns. Mingtls Ab-u"m (CBS [Sony N,{usic] 4i04361 lLp), 4504362 [CD], 450.1J6,1 ICI)Moorrr, JtNrs. Mottirtg Fonuarcl (Novus PD 83026 [CD])MoNx, TurtoNtcttrs. lhe Compctser fiom the Conternporaly Jazz Masterpieces series (CBS lSony

Mr-rsicl 163382 ot CK 14297 tCDl, 4633384 or C.|T 44927 ]C,/LPI)Nrv' Yonr< Jazz Qu,tnrnt. lhe Neu Yrtrk./ctzz Quartel (Sonet SNTCD 753 lCDl). Featlrres Frank

Vess on f-lute.

P,tnxnR, CH,cttttE. Charlie Parker in the Comp^ct .ltzz ancl W-alkman Jazz scries (Vene ll]olygraill8332882 [CD] 833288,1 [C])

-Bircl Symbols (Rhapsocly [Presiclent] RHCI) 5 tCDl, RHAP 5 [Lp])

-Tlte Best oJ'Bircl on Sauo.y (Vogr-re VG65) 650109 [CI)])Rot-t-tNs, SoxNr'. Preslige Yectrs l.ol. 2 (1954-1956l (Prestige PRE ,i002 [CD])

-fsnor l[ldness/Saxophctrrc Cctlossti.s (Prestige lAce] CI)-IZD 002 LCDI)Srr;rNr<, Brru and ALrrrrn,l, Lar:nrNoo. Baa-Tcto-Kee(Giants ot -ltzz CD 53133 [CDl)Sttvun. Homct. Blou,in' tbe Blues Atuay (B1ve Note/EMI BN2 89/CDP 7465212 LCDI, .lRN 8u+017

tcl, BST 84017 tLPl)Srnrc, Jrnr:r,rr ancl Golrnz, Eoorc. OutlazzLs (Enia 2098 [LP])T,teecKrr, Lrx'. Desert Lady(.1;sn"urcl CCD ,i,i11 [CDl)V,rRIotrs. All Nigbt Zong (Prestige l-P 7073 LLPI). Features Jerorne Ricliarclson on flute.\(lnesrrn, Bns. King of the Tenctrs (Verye 837 437,1 tCDl)

[--*.1ps t.kttcl

Mention should also be made of the series of play-a-l-rng CDs, rccords zrnd cassettes produced bytlre Arnerican jazz educator Jamey Aetrersold. Tirere are, at the time of writing, 56 of thesefeaturing compositions lry great jazz musicians and aiso many excellent 'standarc1' tunes. Therecords come complete with a booklet u.,hich includes rnelody, chord-progressions :rnd some-times lyrics. The booklets zrlso sometimes inch-rde helpfr.rl advice on improvisation. The record-ings f-eature a rhythm section of bass. clrr:ms and piano which provides :r backing track overt'hich you can play the tune and tlien improvise. These rhythm sections are macle up of proi'es-sional lazz musicians, often arnong the finest players in the wodd. Vol. 2 Nothin' But Tbe Bluesancl Vol. 5 Time To Play Music and Vol. 54 Maiden Voltage are particularly suitable fbr studentsrnoving on from this book.


Page 93: The jazz method for flute

USETUL ACCESSORIISCleaning RodIn order to clean the inside of the flute and dry out the pads a small piece of soft cloth orchamois leather is inser-ted in the 'eye' of the cleaning rod, which is then passed through theinstrument.

Watchmakers' ScrewdriversThese are usefui for tightening any loose screws or making n-iinor adjustments.Tuning ForkIt is best to obtain an A = 440 tuning fork. The note A on your flute should be in tune with this.MetronomeMake sure the metronome clicks loudly enough to be heard. This tends to be more of a problemwith electronic metronomes than w.ith mechanical ones.Sofit clothFor keeping the or-rtside of the instrument clean.Cotton BudsFor cleaning in those pl:rces where a soft cloth cannot reach. e.g. under the rods and around thepillars.

Page 94: The jazz method for flute

APPEiT.$..,T iiEX




(thr-rmh Bl,)

('long' fingering)

Page 95: The jazz method for flute
Page 96: The jazz method for flute




I John O'Neill has a solid understanding ot iazz and how it can be taught. I highty recommend hiseducational jazz materials.'

Jamey Aebersotd

=': - :^e same author-The Jazz Method for SaxophoneED 12110 3ook * CD accompaniment for Alto Saxophone

=a 12120 3cck + CD accompaniment for Tenor Saxophone

:a ,2412 3D accompaniment for Alto Saxophone

=a '?A22 3D accornpaniment for Tenor Saxophone

i An rnvaluable guide for today's saxophone student...!---:---^-: -: :-- d rso azz soloist and teacher at London's Guildhall School of Music)

' A ,,ery musical presentation of basic saxophone playing tech-' r,es , A welcome addition to the jazz improvising library.,Lee Konitz (international jazz saxophone soloist)

i -^e ,azz oriented salophonist cannot failto be excited by-::' -: r-ese exceltent players...,Maurice Jennings (M.U. Teacher Magazine)

The Jazz Method for ClarinetED 12440 Book + CD accompaniment

I...This book contains a lrue methodcovering all phases of the subject.,

Jimmy Giuflre(multi-instrumentalisl, composer, arranger and teacher)

( lt is good to see a tutor treating eachaspect of playing seriously and thoroughly,and can be warmly recommended, even forus non'Jazzers. /

Gordon Egerton (Music Teacher Magazine)

Available at your local Music Shop.ln case of difficulty contact the publisher.