The Influence of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on Turtle Population in the World

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THE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLAND IN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATION IN THE WORLD Scholarly Paper Submitted to fulfill task of scholarly paper writing in SMA Negeri 1 Sumedang school year 2014/2015 Written by: TENDI NUGERAHA WIJAYA XII IPA 1 121310308 COVER PAGE i

description

Pengaruh Pulau Penyu Tanjung Benoa Bali Terhadap Populasi Penyu di Dunia

Transcript of The Influence of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on Turtle Population in the World

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THE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLAND

IN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATION

IN THE WORLD

Scholarly Paper

Submitted to fulfill task of scholarly paper writingin SMA Negeri 1 Sumedang school year 2014/2015

Written by:TENDI NUGERAHA WIJAYA

XII IPA 1

121310308

COVER PAGE

SEKOLAH MENENGAH ATAS NEGERI 1 SUMEDANG

Jalan Prabu Geusan Ulun no. 38 Sumedang

2014

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APPROVAL PAGE

THE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLAND

IN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATION

IN THE WORLD

Approved By:

First Adviser,

Hj. Lin Gustini, S.Pd.

NIP 19650803 198703 2 007

Second Adviser,

Acih Mintarsih, S.Pd., M.MPd.

NIP 19641230 198703 2 003

The Principal,

Drs. Yosep Raharja, M.MPd.

NIP 19621126 198703 1 011

Homeroom Teacher,

Dede Juangsih, S.Pd.

19630727 198703 2 005

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DEDICATION PAGE

This paper is dedicated to my parents and my

sister.

For their endless love, support, and

encouragement.

“A fear will only make you weak and lose confidence.

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Ignore the fear and proceed your step.“

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PREFACE

Firstly, let’s praise and gratitude to God that has given an abundance of

grace and help, so that the writer can finish writing this paper well. This paper is

done in order to fulfill the final task of natural science program in SMA Negeri 1

Sumedang.

Various challenge and problems have been experienced by the author on

writing this paper. But because of the help, guidance, and motivation from the

various side, the writing of this paper can be completed well. Therefore, the

author would like to thank to:

1. Mr. Drs. Yosep Raharja, M.MPd as The Principal of SMA Negeri 1

Sumedang

2. Mrs. Hj. Lin Gustini, S.Pd. as the material adviser who has guided the

writer in writing the paper.

3. Mrs. Acih Mintarsih, S.Pd., M.MPd. as the technical adviser who has

helped me in correcting the English translation in this paper.

4. Mrs. Dede Juangsih, S.Pd. as the homeroom teacher who has given the

spirit to her students to finish the paper well.

5. My beloved parents and grandmother who always motivate, pray and

support me in study.

6. My sister, who always helped and guided me in writing this paper.

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7. My dearest deceased mother who always exists in my heat and become a

reason for the writer in reaching dreams.

8. All of my friends who have become my second family who always asked

my paper progress and it made the writer motivated to finish the paper

well.

In the end, the writer wishes that Allah SWT pleased to reply all the

people goodness who have helped in writing this paper. Hopefully, this paper will

give the good advantage to the readers.

Sumedang, September 2014

The Writer

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LIST OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE......................................................................................................................i

APPROVAL PAGE.............................................................................................................ii

DEDICATION PAGE........................................................................................................iii

PREFACE...........................................................................................................................iv

LIST OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................vi

LIST OF IMAGES...........................................................................................................viii

LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................1

1.1. Background..........................................................................................................1

1.2. Problem Formulation...........................................................................................2

1.3. Research Purpose.................................................................................................2

1.4. Time and Place of Research.................................................................................3

1.5. Methods and Technique of Research...................................................................3

1.5.1. Methods of Research....................................................................................3

1.5.2. Technique of Research.................................................................................3

1.6. The Systematics Writing......................................................................................4

CHAPTER II ITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................5

2.1. Turtle....................................................................................................................5

2.2. Turtle Breeding..................................................................................................10

2.3. Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali......................................................................12

2.3.1. Tanjung Benoa...........................................................................................12

2.3.2. Turtle Island As The Recreation Place......................................................12

2.3.3. Turtle Island As The Breeding Place.........................................................13

CHAPTER III PROBLEM DISSCUSSION......................................................................14

3.1. Current Turtle Population..................................................................................14

3.1.1. World’s Most Threatened Turtle Population.............................................15

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3.1.2. World’s Most Healthiest Turtle Population...............................................16

3.2. Threats on Turtle................................................................................................18

3.3. The Influence of Turtle Island on Turtle Population.........................................25

3.3.1. The Positive Impact...................................................................................25

3.3.2. The Negative Impact..................................................................................27

3.4. The Benefits of Turtle........................................................................................28

3.5. The Way To Preserve The Turtle Population....................................................30

CHAPTER IV CLOSING..................................................................................................31

4.1. Conclusion.........................................................................................................31

4.2. Suggestion..........................................................................................................32

BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................................x

BIOGRAPHY.....................................................................................................................xi

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LIST OF IMAGES

Image 2. 1 Green Turtle.......................................................................................................5

Image 2. 2 Hawksbill Turtle................................................................................................6

Image 2. 3 Kemp's Ridley Turtle.........................................................................................7

Image 2. 4 Olive Ridley Turtle............................................................................................8

Image 2. 5 Leatherback Turtle.............................................................................................9

Image 2. 6 Flatback Turtle.................................................................................................10

Image 2. 7 Loggerhead Turtle............................................................................................11

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2. 1 Scientific Classification of Green Turtle............................................................5

Table 2. 2 Scientific Classification of Hawksbill Turtle......................................................6

Table 2. 3 Scientific Classification of Kemp’s Ridley.........................................................7

Table 2. 4 Scientific Classification of Olive Ridley Turtle..................................................8

Table 2. 5 Scientific Classification of Leatherback Turtle..................................................9

Table 2. 6 Scientific Classification of Flatback Turtle........................................................9

Table 2. 7 Scientific Classification of Loggerhead Turtle.................................................10

Table 3. 1 World’s Most Threatened Turtle Population…………………………………15

Table 3. 2 World’s Most Healthiest Turtle Population…………………………………..17

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background

It has been known for a long time, Bali is famous for its natural beauty and

the culture which make Bali become an interesting tourism object for domestic

and foreign tourists. The tourists who come to Bali are very fond of the presence

of the tourism objects which are beautiful and clean. There are cultural tourism

object such as Garuda Wisnu Kencana and Bajra Sandhi Monument and natural

tourism objects as Kuta Beach, Tanah Lot, Bedugul Lake and Tanjung Benoa. In

Tanjung Benoa is available a transportation to Turtle Island, that is a live place for

turtle and other animals. Turtle Island has a clean beach, sandy and ramps beach

and also has an intact ecological system that makes it suitable as a place for turtle

to live.

The existence of Turtle Island is not only as an interesting tourism object,

but also as turtle breeding for protected animals. Turtle is a marine animal which

is currently the world's turtle populations which are in a worrying state. As the

species which has vulnerable life circle naturally, the continuity of turtle

populations is getting threatened because of increasing human activity. These

activities include turtle habitat destruction and illegal trade of turtle meat by

people who are not responsible.

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From seven species of sea turtles in the world, the number of leatherback

turtles decreased from approximately 115,000 adult female turtles to less than

3,000. Leatherback turtles has decreased 97% in the last 22 years. According to

The World Conversation Union (IUCN), an endangered species of sea turtle is the

Kemp's Ridley and hawksbill. Both of them entered into the red list of endangered

species. In addition, four other turtle species are also at risk of extinction,

although it is not in a short time.

Based on the problems above, this research is given the title "THE

INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLAND IN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON

TURTLE POPULATIONS IN THE WORLD".

1.2. Problem Formulation

Based on the background that have been presented, the problems

formulation in a scientific paper is as follows

1. How is the condition of Turtle Island as tourist spot and turtle breeding?

2. How is the influence of Turtle Island on turtle population in the world?

3. How to conserve sea turtles in the world?

1.3. Research Purpose

This paper is organized with the following purposes

1. To determine the situation of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali as a

tourism place and a turtle breeding.

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2. To determine the effect of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on turtle

populations in the world.

3. To know the way to preserve the turtles in the world.

1.4. Time and Place of Research

The research was conducted by the author at the time of following the

activity of Study Tour Sumedang Bali on 19 – 26 June 2014 in several tourism

objects in Bali. In addition, the author also conducted research through other

sources that have relevance to the research by the author after the activity of Study

Tour is completed.

1.5. Methods and Technique of Research

1.5.1. Methods of Research

In organizing this scientific paper, the author used descriptive research

method.

1.5.2. Technique of Research

1. Literature Study

This method is done by collecting data from a variety of relevant sources

such as books and internet, browsing articles related to the discussion of the

problem.

2. Interview

This method is done by directly asking the respondent and aims to obtain

information related to the discussion of the problem.

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1.6. The Systematics Writing

This scientific paper entitled "The Influence of Turtle Island in Tanjung

Benoa Bali on Turtle Population in The World" which consists of

1. CHAPTER I Introduction, discusses the basic things in this paper, which

consists of: background, problem formulation, the purpose of research,

time and place of the research, methods and techniques of research and

systematic writing.

2. CHAPTER II Literature Review, discusses the basic theories, which

describes a study on the condition of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali as

a tourist spot and a turtle breeding.

3. CHAPTER III Problem Study, contains discussion of the data obtained by

literature study and interviews. The data is about the influence of Turtle

Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on turtle population in the world and ways to

conserve sea turtles.

4. CHAPTER IV Closing, the last part of this paper, which contains

conclusions and suggestions from the author.

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CHAPTER IILITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Turtle

Turtle is one of the most ancient creatures on earth. Seven species that can

be found until now have been existed for 110 million years ago, since the time of

dinosaurs. Turtle shell or carapace is efficient to swim in the water. Unlike

tortoises, turtles can’t retract their legs and head into their shell. Their color is

varies between yellow, green and black depend on the species. The seven species

of turtles that will be described below:

1. Green Turtle

The green sea turtle is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the only

species in the genus Chelonia. Its range extends throughout tropical and

subtropical seas around the world, with two distinct populations in the Atlantic

and Pacific Oceans. The common name comes from the usually green fat found

beneath its carapace. Unlike other members of its family, such as the hawksbill

sea turtle, C. mydas is mostly herbivorous. The adults usually inhabit shallow

lagoons, feeding mostly on various species of seagrasses.

Table 2. 1 Scientific Classification of Green Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinesFamily CheloniidaeGenus CheloniaSpecies C. mydas

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Image 2. 1 Green Turtle

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2. Hawksbill Turtle

This turtle has a flat body shape, with a carapace as protector, and fins like

arm is adapted to swim in the ocean. Hawksbill shell can change color, according

to the water temperature. Although these turtles spent half of his life in the ocean,

sometimes they also come to the shallow lagoons and coral reefs.

This species has spread throughout the world, with two subspecies found

in the Atlantic and Pacific. E. imbricata imbricata is the Atlantic subspecies,

while E. imbricata bissa is a subspecies in the Indo-Pacific region.

The food of Hawksbill turtle specialize on certain prey, such as sea

sponges which are the main food of Hawksbill. Beside sponges, hawksbill also

feeds on algae and cnidarians, comb jellyfish, jellyfish and other sea anemones.

Table 2. 2 Scientific Classification of Hawksbill Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily CheloniidaeGenus EretmochelysSpecies E. imbricata

3. Kemp’s Ridley Turtle

Kemp's ridley is a small sea turtle species, reaching maturity at 60–90 cm

(24–35 in) long and averaging only 45 kg (99 lb). Typical of sea turtles, it has a

dorsoventrally depressed body with specially adapted flipper-like front limbs and

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Image 2. 2 Hawksbill Turtle

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a beak. The Kemp's ridley turtle is the smallest of the sea turtles, with adults

reaching about 2 feet in length and weighing up to 100 pounds.

The adult Kemp's ridley has an oval carapace that is almost as wide as it is

long and is usually olive-gray in color. The carapace has five pairs of costal

scutes. In each bridge adjoining the plastron to the carapace, there are four

inframarginal scutes, each of which is perforated by a pore. The head has two

pairs of prefrontal scales.

Hatchlings are black on both sides. The Kemp's ridley has a triangular-

shaped head with a somewhat hooked beak with large crushing surfaces. This

turtle is a shallow water benthic feeder with a diet consisting primarily of crabs.

Table 2. 3 Scientific Classification of Kemp’s Ridley

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily CheloniidaeGenus LepidochelysSpecies L. kempii

4. Olive Ridley Turtle

Olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) are the smallest marine turtle,

living in warm waters close to shore as adults. Olive ridley turtles live in warm

waters in the region of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic. Female olive ridleys take

part in mass nestings that can involve 150,000 individual turtles crawling up a

beach at night to find a spot for their clutch of around 100 eggs.In some places in

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Image 2. 3 Kemp's Ridley Turtle

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India and Mexico this turtle came in thousands to spawn together on the beach,

which is called as "arribadas".

Table 2. 4 Scientific Classification of Olive Ridley Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily CheloniidaeGenus LepidochelysSpecies L. olivacea

5. Leatherback Turtle

Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest turtle in the

world and the fourth largest reptile in the world after three types of crocodiles.

Even though the way of walking is slow, but when swim the turtle is the fastest

reptile in the world at speeds up to 35 Km per hour. This species can be easily

identified from its carapace that is shaped like the lines on the star fruit. Carapace

is not covered by bone, but only covered by skin and oily flesh. Leatherbacks are

the only family members of Dermochelyidae who are still alive.

Most of the leatherback turtle is carnivores, especially in the adult phase of

their life cycle. The prey is consists of proto chordates or invertebrates, which can

be caught in shallow marine or estuarine habitats. Leatherback turtles also prey on

jellyfish, tunicates, sea urchins, bryozoans, bivalves, snails, shrimp, crab, rock

lobster, and sipunculid worms. Besides the jellyfish, leatherback turtles also eat

other soft-bodied organisms, such as tunicates and squid.

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Image 2. 4 Olive Ridley Turtle

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Table 2. 5 Scientific Classification of Leatherback Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily DermochelyidaeGenus DermochelysSpecies D. coriacea

6. Flatback Turtle

Adult flatback turtles have a low-domed carapace, with upturned edges,

which is approximately 90-95cm long. The carapace is olive to grey coloured and

the plastron is cream coloured. Flatback hatchlings have grey carapaces with the

scutes distinctively outlined in black. The plastron and the edges of the carapace

are white.

Flatback turtles are usually found in bays, shallow, grassy waters, coral

reefs, estuaries, and lagoons on the northern coast of Australia and off the coast of

Papua New Guinea. It eats a variety of organisms such as seaweeds, marine

invertebrates, including mollusks, jellyfish, shrimp and fish. Flatback also

consume soft corals, sea cucumbers and other soft-bodied creatures.

Table 2. 6 Scientific Classification of Flatback Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily CheloniidaeGenus NatatorSpecies N. depressus

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Image 2. 5 Leatherback Turtle

Image 2. 6 Flatback Turtle

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7. Loggerhead Turtle

Compared with other turtle, loggerhead turtle has a large head and

powerful jaws. This is allow to destroy crabs, lobsters, and other hard-bodied

prey. In the waters off, they usually float on the surface. They stand near the base

in estuaries and bays, and only up to the surface to breathe. Loggerhead turtles

breed only every 2 years or longer, and spawn up to 5 times, each time about 100

grains. Loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on bottom living

invertebrates, such as gastropods, bivalves, and decapods.

Table 2. 7 Scientific Classification of Loggerhead Turtle

Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass ReptiliaOrder TestudinataFamily CheloniidaeGenus CarettaSpecies C. caretta

2.2. Turtle Breeding

Turtle breeding need approximately 15 – 50 years to be able to mate.

During the mating period, the male turtle attract female by rubbing their head or

biting female’s neck. The male then hooked his body to the back of the female’s

shell. Then he folded the long tail under the female’s shell. Some males can

compete to grab the attention of the female.

When the time of turtle breeding is comes, only the female turtles who will

go up to the beach to lay their eggs. Turtles will lay eggs only in a place he

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Image 2. 7 Loggerhead Turtle

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usually lay eggs. Although the turtle has been swimming around the world, but

when the breeding period comes, the turtle will always return to the same beach.

Parent turtles will come back to the same beach to lay eggs after 2-3 years. A

mother usually go up to the beach 5 times in 1 nesting period, with an interval of

2 weeks. Usually the time they chose is in the night because the temperature is

cooler and few predators.

The turtle’s parent spawn 50-150 eggs, depending on the type of nest

depth between 50-80 cm. Turtle eggs are very delicate and very liked by the

predators. Female turtle will not guard the nest, after spawning, the parent will

close the nest with sand using the back fin, then it returned to the sea. This process

occurs for about 3 hours.

After the spawning period is finished, the parent turtle will return to the

sea. Turtle egg incubation period is 45-60 days. The nest temperature will decide

the gender of the turtle. If the temperature is low, it will produce more turtles with

the male sex as the opposite applies.

Newly hatched turtle, commonly called hatchlings. It will find a way to the

nest surface best for 3 to 7 days, then the hatchlings will come out from the nest at

night because the temperature is cooler and to avoid the threat of the predators.

Hatchlings that have been out of the nest will go directly to the sea. When the

natural breeding process is happen, according to data from World Wildlife Fund

(WWF) from 1000 hatchlings, only one who will survive to adult.

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2.3. Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali

2.3.1. Tanjung Benoa

One of beach which is known as the paradise of water tourism object in

Bali Island is Tanjung Benoa. The beach is located in the district of Tanjung

Benoa, Badung regency. Tanjung Benoa is one of the beach which has the white

sand and the quite wave, make this beach perfect for family holiday destination.

This place is good for tourists who love water sports. Various water sports activity

in this beach is banana boat, jet ski, parasailing, snorkeling, and many more.

Beside the water sport, another charm of this beach is turtle island. It is

called the turtle island, because the island is the place for various turtle species

which are already scarce.

2.3.2. Turtle Island As The Recreation Place

Turtle island is a small delta which is covered by mangrove forests, with

the with sand, calm waves and right facing the port of Benoa. Turtle island is

located in the village of Tanjung Benoa, District of South Kuta, Badung Regency.

The distance to this site from Denpasar City approximately 27 miles and

approximately 35 minutes from Ngurah Rai Airport if using the motor vehicle by

first crossing with the motorboat from the port of Benpoa. The used boat is bare

glass boat that enable the traveler to see the beautiful underwater scenery of

Southern Bali.

In this island, the visitors can see the turtle eggs which is still in cramps, a

small turtle, teen turtle, up to adult turtles who ready to be parents. The types of

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turtles are not only one, but there are several types. Beside that, there are also the

other animal in this location such as monkeys, birds, snakes, bats and others.

2.3.3. Turtle Island As The Breeding Place

In the beginning this location is to serve as a breeding place because turtles

are marine turtle which are protected, but in reality many hunters hunt turtles for

sale. They hunt as much advantage with hunting turtles not irresponsibly. In fact,

the numbers of turtles are fewer and fewer.

Therefore, to maintain the populations of turtles, World Wildife Fund

(WWF) and the Local Government chose this location as a place of captivity. This

location was developed not only known as a turtle breeding locations, but also as

tourist sites.

As its name, this small island is a breeding turtles place. This location is

used as a turtle breeding place because it has an intact ecological system, clean

beach and maintained, and lush mangrove forest.

There are shelter ponds or tanks which are specifically provided to

accommodate and care for turtles newly hatched to adult. The age of turtles at

Turtle Island even reached seventy years. There are several types of turtle which

is bred and protected such as the green turtle, olive ridley turtles, hawksbill, and

flatback. Travelers who come can hold the turtles directly, feed, take pictures, and

get into the breeding pond.

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CHAPTER IIIPROBLEM DISSCUSSION

3.1. Current Turtle Population

Turtle population is being threatened. It is estimated that more than 7.700

turtles become victim of fishing or net arrest each year. It is only from not

accidental net and fishing arrest in the sea. If arresting is accidentally included, the

number would be much larger. Turtles used as meals like turtle soup, food or

jewelry. Their lives are threatened as a result of some human behavior. Human

activity now threatens the entire human life.

Top sea turtle experts from around the globe have discovered that almost

half (45%) of the world’s threatened sea turtle populations are found in the

northern Indian Ocean. The study also determined that the most significant threats

across all of the threatened populations of sea turtles are fisheries by catching,

accidental catching of sea turtles by fishermen targeting other species, and the

direct harvest of turtles or their eggs for food or turtle shell material for

commercial use.

The report, done by the IUCN Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG) of

the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and supported by

Conservation International (CI) and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

(NFWF), was a collaboration of over 30 experts from 6 continents and more than

20 countries with diverse expertise in all aspects of sea turtle biology and

conservation. The study, designed to provide a blueprint for conservation and

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research, evaluated the state of individual populations of sea turtles and

determined the most threatened populations, as well as the healthiest populations.

3.1.1. World’s Most Threatened Turtle Population

Four of the seven sea turtle species have populations among the world's

most threatened. Almost half (five) of these populations are found in the northern

Indian Ocean, specifically on nesting beaches and in waters within Exclusive

Economic Zones (EEZs) of countries like India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Other

areas that proved to be the most dangerous places for sea turtles were the East

Pacific Ocean (from the U.S. to South America) and East Atlantic Ocean (off the

coast of west Africa.

Table 3. 1 World’s Most Threatened Turtle Population

No. Species HabitatKey Nesting

SiteThe Causes

1. Olive Ridley Turtle(L.olivacea)

West Indian Ocean

India and Oman - Trawl bycatch

- Consumption of eggs and turtle

- Coastal development and shipping

Arribada population in the Northeast Indian Ocean

India - Intense pressures from trawl bycatch

- Consumption of turtle eggs and meat

- Development of major shipping

ports along the coast of India

Northeast Indian Ocean

India and Sri Lanka

- Widespread decline in turtle nests beach

- Trawl bycatch

- Consumption of turtle eggs and meat

2. Loggerhead Turtle

Northeast Indian Ocean

Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and

- Fisheries bycatch in trawls and nets

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(C.caretta) Myanmar - Ongoing development of coastal areas where they nest

Northeast Atlantic Ocean

Cape Verde - Consumption of meat and eggs

- Bycatch in Cape Verde and in feeding areas along the African mainland coast

North Pacific Ocean

Japan - Severe bycatch in Mexico and Japan

- Coastal development in Japan

3. Hawksbill Turtle(E. imbricata)

Northeast Indian Ocean

India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

- No adequate conservation

East Atlantic Ocean

Congo and Sao Tome et Principe

- Severe threat from coastal net

bycatch

- Consumption of eggs and meat

- Exploitation of shell material for

handicrafts and jewelry

East Pacific Ocean

El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador

- Severe threats of coastal bycatch

- Egg consumption

West Pacific Ocean

Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines

- Exploitation of turtle shell

material

- Climate change

4. Leatherback Turtle (D. coriacea)

East Pacific Ocean

Mexico, Nicaragua and Costa Rica

- Egg consumption

- Bycatch

3.1.2. World’s Most Healthiest Turtle Population

The study also highlighted the healthiest sea turtle populations in the

world, which are generally large populations with increasing trends under

relatively low threats. Five species among these dozen healthy populations are

found in nesting sites and feeding areas in Australia, Mexico, and Brazil. Other

areas that harbor healthy turtle populations included the Southwest Indian Ocean,

Micronesia and French Polynesia.

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Table 3. 2 World’s Most Healthiest Turtle Population

No.

Species HabitatsKey Nesting

SitesThe Causes

1. Loggerhead Turtle (C. caretta)

Northwest Indian Ocean

Oman - The consistent monitoring efforts to the turtle

2. Green Turtle(C. mydas)

Southeast Indian Ocean

Australia - The existence is monitored. So it becomes abundant, although some still consume turtle eggs

Southwest Atlantic Ocean

Brazil - Collaborative conservation efforts made by Brazil and neighboring countries

East Pacific Ocean

Galapagos Islands, Ecuador and Mexico

- Stricter controls on turtle trade

South Central Pacific Ocean

French Polynesia

- There is no serious threat so its existence is still abundant

Southwest Pacific Ocean

Australia - There is no serious threat so its existence is still abundant

3. Hawksbill Turtle (E. imbricata)

Southeast Indian Ocean

Australia - A good nesting place

- The low threat attackSouthwest Indian Ocean

Seychelles, French and British Overseas Territories

- The long-term monitoring is good

- Good protection on coral reefs as their nest

Southwest Pacific Ocean

Australia - The maintenance of coral reefs is good and healthy

4. Leatherback Turtle (D. coriacea)

Southeast Atlantic Ocean

Gabon - Good conservation from neighboring countries

Northwest Atlantic Ocean

Trinidad, Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname

- The population is still growing despite severe bycatch

5. Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochely

East Pacific Ocean

Mexico, Nicaragua and Costa Rica

- Existence is abundant though the nesting place is not good

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s olivacea)

3.2. Threats on Turtle

Each year thousands of hatchling turtles emerge from their nests along the

southeast U.S. coast and enter the Atlantic Ocean. Sadly, only an estimated one in

1,000 to 10,000 will survive to adulthood. The natural obstacles faced by young

and adult sea turtles are staggering, but it is the increasing threats caused by

humans that are driving them to extinction. Today, all sea turtles found in U.S.

waters are federally listed as endangered, except for the loggerhead which is listed

as threatened.

1. Natural Threats

In nature, sea turtles face a host of life and death obstacles to their

survival. Predators such as raccoons, crabs and ants raid eggs and hatchlings still

in the nest. Once they emerge, hatchlings make bite-sized meals for birds, crabs

and a host of predators in the ocean. After reaching adulthood, sea turtles are

relatively immune to predation, except for the occasional shark attack. These

natural threats, however, are not the reasons sea turtle populations have

plummeted toward extinction. To understand what really threatens sea turtle

survival, we must look at the actions of humans.

2. Harvest for Consumption

Although sea turtles have spiritual or mythological importance in many

cultures around the world, this has not prevented humans from consuming their

eggs or meat. In many coastal communities, especially in Central America and

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Asia, sea turtles have provided a source of food. During the nesting season, turtle

hunters comb the beaches at night looking for nesting females. Often, they will

wait until the female has deposited her eggs to kill her. Then, they take both the

eggs and the meat. Additionally, people may use other parts of the turtle for

products, including the oil, cartilage, skin and shell. Many countries forbid the

taking of eggs, but enforcement is lax, poaching is rampant, and the eggs can

often be found for sale in local markets.

3. Illegal Sea Turtle Shell Trade

Hawksbill sea turtles, recognized for their beautiful gold and brown shells,

have been hunted for centuries to create jewelry and other luxury items. As a

result, these turtles are now listed as critically endangered. Scientists estimate that

hawksbill populations have declined by 90 percent during the past 100 years.

While illegal trade is the primary cause of this decline, the demand for shells

continues today on the black market. The lack of information about sea turtles

leads many tourists to unwittingly support the international trade in these

endangered species. Buying, selling or importing any sea any sea turtle products

in the U.S., as in many countries around the world, is strictly prohibited by law.

4. Commercial Fishing: Longline & Trawl

Each year hundreds of thousands of adult and immature sea turtles are

accidentally captured in fisheries ranging from highly mechanized operations to

small-scale fishermen around the world. Global estimates of annual capture,

injury and mortality are staggering — 150,000 turtles of all species killed in

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shrimp trawls, more than 200,000 loggerheads and 50,000 leatherbacks captured,

injured or killed by longlines, and large numbers of all species drowned in gill

nets. The extent of gill net mortality is unknown, but sea turtle capture is

significant where studied, and the drowning of sea turtles in gill nets may be

comparable to trawl and longline mortality. Deaths in gill nets are particularly

hard to quantify because these nets are set by uncounted numbers of local

fishermen in tropical waters around the world. Other fisheries that accidentally

take turtles include dredges, trawls, pound nets, pot fisheries, and hand lines.

In the United States, the federal government worked with the commercial

shrimp trawl industry to develop Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs). TEDs are a

grid of bars with an opening either at the top or the bottom of the trawl net. The

grid is fitted into the neck of a shrimp trawl. Small animals such as shrimp pass

through the bars and are caught in the bag end of the trawl. When larger animals,

such as marine turtles and sharks are captured in the trawl they strike the grid bars

and are ejected through the opening. Today, all U.S. shrimpers are required to put

TEDs in their trawl nets. Unfortunately, not all fishermen comply with the law,

and sea turtles continue to drown in shrimp nets.

5. Marine Debris - Ingestion & Entanglement

It is estimated that more than 100 million marine animals are killed each

year due to plastic debris in the ocean. More than 80% of this plastic comes from

land. It washes out from our beaches and streets. It travels through storm drains

into streams and rivers. It flies away from landfills into our seas. As a result,

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thousands of sea turtles accidentally swallow these plastics, mistaking them for

food. Leatherbacks especially, cannot distinguish between floating jellyfish — a

main component of their diet — and floating plastic bags. Most of the debris is

recognizable: plastic bags, balloons, bottles, degraded buoys, plastic packaging,

and food wrappers. Some plastics aren't so easy to see, so small, in fact, that it is

invisible to the naked eye. If sea turtles ingest these particles, they can become

sick or even starve.

Turtles are affected to an unknown, but potentially significant degree, by

entanglement in persistent marine debris, including discarded or lost fishing gear

including steel and monofilament line, synthetic and natural rope, plastic onion

sacks and discarded plastic netting materials. Monofilament line appears to be the

principal source of entanglement for sea turtles in US waters.

6. Artificial Lighting

Nesting turtles depend on dark, quite beaches to reproduce successfully.

Today, these turtles are endangered, in part, because they must compete with

tourists, businesses and coastal residents to use the beach. This man-made, coastal

development results in artificial lighting on the beach that discourages female sea

turtles from nesting. Instead, turtles will choose a less-than-optimal nesting spot,

which affects the chances of producing a successful nest. Also, near-shore lighting

can cause sea turtle hatchlings to become disoriented when they are born. Instead,

they will wander inland where they often die of dehydration, predation, or even

from being run over on busy coastal streets.

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7. Coastal Armoring

Sea turtle nesting beaches everywhere have been substantially altered by

urbanization and development. To protect this prime real estate, many coastal

property owners have built coastal armoring structures such as sea walls, rock

revetments and sandbags to help protect their property from natural erosion. These

man-made structures threaten sea turtles nesting habitat by interrupt the natural

nesting process through a reduction of nesting habitat and displacement of turtles

to less optimal nesting areas. Florida's beaches, for example, host approximately

90% of all the sea turtle nesting in the U.S. But sadly, over 40% of Florida's

beaches are classified as critically eroding due to changes in the natural landscape

of these beaches.

8. Beach Erosion

One way to address beach erosion is through beach nourishment. This

consists of pumping, trucking or otherwise depositing sand on a beach to replace

what has been lost to erosion. While beach nourishment is often preferable to

armoring, if it is not done correctly, it can negatively impact sea turtles. Dredging

for the sand to nourish a beach can cause direct threats to sea turtles and their

nearshore marine habitats. Hopper dredges have been directly responsible for the

incidental capture and death of hundreds, if not thousands, of sea turtles in the US.

9. Beach Activities

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Human use of nesting beaches can result in negative impacts to nesting

turtles, incubating egg clutches and hatchlings. The most serious threat caused by

increased human presence on the beach is the disturbance to nesting females.

Night-time human activity can prevent sea turtles from emerging on the beach or

even cause females to stop nesting and return to the ocean.

Beach Furniture and other recreational equipment (e.g., cabanas,

umbrellas, hobie cats, canoes, small boats and beach cycles) can reduce nesting

success and increase false crawls on nesting beaches. There is also increasing

documentation of nesting females becoming entrapped in beach furniture.

Beach Driving, either at night or during the daytime, can negatively

impact sea turtles. Night time driving can disturb nesting females, disorient

emerging hatchlings, and crush hatchlings attempting to reach the ocean. Tire ruts

left by vehicles can extend the time it takes a hatchling to reach the ocean and

increase their chance of being caught by a predator. Driving during the day can

cause sand compaction above nests resulting in lower nest success. Additionally,

beach driving contributes to erosion, especially during high tides or on narrow

beaches.

10. Invasive Species Predation

Around the globe, sea turtles and hatchlings alike are victim to natural

predators. Crabs, raccoons, boars, birds, fish and sharks all play their role in the

natural food chain. However, urban development along coast lines has introduced

many non-native species that have become invasive predators for sea turtles and

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other coastal wildlife. Florida itself has one of the most severe invasive species

problems in the United States. Domesticated dogs and cats will devour eggs and

hatchlings and even attack nesting turtles. In many areas, trash left behind by

humans encourages inland animals to migrate to beaches for food, further

increasing sea turtle predators.

11. Marine Pollution

Marine pollution can have serious impacts on both sea turtles and the food

they eat. New research suggests that a disease now killing many sea turtles

(fibropapillomas) may be linked to pollution in the oceans and in near-shore

waters. When pollution enters the water, it contaminates and kills aquatic plant

and animal life that is often food for sea turtles. Oil spills, urban runoff from

chemicals, fertilizers and petroleum all contribute to water pollution. Because the

ocean is so large, many incorrectly assume that pollutants will be diluted and

dispersed to safe levels, but in reality, the toxins released from these pollutants

become more concentrated as they break down in size. As a result, these smaller,

more toxic particles become food for many links in the food chain, including sea

turtles.

12. Oil Spills

Marine pollution can have serious impacts on both sea turtles and the food

they eat. New research suggests that a disease now killing many sea turtles

(fibropapillomas) may be linked to pollution in the oceans and in near-shore

waters. When pollution enters the water, it contaminates and kills aquatic plant

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and animal life that is often food for sea turtles. Oil spills, urban runoff from

chemicals, fertilizers and petroleum all contribute to water pollution. Because the

ocean is so large, many incorrectly assume that pollutants will be diluted and

dispersed to safe levels, but in reality, the toxins released from these pollutants

become more concentrated as they break down in size. As a result, these smaller,

more toxic particles become food for many links in the food chain, including sea

turtles.

13. Climate Change

Because sea turtles use both marine and terrestrial habits during their life

cycles, the affects of climate change are likely to have a devastating impact on

these endangered species. Climate change affects nesting beaches. With melting

polar ice caps and rising sea levels, beaches are starting to disappear. As the water

level begins to rise, the size of nesting beaches decrease. Stronger storms,

predicted as a result of increasing temperatures, will continue to erode coastal

habitats. Higher temperatures can adversely affect sea turtle gender ratio.

Increasing incubation temperatures could result in more female sea turtles, which

reduces reproductive opportunities and decreases genetic diversity.

3.3. The Influence of Turtle Island on Turtle Population

3.3.1. The Positive Impact

1. Keeping the turtle population

Turtle populations which is now being dropped, can be helped by the

various breeding places like Turtle Island in Tanjung Benoa, Bali. Turtle Island

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has become a new habitat for turtles. One of the turtles in this place is green turtle

which its population is now declining. In this place, we can see the process of

turtle life from still eggs, birth, children, to adults.

At this location, turtle population is greatly increased. In the breeding

season, turtle eggs are rescued and hatched by citizen. 50 % total population of 1

month old hatchlings are released freely to the sea. The rest is kept to be raised

again. If all hatchlings are released, they will die because eaten by predators. After

approximately 1 year old, half of the remaining 50% pet turtle which is still live

will be released back to the sea. And the rest will be maintained used as brood

stock.

2. Increasing awareness of travelers in cultivation turtles

In the 1990’s turtle population is nearly reached extinction in Bali.

Balinese liked to consume turtles meat, because the taste is good. In addition

turtles also be required to become sacrifice animals to be used as lawar (Balinese

food) when the ritual. As a result, turtle population is decline drastically.

Therefore, the Government then made a ban to catching turtles and purchase turtle

with any reason. And for the ritual, only allowed for big temples and big religious

ritual only.

Therefore, the present of Turtle Island as a turtles conservation is to

prevent the extinction. The reasons of selecting Turtle Island as a breeding place

because the area is suitable for turtle live. At high tide, the land is covered by sea

water. And turtle absolutely need sea water to life. Turtle Island is the awareness

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for people and tourists how important it is to keep the turtle population to avoid

the extinction.

3. Attracting travelers to learn the life cycle of turtles

As a tourist spot, Turtle Island is very interesting place because the

location is not far from Tanjung Benoa, which is the center of the water

attractions. Turtle Island can be reached within 15 minutes by using a glass

bottom boat from Tanjung Benoa. Turtles Island can be an educative tool for

travelers who want to know more about turtles, both kinds, behavior, appearance,

etc.

3.3.2. The Negative Impact

1. Tourism activities that cause the turtle population decline

Tourism activity became one of the causes of environmental degradation

and the inhibition of the flora and fauna development in Turtle Island. Tourism

activity nowadays give adverse impact on the flora and fauna development

environment. The tourism activities can increase the pollution to the environment,

for example marine pollution caused by plastic waste brought by the tourists and

dumped into the sea. In addition. air pollution due to transport used by the

travelers. And the most severe is the number of poaching endangered animals

which protected because of the many tourism love souvenirs from endangered

animals. It is the factors which led to the turtle population has decreased.

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2. Development around the turtle breeding

Construction of the various resorts, hotels and residential areas in the

coastal threatens nesting turtles place. This is because of turtles is very sensitive to

light, the crowds, and noises that make turtles scared for landed to lay eggs. The

presence of human activity around the nesting area also increases levels of

disturbance to turtles. For example, disruption caused by the lights on the beach,

lit a bonfire, taking pictures with a camera flash, noise generated by the voices of

singing people which were having a bonfire on the beach, water sports like jet ski,

and motor vehicle. Newly hatched hatchlings will go towards the beach with light

guide. This is because the light in the sky over the sea is brighter than the

mainland sky and this applies at times of day and night. Human-made light at

night, such as the lights of hotels and resorts make hatchlings lost and disoriented.

Thus causing them off guard and easily become prey when noon came. Therefore

important not to install lights that leads to the beach at turtle nesting season to

avoid this from happening.

3.4. The Benefits of Turtle

Turtle is not only unique and cute species, but also very useful for human

life. Just to let it live freely in nature, without interference by humans, turtles

provides many benefits. Such benefits include aspects of economic growth

through the fisheries sector (and its multiplier effect), maintaining the balance of

the ecosystem chain, science and the development of ecotourism.

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First, ecosystem services (environmental balance). Turtles play an

important role in maintaining the balance in the ocean, such as what done by the

Green Turtle is. Turtles that have mileage reaches up to thousands of miles of

ocean plays an important role in the spread of nutrients to the sea by their feces.

This dung as fertilizer or feed for other marine plants and animals.

Second, the increase in economic growth of the fisheries sector. Turtle

actually plays a vital role for the availability of marine fish, such as leatherback

turtle, which eat the Jellyfish. Jellyfish are marine animals that eats fish. It is a

food chain. If there is no large leatherback turtle, jellyfish populations will

increase. Jellyfish overpopulation would endanger child fish populations. Will be

more and more jellyfish who eat children fish. Due to the many jellyfish who eat

child fish, the availability of fish in the sea will be reduced. This eventually will

reduce fish catches of fishermen. Different case with. This type of turtle is eating

unhealthy reefs the corals become healthy again. Healthy coral reefs are a good

food source and a place to live (habitat) fish breeding. In the end, this will make

the area into a source of fish (more fish to be caught).

Third, the potential for tourism development or other economic

alternatives. As mentioned earlier that the turtles play an important role

maintaining the health of coral reefs. Coral reefs that well preserved, especially if

the area possess natural beauty and supportive culture, would provide underwater

scenery is quite beautiful. It has the potential for tourism development.

Snorkelling and diving can be attractions offered to tourists.

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Fourth, science. Turtles and their habitats is also a means for the

improvement of the human sciences, for example, through research and

development. According to one of the founders of YPB which is also eco-tourism

expert,, turtle known as one of the remaining animals from antiquity. Therefore,

turtle may be "entrance" for mankind to know what happened in the past and other

important information. It is very important for the development of science,

especially biology and the environment.

3.5. The Way To Preserve The Turtle Population

Turtle has been listed in the list of Appendix I of the Convention of

International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (Convention on

International Trade of Endangered Species - CITES). The convention prohibits all

international trade in all products / results that turtle, be it eggs, meat, and shells.

In order to remain sustainable and turtles develop into much more, it needs

to be done the following ways:

1. Escort and supervise UU no. 77 year 1999 about turtle protection;

2. Do not consume food derived from turtle eggs and meat;

3. Do not use items made from turtle shell;

4. Do not throw plastic waste and other things that are harmful into the sea;

5. Do not disturb the turtles who laying eggs, because they can stop the

process of laying eggs when feeling threatened;

6. Not taking turtle eggs because it would destroy their populations;

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7. Maintaining the health of coral reefs. Healthy coral reefs are places to eat

and good shelter for turtles;

8. Supports sea turtle conservation program;

9. Campaigning the turtle conservation;

10. Donate funds to support conservation activities.

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CHAPTER IVCLOSING

4.1. Conclusion

The following conclusions are taken from the analysis described in the

previous three chapters:

1. Turtle Island function as turtle breeding location as well as a tourist spot

that is located in Tanjung Benoa, Bali. With the presence of Turtle Island,

it will directly help to conserve turtle population in the world which is

currently in a vulnerable state.

2. There are some positive and negative influence of the presence of turtle

island. One positive effect is as awareness for tourists that it is very

important for humans to keep the turtle population.

3. The negative impact comes from the people who make the construction of

infrastructures and the traveler coming to Turtle Island. Construction of

hotel will disturb the turtle habitat and destroy turtle nests. As a result, the

turtle does not want to come to the beach to lay their eggs.

4. Threats to turtle can come from natural or human. However, the threat that

comes from human more threaten turtle. Activities such as fishing, coastal

area development, the consumption of turtle eggs and meat, and trade

turtle shells to be used as jewelry have made the turtle population is

threatened.

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5. Many ways can be done to conserve turtles. From the many ways, the

most important thing is everyone should have the awareness of itself to

love and keep the turtle.

6. With the preservation of turtles, many benefits can be taken either in the

fields of economy, tourism or education facilities.

4.2. Suggestion

Writer propose some suggestions relating to the writing of scientific

papers, as follows:

1. Everyone should care the survival of this ancient species to conserve the

turtle population.

2. Turtles protection institution should give the right knowledge to all people

to make them understand about of turtles and in order to make everyone

know about turtle, such as life cycle, habitat, food, etc.

3. Do not hurt the turtle's body and destroy the habitat of turtles while

fishing. Therefore, it is particularly important for fishermen to know the

knowledge about turtle.

4. Tourists should obey the rules while visiting tourist attractions of turtle.

Do not ride on turtle shell and do not throw garbage into the sea. Two of

the above is a simple way that can be done to maintain the existence of

turtle.

5. Government must enforce Turtle Protection Law no. 77 year 1999

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Nuitja, I Nyoman Sumertha. 1992. Biologi dan Ekologi Pelestarian Penyu Laut.

Bogor : Penerbit IPB.

Eckert, K. L., Bjorndal, K. A., Abreu-Grobois, F. A. and Donnelly, M. (Eds.)

1999. Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation of Sea Turtles.

Washington DC : IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication.

http://blog-penyu.blogspot.com. Accessed on 19th August 2014.

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penyu. Accessed on 5th August 2014.

http://lingkunganhijau.com. Accessed on 10th August 2014.

http://ocean.si.edu. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.

http://www.conserveturtles.org. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.

http://www.iucn.org. Accessed on 5th August 2014.

http://www.terangi.or.id. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.

http://www.widecast.org. Accessed on 2nd August 2014

http://www.worldwildlife.org. Accessed on 10th September 2014

http://www.wwf.or.id. Accessed on 10th September 2014

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BIOGRAPHY

The writer’s name is Tendi Nugeraha Wijaya,

people usually call him as Tendi. The writer is a male

and he was born in Sumedang on 4th March 1998.

The writer is the second child of two sibling from a

spouse Mr. Wahyu and Mrs. Noneng Sartikah. But in

2003, the writer’s mother was died because of sick. Now, the writer has a mother

who really love him named Diah Mulyani. The writer’s live in Sumedang,

precisely in Lingk. Kebon Kalapa, Kel. Pasanggrahan Baru, Kec. South

Sumedang. The writer’s sister has been married so she chooses to live in Depok

with her husband.

The writer begins his study in 2003 in Kartika Siliwangi Kindergarten and

graduated in 2004, then continued to Sindangpalay Elementary School and until

2010. After he graduated there, he study at Junior High School 1 Sumedang for 2

years and graduated in 2012. And now, the writer is still studying in Senior High

School 1 Sumedang.

The writer like to designing by computer software in his computer.

Formerly, the writer dream was want to be an architect, but now he want to be a

computer engineer. It makes the writer motivated to continue his study to

information system major in University of Indonesia. The writer favorite subjects

are mathematics and English. He also loves to listen the music, watching

television, internet browsing and sleep all day long.

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