The History of Air Filter Testing and Why It Matters Gas Phase Media Testing...

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Transcript of The History of Air Filter Testing and Why It Matters Gas Phase Media Testing...

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    The History of Air Filter Testing and Why It Matters

    Moderator: Leslye Sandberg, CAFS

    Panelists: R. Vijayakumar,PhD, Consultant in Chief, AERFIL Paula Levasseur, CAFS

    Phil Maybee, CAFS, NCT

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    History of Filter Testing

    Why It Matters?

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Why This Topic?

    • How this came about?

    • Why these panelists?

    • Relevance to our group

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Format

    • Each Speaker will have about 20 minutes

    • Molecular, HEPA and Particulate Testing

    • Questions at the end

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    A Brief History of Molecular Filter Testing

    Paula Levasseur, CAFS LMF Services LLC

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    In The Beginning

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Timeline

    • 3750 B.C. • Egyptians use carbon for unpleasant odors

    • 400 B.C. • Hindus and Phoenicians used it to purify water

    • 50 A.D. • Hippocrates and others used it in medicine

    • 1700’s – 1800’s • Decolorization properties are discovered

    • 20th Century • First produced on an industrial scale 1911

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Activated Carbon Testing

    • Carl Wilhelm Scheele -1773 • Measured the volume of gases adsorbed

    • Gabriel Bertrand – 1883 • Proved it could work on adsorbing poisons

    • WWI – 1915 • Field test on human subjects wearing respirators

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Activated Carbon Testing

    • ASTM • Focus on Bulk Media

    • Density • Sieve Size • pH • Butane Activity

    • Formerly Carbon Tetrachloride

    • For more information visit astm.org • Or tc0203.ashraetcs.org / Documents/

    Standards Minutes

    • NIOSH • Focus was on testing for

    respirators.

    • MIL – Standards • Impregnated Carbon for

    Chemical warfare agents

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Gas Phase Media Testing

    • ASHRAE • 145.1 - 2015

    • Laboratory Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air-Cleaning Systems: Loose Granular Media

    • Initially published in 2008

    • ISO • 10121-1-2014

    • Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air Cleaning Media and Devices for General Ventilation – Part 1 Gas- Phase Air Cleaning Media

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Gas – Phase Filter Testing

    • ASHRAE • 145.2 – 2014

    • Laboratory Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air Cleaning Systems: Air Cleaning Devices

    • First published in 2011

    • ISO • 10121-2 -2013

    • Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air Cleaning Media and Devices for General Ventilation – Part 2 Gas- Phase Air Cleaning Devices (GPACD)

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Future Testing

    • ASHRAE • 145.2 Scope

    • Now includes Electronic Air cleaning devices.

    • ISO • 10121-3

    • Rating system in Process

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Conclusion

    • Standardized test to compare filter performance on a specific contaminant.

    • It is a one pass test – not recirculating • No multi - contaminant Challenge test available

  • Vijay@aerfil.com

    R. Vijayakumar, Ph.D. NAFA ANNUAL MEETING

    12 September 2019 MONTREAL

  • My BiasMy Bias

    Weights and measures essential Standards

    A good thing Not essential

  • Elements Of A Timeless StandardElements Of A Timeless Standard

    1 + 1 = 2

  • Efficiency TestingEfficiency Testing

  • Scanning for leaksScanning for leaks

    o o o o o o o o

    o o o o o o o o o o o o

    o o oo o o o o o o o 00 0 0- 0 0 0 00

    o o o 00 o o o o o 0 0 O o o o o o o 0 0o o o

  • Mil Std 282Mil Std 282

    Photometric, i.e., signal from all particles

    Magnified leak at larger particle

    Verified particle size – Optical Owl!

  • Forgotten DetailForgotten Detail

    Verified particle size – Optical Owl !

    Flame photometry in UK and China

  • Next Step in Evolution (IEST)Next Step in Evolution (IEST)

    Dumped particle size verification

    Particle counter for ULPA

    Photometer for HEPA

    Leak still at larger particle size

  • EN 1822EN 1822 Dumped size verification

    Particle counter

    No Photometer

    Leak at MPPS

    Leak also by visual smoke

    < 99.97% also HEPA class

  • JIS ?JIS ? Dumped size verification

    Particle counter

    No Photometer

    Efficiency at 0.12um

    Leak at larger size

  • IEST 2nd GenerationIEST 2nd Generation Dumped size verification sometimes

    Particle counter or photometer

    Efficiency as minimum of two size range

    Leak at larger size

  • ISOISO

    Similar to EN 1822

    OPC, photometer, or visual leak

    Zillion filter classes

  • “Thermal” DOP

    MPPS ISO,IEST,JIS

    IEST, JIS, Chinese Leak Test

    Mil Std 282

    0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

    0.04

    0.02 0.01

    0.001Pe ne

    tr at

    io n

    %

    Particle Size, μm

    How Do Standards Compare?How Do Standards Compare?

  • Up to you

    Let’s not complicate it

    Up to you

    Let’s not complicate it

  • What gets us into trouble is not what we don’t know. It is what we know for sure that just ain’t so

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Filter testing history and why it matters

    Phil Maybee - Retired

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    A few years ago in meeting in Toronto – Hines Interests VP told us “We don’t know what we don’t know. So how do we find factual information to make the intelligent decisions on what works versus promotional data? Healthy buildings require vigilant care without the opportunity for error that compromises tenant wellbeing.” (Andrew Kitchens)

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    What is the size of YOUR ASHRAE?

    • Testing standards • Changed over time – but idea was to compare performance to another

    • Filter Peddlers • Interestingly this industry is still mostly Mom & Pop distribution

    • Engineering Firms • Usually are educated by the Filter Peddlers

    • Public Users • Buildings, Schools, Hospitals, Turbines, Paint • education of sorts from mechanical contractors; filter peddlers and engineers

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Peddler – (per Webster)

    “One who deals with or promotes something intangible”

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    Testing history – “Short version”

    NBS test method – Arrestance and Dust Spot ASHRAE standard 52-1 – Dust Spot and DHC ASHRAE 52-2 – MERV numbers Guideline 26 – Insitu evaluations ISO Standards

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    NBS – National Bureau of Standards

    • Arrestance testing

    • Measuring the amount of dust fed versus dust captured by weight to determine the percentage efficiency expressed as a value in 100% scale

    • May recall the slides NAFA sold at one time that compared one 16 lb bowling ball and one pound (100) moth balls – if we catch the bowling ball only we have 94% efficient filter?

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    NBS Dust Spot

    • Dust Spot on man made pollutant – SMUT test • Difficulty in duplication of test aerosol • Combined NBS with American Filtration Society to make

    ASHRAE 52.1

  • NAFA 2019 Annual Convention | Montreal, Canada | September 11-13

    ASHRAE 52-1 – Atmospheric Dust Spot Efficiency

    • Barney referred to this as the SMUT test in his presentation in Dallas

    • Three key parts to the test reporting • Atmospheric Dust Spot Efficiency • Arrestance efficiency • Dust Holding Capacity