The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, Spanish American War, Filipino Insurrection
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, Spanish American War, Filipino Insurrection
The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution
The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, Spanish American War, Filipino InsurrectionChapter 26-28Clashes of Cultures on the Plains The Final Decline of the Indigenous Main Factors Leading to the Decline of the Native Pop.Homestead Act (1862): allowed settlers to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by: Living on it for five years Improving itAnd paying a fee of $30Union soldiers could deduct time served from residency requirements. Along with the railroad this did the most to stimulate western settlementMass Killing of the BuffaloBuffalo BillCompletion of the Transcontinental RailroadClashes of Cultures on the Plains The Final Decline of the Indigenous The Dawes Act (1887)Dissolved many tribes as legal entitiesWiped out tribal ownership of landSet up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres.Full rights and citizenship took 25 years.Reservation land not allotted to the Indians was sold to the railroads.Indoctrination and assimilation campaigns broke out to civilize the indigenous.Carlisle Indian School in PennsylvaniaThe Final Decline of the Indigenous
Dawes Act comes in response to Ghost Dance cult and violent reactions from the indigenousAs history goes, power centers will try to criminalize the ways of life of marginalized groups e.g. the Ghost DanceViolence erupts at Wounded Knee when the dance spreads to the Dakota Sioux. Writers reactHelen Hunt Jackson writes A Century of Dishonor and Ramona
The Farm Becomes a FactoryIn the latter third of the 1800s farming began to change fundamentally.Once jacks-of-all-trades, farmers were forced to concentrate on growing single cash crops wheat or corn.Used the profits to buy foodstuffsInnovations greatly increase the speed of harvestingSteam engines drag the plow, seeder, and harrow.Twine binder and the combine a combined reaper-thresher that reaped and bagged the grain.This agricultural modernization drove many farmers off the land, thus swelling the ranks of the industrial work force.Deflation Dooms the DebtorFarmers chained to a one crop economy were at the mercy of the market.Crop prices began to fall in the 1880s.Low prices and deflated currency were the chef worries of the farmer.Deflation flowed from the static money supply.1870: Currency in circulation was only $19.42 per person.1890: It was still only $22.67During these years business and industry grew.Interest rates ranged from 8 to 40%Farmers felt they were being cheated.The Crop-Lien SystemThe farmer gets what he needs from the merchant:Use of the gin at harvest timeSuppliesVarious equipmentThe farmer usually didnt have the money to payThe merchant would get a lien, or a mortgage on his cropThe interest rate on this maybe around 25%The farmer would owe more and more money each year until his farm was taken away and he became a tenant.Lawrence Goodwyn says, the crop lien system became for millions of Southerners, white and black, little more than modified slavery.Reactions of FarmersEarly ReactionThe Grange: Led by Oliver H. Kelley, he wanted to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.Concerts, lectures, and picnics made for a kind of collectivism.Their own paper declared, the Grange is ostensibly conservative and furnishes a stable, well-organized, rational and orderly opposition to encroachments upon the liberties of the people, in contrast to the lawless, desperate attempts of communism.Politics: Grangers fought to get railroads regulated under the federal government (what they could charge for transport, storage, etc)State courts were incline to favor public control of private business for general welfare.Reactions of FarmersThe Grange (cont.)Due to business reaction (the interests) and the fact that the Grange simply wasnt doing enough, members slowly turned away.Farmers AllianceBegan in 1877 in Texas. By 1882 there were 120 suballiances in 12 counties. By 1886 100,000 farmers were members. 1 million by 1890. They began to offer alternatives to the old system.They formed cooperatives.They bought things together and got lower prices.Began putting cotton together and selling it cooperatively called bulking.The Alliance wasnt as strong as it could have been because it excluded black farmers.Nevertheless, the Alliance grew to form a new political party The Populist, or Peoples, Party.The Rise of the Populists A Viable Third PartyThe war opened during a period of hard times. ... Business throughout the country was depressed, farm prices were deflated, unemployment was serious, the heavy industries were working far below capacity and bank clearings were off.- J.P. Morgan describing the years leading up to WWI
Farmers Reaction to Economic Crisis (1870-1900)Started co-ops (Farmers Alliance)Attempt at govt regulation of railroads (Grangers)Lobbied for Free-Silver (Populists)Joined new political parties (Populists)
The Rise of the Populists A Viable Third PartyThe Populist movement asked that such legislation as shall secure to our people freedom from the onerous and shameful abuses that the industrial classes are now suffering at the hands of arrogant capitalists and powerful corporations.-The Cleburne Demands, 1886The Movement from Farmers Alliance to Populist PartyCharles Macune: antitrust, anticapitalist, and a conservative in politics (against the formation of a new party).Sub-Treasury Plan: govt would have its own warehouses where farmers could store produce and get certificates from sub-Treasury greenbacks.Currency based on produce, not gold or silver.Neither party went for it. Must organize a 3rd party.The Rise of the Populists A Viable Third PartyThe Rise of the 3rd Party Its PlatformBanking ReformGraduated Income Tax (the more you make, the more you pay).Govt Ownership of the Railroads (Granger Laws)Institution of a Secret Ballot
Populists field a candidate in the election of 1892, James B. Weaver, but are crushed.They are slowly integrated into the Democratic Party. Why do you think they were so easily brought under the Democratic umbrella?
William McKinleyWilliam Jennings BryantElection of 1896RepublicanRepresented businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and rich farmers.
DemocratRepresented the Populist Party and Silver RepublicansNominated after his Cross of Gold speech.
The Rise of the Populists A Viable Third PartyThe Fall of the 3rd Party The ReasonsCo-opted by the Democratic PartyExclusion of Black farmers (Racism of the day)Disunited farmers of South and WestNot enough farmers to carry the vote of the Democratic ticket (too radical for some).So Why Do We Talk About the Populists?Helped to liberalize the DemocratsAccomplished viability as a 3rd partyAlthough their policies were pushed to the side, many of them were achieved via the Progressives.
The US conception of DemocracyThe United States did not want to control Nicaragua or the other nations in the region, but it also did not want to allow developments to get out of control. It wanted Nicaraguans to act independently, except when doing so would affect U.S. interests adversely. [His emphasis]Robert Pastor National Security Staff under Carter and Ambassador to Panama under Clinton
Where democracy appears to fit in well with US security and economic interests, the United States promotes democracy Where democracy clashes with other significant interests, it is downplayed or even ignored.Thomas Carothers - Office of the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State from 1985 to 1988.
The Path of EmpireSome Useful Vocab WordsJingoism: extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked especially by a belligerent foreign policy.Expanded under Captain A. T. Mahan, US Navy. Says that the countries with the biggest navies will inherit the earth. Americans must now begin to look outward.Yellow Journalism: the type of journalism that relies on sensationalism and lurid exaggeration to attract readers.You furnish the picture, Ill furnish the war. William Randolph HearstArguments for US ExpansionLatin America and the Orient (China) were areas the US should claim for open marketsAfter the frontier closes US business needed new opportunities.Mass production called for new marketsUS needed to enter the global scramble for colonies.
From William Appleman Williams The Tragedy of American DiplomacyWhy expansion?
This national argument is usually interpreted as a battle between imperialists led by Roosevelt and Lodge and anti-imperialists led by William Jennings Bryan and Carl Schurz. It is far more accurate and illuminating, however, to view it as a three-cornered fight. The third group was a coalition of businessmen, intellectuals, and politicians who opposed traditional colonialism and advocated instead a policy of an open door through which America's preponderant economic strength would enter and dominate all underdeveloped areas of the world.The Path of Empire Destination: CubaTo John Quincy Adams and others, Cuba had "become an object of transcendent importance to the commercial and political interests of our Union.
In the interests of our commerce . . . we should build the Nicaragua canal, and for the protection of that canal and for the sake of our commercial supremacy in the Pacific we should control the Hawaiian islands and maintain our influence in Samoa . . . and when the Nicaraguan canal is built, the island of Cuba . . . will become a necessity. . . . The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth. It is a movement which makes for civilization and the advancement of the race. As one of the great nations of the world the United States must not fall out of the line of march. Henry Cabot Lodge, (R) MA.
A new consciousness seems to have come upon us -- the consciousness of strength -- and with it a new appet