The great-war

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  • 1.Read the excerpt and examine the picture on P. 742 and answer these questions:1. Should you always support a friend, no matter what he or she does?2. What might be the risks of refusing to help an ally?3. What might be the consequences of a war involving all of Europe?

2. Started on July 28, 1914 Ended on November 11, 1918 Almost 10,000,000 dead.*** Russia the most = 1.7 million Another 20,000,000 wounded.. and another 8 million are missing. And thats just the military casualties it doesnt include civilians. Map of Europe greatly changed. 3. Extreme nationalism pride in country Imperialism --- Militarism glorifying military power and buildingup military Alliance system - PROBLEM? One event could drag all countries involved into a conflict. 4. Describe the formation of the Triple Alliance by Bismarck. Otto von Bismarck freely used war to unify Germany. After 1871 Bismarck declared Germany to be a satisfied power. Saw France as their greatest threat. In 1879, Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance between Germany andAustria-Hungary. 3 years later, Italy joined the twocountries, forming the Triple Alliance.What actions did Wilhelm make to destroy the peace that Bismarck had created?1.Lapse of the Treaty between Russia Russia formed a defensivemilitary alliance with France in 1892.2.Competition with British navy.3.Alarmed, Great Britain began to enlarge its own fleet.4.Triple Entente Britain, France, and Russia.The stage is set for the major conflict. What would set off this amazingblaze?.. 5. Massive amounts of different ethnic groups withnationalistic ambitions. Balkan groups struggle to make their own nations. Whatnew nations were formed? Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. Describe the conflict between Austria and Serbia/Russia:1.Serbian nationalism2.1908 Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina thesewere two Balkan areas with large slavic populations. Serbianleaders had sought to rule these provinces were outraged.A Shot Rings Throughout Europe - 6. The main objective ofthe Black Hand was thecreation, by means ofviolence, of a GreaterSerbia.Its stated aim was: "Torealize the nationalideal, the unification ofall Serbs. Thisorganization prefersterrorist action tocultural activities; it willtherefore remain secret." 7. The one event that started the Great Warhappened in the Balkans. The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) wasassassinated while visiting Bosnia. The Black Hand was responsible. 8. Franz 9. Franzswife, Sophie 10. Franz andSophie arriving in Sarajevo. 11. Sophie wasshot in theabdomen andFranz in theneck. Theyboth die within15 minutes. 12. The car.Princep, secondfrom right, beingarrestedmoments later. 13. Franzs last words were,Sophie dear, dont die! Stay alivefor our children! 14. Austria moves to punish Serbia, Russia comes to the aid ofSerbia, and then all those alliances engage as everybodydeclares war on everyone else in a tragic domino effect. 15. Traditional warfare Traditional tactics utilized mass infantry formations, where you just have a lot of foot soldiers lined up or charging together. Those classic images of the rows of soldiers lining up and firing at each other is an example. They did this because they used muskets, most of which have smoothbore barrels and all were relatively slow-firing. 16. Steps for Loading aMuzzleloader 1. Measure powder charge. 2. Pour measured powderdown barrel. 3. Place patch and ball onmuzzle. 4. Tap ball into barrel withstarter. 5. Take out ramrod. 6. Ram ball down barrel. 7. Be sure ball iscompletely seated. 8. Clear vent hole with pickif necessary. 9. On flintlockmuzzleloader, pour powderinto pan and close frizzen.10. On percussion lockmuzzleloader, place cap onnipple. 17. The introduction of rifled barrels changes this. Rifled barrelshave spirals grooves going down the barrel that put a spin onthe bullet as it exits. This spin stabilizes the bullet in the airand makes it much more accurate. 18. Think of the rifling as being like putting a spin on a football. The spin makes it fly straight because it stabilizes the ball. Without the spin, theres no telling what will happen.Musket accuracyRifle accuracy 19. Bolt action meant that a bolt at the breech could be operated, which ejected thespent casing and, unless it was single shot, load another cartridge in the process. This allowed for much more rapid firing. 20. The British used the Lee-Enfield rifle. 21. The Germans relied on the Mauser Gewehr 98. 22. The Americans used the Springfield M1903. 23. WWI also saw the introduction of machine guns. These were automatic weapons capable of firing400-600 rounds per minute of belt-fed ammunition.Compare that with maybe 12-15 rounds a minutefor the bolt action rifleman. The machine guns were big and heavy, though.They typically weighed anywhere from 70-120pounds. This meant you tended to have gunemplacements with a crew operating them. The big problem with them is keeping them cool.Such a high rate of fire produced a lot of heat thatcould overheat the barrel. The early varieties usedwater cooling systems. 24. There was a water jacket around the barrel connected to a pump to dissipate heart.Theyd still only last about two minutes without fresh cool water. Crews would sometimes use their own urine if water wasnt available. This is a British Vickers. 25. John Brownings version. 26. Artillery had also become a lot better with rifled barrels and highexplosive shells. 27. The German Big Bertha was a 43 ton artillery piece capable of lobbing a 2,200 lb.shell 9 miles. 28. 15 inchhowitzer 29. The big daddies were the railway guns.French Cyclone railway gun in Belgium. 30. French 320mm gun. Thats a bore of 12.6 inches. 31. French 274mm gun. WWI gun used by the Germans in WWII and captured by the Americans. 32. The big one was the Germans Paris gun, so called because they used to shellParis from 75 miles away. 33. It was capable of firinga 210 lb shell 81 miles(that was after it couldreach an altitude of 25miles). The shell would takenearly three minutes tohit its target and therotation of the earthhad to be taken intoaccount whencalculating its aimingtrajectory. 34. Most artillery pieces were, of course, much smaller and some were mobile.They were used to great effect during the war. Its estimated that nearly 32million shells were fired in the Battle of Verdun alone. 35. It was during WWI that the term shellshock was coined. Most modern memoirsdescribe that the most unnervingmaddening thing in battle is artillerydetonations. 36. And finally, chemical weapons get experimentedwith. Tear gas gets used first and then it escalates tochlorine gas, which produces a greenish cloudthat very quickly destroys lung tissue as thesoldier dies choking, vomiting, and in generalagony. It was deadly if inhaled, but easy to counteract by either getting to higher ground or just covering the mouth with a damp rag. And it was easy to see coming. 37. Next used is phosgene, a chlorine hybrid gas. It wasnt asobvious as normal chlorine and didnt cause the initialchoking, meaning more gas would be inhaled and it wastherefore deadlier. It was also more difficult to protectagainst than chlorine. It could take 24 hours for symptom onset, though. 38. The big one was mustard gas, which is a mustardcolor and smells mustardy (when mixed with otherstuff), but it isnt related to ordinary mustard. Itcauses blistering of the skin and the interior of thelungs as well as blindness. It could penetrate clothing. 39. Mustard gas produces blistering on anyskin it touches within 4-24 hours ofexposure. It strips away the mucousmembranes causing a great choking pain. Eyes become red and swollen and may goblind. It was actually fatal in only about 1% ofcases, but it was completelyincapacitating. Defense against it washard too since it could saturate clothing,the ground, and be absorbed through theskin. Recovery could take one or two months. 40. Gases were typically administered either through opening up gas cylinders orthrough artillery shells. 41. WWI images. Warning for whatsnext. 42. Modern images of mustard gas victim from the Iran-Iraq War. 43. You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees!! 44. the longest and one of the bloodiest engagementsof World War I. February 1916 December 1916 Two million men were engaged. The intention of the Germans had been a battle ofattrition in which they hoped to bleed the Frencharmy white. In the end, they sustained almost as manycasualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to theFrench 348,000. 45. Map 31.1: Major U.S. Operations in France, 1918 46. Figure 31.1: Approximate Comparative Losses in World War I 47. First war to be fought on 3 continents.First industrialized conflict.First use of chlorine & mustard gas.First use of the flame thrower.First tank battle.First use of mass airplanes.First use of x-ray in the military.First use of a blood bank.First use of guide dogs by blinded soldiers.First four-star general, General John J. PershingFirst use of trillion in estimating war costs.First commissioning of war art for propaganda.First use of the IQ Test given to Doughboys of 1917.First U.S. president to visit a European country while in office was WoodrowWilson on 12/04/18. 48. Over the Top, Trench Coat, Ace, Buddy, Pushingup the Daisies, Red Tape, Zoom, Sniper, Washout,Cootie,Tune Up, Zero Hour, Busted, Ticked Off,Put a Sock in it, Hit the Deck, Washout, Rookie,Coffin nail, Fed Up, Rise & Shine, Pipe down, Messup, Get knocked off, Hike, Gadget,Kick the Bucket, Rank & File, Chow Down, Cushy,Scrounge, Humdinger, Basket Case