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Transcript of The French Revolution CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

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  • What is the French Revolution?
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  • French Revolution against Absolutism What is it? : - It was a period of radical social and political upheaval from 1789-1799 - It was the first time the Monarchy and Nobility were challenged and replaced by democracy and popular rule What happened?: -Common People overthrew a king and formed a new government in the one of the most powerful and wealthy countries in the world (The only time in history) - Because of the Revolution, the French government began to consider the needs and wants of the many instead of the few Who initiated it and what did they want: The lower class (third estate) Freedom, Individual Rights, equality Fueled By: Unfairness, past endeavours, revolutionary writers, (Rousseau, Montesquieu, John Locke), and propaganda conspiracies Based on: The ideas of the enlightenment: Freedom, free speech, fairness, equality of power, etc. ABSOLUTISM: Absolute monarchs didnt share power with a counsel or parliament Divine Right of Kings (1600-1800; the age of absolutism)
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  • Harsh reality of the French Revolution Things almost immediately go wrong in 1789: Caused Violence then Chaos between the estates Caused War and Public executions by the Thousands (internal and external) 10 years later, yet another dictator takes power In the end, after 20 years of insanity, a new king (Louis VIII) is appointed in France and the revolution ends However; Its legacy: The French Motto: "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, new culture (flag, art, anthem) The idea of DEMOCRACY The revolution does not die, the ideas live on and act as the foundation for many of the political and social changes of the 19 th century
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  • THE CAUSES ACTIVITY 6 Main Causes of the French Revolution 1) Bankruptcy 2) Famine 3) The Estates system 4) The Enlightenment 5) The American Revolution 6) Louis 16 th & Marie Antoinette (MOI)
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  • Cause 1: Louis 16th & Marie Antoinette
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  • Did not possess leadership qualities: -Although Louis was well liked and popular at first, he lacked the ability to be ruthless and he was not highly intelligent -EXAMPLES: inability to reform the grain trade which created supply issues, Parlements (a council of the King), and Edict of Tolerance (Non-Catholic, Jewish people granted legal status) -> all not legally enforced -He was easily influenced by others, especially by his wife, Marie Antoinette -Failed to provide a son in 7 years of marriage -Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led the people of France to view him as a symbol tyranny similar to the Ancien Rgime. His popularity deteriorated progressively Who: King of France 1774-1792 and Wife, succeeded Louis XV
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  • Louis XVI -Increased their debt and made the lower class pay for it: -More debt because he spent a lot of money on the American Revolution war (on top of the debt caused by the 7 years war) -France was besieged by economic problems, yet he and his wife, Marie Antoinette, hosted grand balls at the massively expensive palace at Versailles, gambled, and bought a lot of luxurious items (jewelry, clothes, shoes) -There was a lot of discontent among the common people, third estate was taxed a lot, were not able to rise through the ranks, and did not have the same privileges as the other estates -A bad rep: Illegal press: propaganda pamphlets that spoke about conspiracy Pacte de Famine: Hoarding food in the palace Her response eat cake
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  • Reality is Louis was only 20 when he became King and Marie Antoinette was only 18 when she became queen In truth, he never wanted to be King He inherited a real problem, as France had been battered in the 7 years war and was in debt. Louis XVI picked up the tab, as you might say, for his grandfather and great-grandfather He did not have children because he had phimosis, a problem which prevented him from having intercourse easily fixed by circumcision
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  • Reality is Louis was an intelligent man with enthusiasm and talent for other things other than being ruler of a monarchy (very good at manual labour - interested in locks) Marie Antoinette was dedicated to helping the poor through charity however, she became a symbol of the extravagance of royal life and was a target of the revolutionaries She never said let them eat cake
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  • Group Roles Divide into 10 groups Each Group will receive a short text which describes a cause Discuss, then pair up with another group (that has the same cause)
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  • What to do? 1)Read the text (as a group) 2)Find the purpose (cause) and explain how could this have sparked the French Revolution TAKE NOTES WHILE YOU READ OR HIGHLIGHT Find the important information, this is good practice You have 10 Minutes to read the text and mark down important information 3) Then, exchange ideas with other group (of same cause)5 Mins 4) Mark your findings on the blackboard 5) Report these notes to the class (2-3 Min each group) and why you think this cause is more important than the others
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  • Key points: The revolution was caused by: Famine and starvation Bankruptcy (because of 7 years war, American revolution) The estate system (which heavily favored the nobility and clergy) Incompetence of Louis 16 (indecisive, spending, other interests) Enlightenment (Ideas of freedom, equality, and liberty The American Revolution (inspired many, gave hope)
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  • Pictures Why are they relevant
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  • Yearly Income Archbishop of Paris50,000 Livres Marquis de Mainvilette20,000 Livres Prince de Conti14,000 Livres A Parish Priest in Paris10,000 Livres A typical Village Priest750 Livres A Master Carpenter200 Livres Who is in the Third Estate? WHY IS THIS RELEVANT?
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  • Why is this relevant?
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  • Men are born free, yet everywhere are in chains. Why is this relevant?
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  • The American Revolution The success of the American revolution proved that democracy could work and that common people could rise to power It acted as a model Most importantly, French troops fought beside Americans in the Revolution These troops fought, suffered and died for the cause of Freedom. Then they came home to absolutism and oppression If they could fight for the freedom of others, then they could fight for their own freedom
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  • Bankruptcy France had been involved in many costly wars during the reigns of Louis the 14 th, 15 th and 16 th They had recently fought, and lost, the seven years war They had sent soldiers, naval vessels and money to support he American revolution In addition, the King and the nobility were spending enormous amounts on luxury France was completely bankrupt!
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  • The Estate System The People of France were divided into 3 Estates The First Estate was the clergy Approximately 100,000 people The Second Estate was the Nobility Approximately 400,000 people Both did not have to pay taxes Most lived in great luxury in chateaux and palaces The Nobles had almost complete authority over the peasants They collected tolls for usage of the roads, markets, mills, ovens and winepresses Were not required to do Military Service Despite all their privileges, they were politically unimportant since the time of Louis the 14 th Several attempts were made to tax the nobility, but Louis was to weak to implement it
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  • The Third Estate 90% of the Population Forced to do military service Forced to pay taxes and tolls to the King, Nobility and Clergy economically crushing Denied important positions in the government and Army Were not allowed to hunt to supplement the diet Not all the third estate were peasants many in France were educated doctors, lawyers, merchants, middle class workers - shared the same fate as the country folk
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  • The Harvest Crisis This was the spark that set off the firestorm Very few fruits and vegetables were being produced by Frances farms The price of produce, especially wheat and bread were very high Despite the crisis, taxes continued to rise to combat the national debt The people of France were starving They began to protest and soon became violent
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  • The Enlightenment The ideas of the Enlightenment were the foundation of the complaints against the king They were also the foundation for the concept that a government could be ruled by the people for the people The enlightenment suggested that people have natural rights that should be protected and that a government that disregards these rights rules illegally The enlightenment was not the greatest source of anger in the people, however, it was a very important cause
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  • Example: The first people in the area of North America that is now the US had to sign a social contract to start making laws. They couldn't just have all kinds of people from the street start making rules if they didn't all have a common ground. The social contract is the basic rules for a government. It is the consent which is given by the people
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