The Ebola Virus

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The Ebola Virus. Mario Rodriguez Solivan 200-90-3863. What is Ebola?. First discovered in 1976 Severe often fatal viral disease Human and non-human primates Lytic life cycle Does not integrate in host genome Causes viral hemorrhagic fever With an incubation period of 2 to 21 days - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Ebola Virus

The Ebola Virus

The Ebola VirusMario Rodriguez Solivan200-90-3863

What is Ebola?First discovered in 1976Severe often fatal viral diseaseHuman and non-human primatesLytic life cycleDoes not integrate in host genomeCauses viral hemorrhagic feverWith an incubation period of 2 to 21 daysInternal bleeding

TaxonomyGroup: Group VOrder: MononegaviralesMonos = single(strand)Negare = negativessRNA (-)

Family: FiloviridaeGenus: EbolavirusSpecies: Zaire, Reston, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Bundibugyo

MorphologyPleomorphicFilamentous800-14,000 nm in length80-100 nm diameter970nm smallest foundthat can cause infectionGenes7 main segments app. 19kb

NP: structural nucleoproteinN terminal interacts with the RNA to contact the rest of the proteins in matrix and envelope

VP35: plays a strong roll in mRNA synthesis and replication of the negative strands

VP40: MAIN TARGET for research as of 2012Bridges the lipid envelope with the nucleocapsidMutations or removal of the protein have shown to attenuate the virusGenesGP/SGP: glycoprotein and secreted glycoproteinNon-structural can confound the immune system

VP30: important for budding out of membrane

VP24: Inhibits INF-alpha/beta and INF-gamma signaling

L: L-RNA polymerase Copies the negative strand to make the positive transcripts

Gene Map

OriginNew serological studiesFruit bats (Pteropodidae)Contain specific antibodies to EbolaProbable Natural reservoirChimpanzee, Gorillas, smaller primatesCarriers of the virusSome strains and species will affect them

Ecological Cycle

Different SpeciesZaireCongo region of Africa (Zaire)Most lethal of all speciesUp to 90% mortality rateSudanRegion of Sudan and UgandaHigh mortality rateApp. 53%BundibugyoBundibugyo District of UgandaProvince Orientale Democratic Republic of Congo2007 2012 App. 36.3% moratality rate

Different SpeciesRestonNamed after Reston, VirginiaFirst Discovered in crab-eating macaquesMutation from other Ebola VirusMostly non-pathogenic towards humansPhilippines caused human infectionLess aggressive than African EbolaExtremely hazardous to monkeysDifferent SpeciesCte d'IvoireAKA Ta Forest and Ivory CoastFirst found in Ta Forest of the Cte d'Ivoire in AfricaHighly infectuous to chimpanzeesSwiss ethologist infected during necropsy on the chimpsDengue-like symptoms a week laterTransported to Switzerland for treatment2 weeks later she was released from hospitalDid not fully recover for 6 weeks after release

Viral Life Cycle

Virion entranceEndocytosisFormation of endosomeEndosome binds with lysosomeFormation of endolysosomeAcidification of endolysosomeRelease genetic materialReplication of ssRNA(-) Form (+) strandTranscription of newly formed ssRNA(+)Assisted by VP30, VP35 and L proteinTranslationmRNA encoding for GPTravel to ERWhere GP is synthesizedGP is further modified in GolgiDelivered to plasma membrane in secretory vesiclesAll viral proteins now assemble with the membrane associated proteinsVirions bud from cell surfaceGP is also secretedPathogenesisHemorrhagic fever Multisystem syndromeDamaged vascular systemInternal bleedingBody regulations abnormal

Mode of AttackEndothelial cellsWalls of vascular systemCytokinesInflammationHepatic CellsSwellingCytokinesTNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8Hemorrhages all over

SymptomsFirst signsHeadacheFeverJoint and muscle achesWeaknessVomiting DiarrheaFatigue

Advanced signsInternal bleedingOrificial bleedingCutaneous rupturesHepatic inflamationCytokinesRenal disfunction

DiagnosticsVirus isolationMonoclonal antibodies that bind to NPDetermine the speciesReverse transcription-PCRPrimers designed specifically for NP regionReal-time quantitative RT-PCRGreen DyePrimer set used to amplify the L-protein genesAntigen-capture ELISAMonoclonal antibodiesNP, VP40, GPImmunizing mice with rNPReact with epitopes in carboxyl groups at NP terminalsAWESOME FACT!The rNP of the Reston EBOV could only detect Reston NP but the Zaire rNP could detect NP from all 5 species!

PreventionNO VACCINES AVAILABLEAvoid traveling to areas of known outbreaksCheck CDC before travelingWash your hands frequentlyLike any other infectious diseaseAvoid bush meatWild animal meat in developing countriesmarkets

Avoid contact with infected peopleBody fluids, exposed tissues, blood, semenFollow infection-control proceduresGloves, masks, eye shields, careful disinfectionsDon't handle remainsDead bodies are still contagiousTIM-1T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1This human protein binds to the EBOV GPRecent StudyReduction of this receptor reduces infection

ARD5Monoclonal AntibodyBlocked EBOV binding and infectionAnti-TIM-1New antiviral approachStatistics

1976-2012

2014

http://www.euronews.com/2014/04/12/west-africa-doctors-fight-to-contain-ebola-outbreak/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BRJPCsUM2w

QuestionsWhat kind of genetic material does Ebola have?A. dsRNA+B. ssDNA-C. ssRNA-D. dsDNA-E. ssRNA+

What GROUP does EBOV belong to?A. VB. IIIC. ID. IIE. IVIn what organelle is GP (glycoprotein) synthesized?A. MitochondriaB. NucleusC. Golgi D. ERE. Lysosome

Why is it suspected that the fruit bat is the natural reservoir for EBOV?...ANSWER OUT LOUD Citationshttp://jvi.asm.org/content/77/3/1793

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Glycoproteins/Ebola_Virus

http://edusanjalbiochemist.blogspot.com/2014/04/the-deadly-ebola-virus-frequently-asked.html

http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-antiviral-shows-potential-against-ebola

http://www.elmundo.es/salud/2014/04/16/534d2762ca47414d4e8b456d.html?cid=SMBOSO25301&s_kw=twitter

http://www.virology.ws/2012/01/18/how-lethal-is-ebolavirus/

https://www.google.com.pr/search?q=province+orientale+&oq=province+orientale+&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.5777j0j7&sourceid=chrome&essm=93&ie=UTF-8

http://www.microbiologytext.com/index.php?module=Book&func=displayarticle&art_id=494

http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/filo/eboci.html

http://www.pnas.org/content/108/20/8426

http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(13)00886-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485981/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100998/figure/fig01/

http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/guinea/

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/alert/ebola-guinea

http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_04_ebola/en/

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/3/1/97-0107_article.htm

http://www.microbiologytext.com/index.php?module=Book&func=displayarticle&art_id=494

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283270

http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2014/05/ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-226-cases-149-deaths.aspx

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1459631/

http://www.euronews.com/2014/04/12/west-africa-doctors-fight-to-contain-ebola-outbreak/