The Civil War l 1861 – 1865 l Changed the face of the nation l Social, economic and political...

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Transcript of The Civil War l 1861 – 1865 l Changed the face of the nation l Social, economic and political...

  • The Civil War1861 1865Changed the face of the nationSocial, economic and political factors are causesCauses are all linked to slaveryWatershed of American history / birth of modern America

  • The Road to War - expansionWestward expansionLouisiana Purchase (1803)Missouri Compromise (1820)Mexican War (1846-1848)Gold Rush (48 49)Compromise of 1850Transcontinental railroadKansas / Nebraska (1854)New expansion puts increased stresses on political divisions, which in turn aggravates political divisions

  • The Road to War - politicscompromise and conflictHenry Clay (Whig) the Union at all costsJohn Calhoun / Jeff Davis (Democrats) honor at all costs; states rightsWilliam Lloyd Garrison (abolitionist) emancipation at all costs; a Higher lawSteven Douglas (Democrat) popular sovereignty and the splintering of the Democrats (N / S)Abraham Lincoln (Republican) Union and more?

  • The Road to War - regionalismEconomic differences Hamilton vs. Jefferson Social differences gentleman vs. greasy mechanicInterpretations of the Constitution states rights and federal power (5th, 9th and 10th Amendments)Dred Scott (1857) politics and regionalism implodeNorthern plans for the future / Southern paranoia over the future (South being eclipsed?)John Brown 1859 playing on fears and greasing the gearsElection of 1860 regionalism surpasses politics as determining factor !!

  • The BeginningAftermath of the election of 1860 the wheels in motion; Davis to the forefrontSecession and confederation the border states?Buchanan Admin. anyone for duck? Federal duties and protection of fortsCrittenden Compromise yeah, rightLincolns Inauguration (March 1861) we must not be enemies you yourselves must be the aggressors better angels of our nature

  • Major Events - 1861The border states&&Ft Sumter (call to arms)Bull Run / 1st Manassas (innocence lost)\/Coiling the AnacondaMcClellan takes command; organization and inactivityWar in the West where the war was won / lost??Trent AffairDavis is successful in forming a Confederate army, government and identity; loyalty? Thats another issueLincoln takes heat; bends the rules

  • Major Events - 1862Peninsular Campaign (On to Richmond?)00Battle of Shiloh foreshadowing of bloodIronclads watch out worldUnion takes New Orleans, much of Mississippi River (unleashing the Beast)Jackson shreds Shenandoah; Lee comes to command2nd Bull Run (Pope-head)@@Confederate high water mark fall 62Antietam (oops, I won / change has begun)^^37th Congress

  • Major Events - 1862 (cont)Elections of 1862Mac gets axed; Grant returnsCampaign for Vicksburg beginsLL1st conscription and income tax acts North and South (rich mans war poor mans fight)Union Burned at Fredericksburg **Unions Valley Forge in worst winter of the warMurfreesboro/Stones River++

  • Major Events - 1863Desertions on the rise (North and South)Women lead the way in reforming medical careUnion navy begins to choke off Confederacy; economic crises result (Richmond Bread Riot)Nature of each society impacts its war effort: Souths states rights weakens war effort; Norths industrial focus strengthens; died of a theoryEmancipation Proclamation goes into effect Mass 54th comes into being 00Virginia ravaged; Mississippi squeezed

  • Major Events 1863 (cont)Hooker whipped at Chancellorsville()Grants siege of Vicksburg tightens the screws on Davis and LeeLee invades North again and loses at GettysburgVicksburg falls simultaneously (July 4th)MMNew York draft riots / Copperheads revving upMass 54th shows bravery at Ft Wagner--Union loss at Chickamauga reversed by Grant with big win at ChattanoogaGettysburg Address last full measure; great consummation

  • Major Events - 1864Grant gets overall command of Union forces and faces Lee Competing views of reconstruction / black participationGrant whipped in the Wilderness but moves forward**Sherman gets command in the West and moves on Atlanta; total war new Anaconda has vicious coilsHeavy fighting sees terrible casualties (Wilderness to Petersburg) and growing anti-war movement in the North (copperheads)--Forrests raid on Ft Pillow ends exchange of prisoners of war (prisons bulge North and South; Andersonville is the worst of them all)

  • Major Events 1864 (cont)Presidential election looks bad for Lincoln (McClellan runs for Democrats)Union suffering large numbers of casualties and is stalled outside of Petersburg and Atlantabig Union wins going into Nov 64 tip scales (Sherman takes Atlanta; Sheridan shreds Shenandoah; Farragut at Moblie Bay) and Lincoln wins election Lincoln gets more spiritualUnion resolved to fight to end; CSA is getting weaker and weakerArlington National Cemetery / Thanksgiving established (examples of spite / spirit)Shermans March to the Sea pounds Georgia

  • 1865 the endTotal war takes its toll/Sherman shreds South CarolinaLincolns 2nd inaugural address calls for malice towards noneAfter 10 months Grant breaks Lees lines at Petersburg and takes RichmondLee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox in early April (how done is important)()Davis tries to move capital to Texas but is caught; all armies surrender by MayWar is over; Reconstruction begins **

  • To be, or not to be185918631865

  • assassinationApril 14, 1865 (Good Friday)Part of larger conspiracy???John Wilkes Booth is assassinMany in South see assassination as tragedy for the South as well (so much for malice for none, charity for all?)Fulfillment of prophecy? End of misery?; either way, is the end of Lincoln the man, creation of Lincoln the American God - mythologized

  • ReconstructionPresidential vs Congressional ReconstructionBlacks in the new society?SOUTH IS TRASHED!!!Johnson vs Radical RepublicansMilitary enforces government willCivil rights bills / vetos13th, 14th and 15th AmendmentsImpeachmentElection of Grant1st African-American gains (Freedmans Bureau)

  • Reconstruction successes and failuresCivil War Amendments are good, but enforcement is notKKK Jim CrowSharecropping and tenant farming (sucks) Amnesty Act of 1872Panic of 1873Election of 1876Compromise of 1877Is the war over?? 1860s lead to 1960s

  • Effects of the War600,000 + casualties North and SouthSouth demolished; North booming (victory of Hamilton over Jefferson????)Northern boom will feed 2nd Industrial Revolution, production and big businessFederal authority supreme over states rights (United States is instead of are)Popular government is saved (survives internal crisis; increases democratic influence across the globe)

  • Effects of the War cont.Civil War Amendments 13, 14 and 15; move from civil war to civil rightsUS is militarized nation (new tech, training and tactics Native tribes screwed!)Sparks 2nd and largest wave of immigration to the US (results of economic boom and opportunity; will change face of US culture)Power of the presidency transformed (Lincoln expands war powers and commander in chief role) Congress will seek to reduce this during Reconstruction

  • Effects of the War cont.2nd American Revolution- womens rights - New South; plantocracy is dead- 1st draft / income tax (growth of federal government and national interests)- Civil rights issue and conflicts (segregation and the vote; issue to go on) - changes in daily lives of Americans (technological and economic advances)

  • Mary LincolnAll 3 brothers die during war, as well as her mother and Willie Moved with Robert and Tad to Chicago in 65Robert marries in 68 and she and Tad travel Europe for 3 yrsTad falls ill on trip and dies in 71Grows increasingly delusional and is institutionalized by RobertFriends sue for her release goes to live with sisterDies of stroke in 1882

  • William Lloyd GarrisonPublishes last issue of Liberator in late 186510 minute standing ovation at celebration of ratification of 13th Amendment makes amends with Frederick Douglass Active in temperance and womens suffrage movementsTwo sons become active reformers well into 20th centuryDies 1879

  • Where they go from there US GrantGeneral in Chief until 1868Runs for Republicans and elected President in 1868 and 1872His administrations are scandal-ridden; Reconstruction faltersJoins investment firm and goes broke because of itSpends last months writing memoirs to provide wealth for familyDies of cancer; family wealth returns

  • Where they go from there LeeLee helps South to deal with surrender and do it peacablyOffered $50,000 for use of his name; refusesOffered and accepts presidency of Washington UniversityDies 1870; school becomes Washington and Lee U.

  • Where they go from there McClellanAfter loss in 1864 he goes to Europe for several yearsReturns to become governor of New JerseySuccessful in business ventures (railroads and management)Dies in 1885 after publishing memoirs

  • Where They Go from There - HancockLingering effects of Gettysburg woundSuccess at Spotsylvania and difficulties at PetersburgRelieves Sheridan in ShenandoahCriticized as too lenient during Reconstruction military administration Presidential aspirations frustrated in 1868 and 1880Dies in 1886 while still on active duty

  • Where they go from there LongstreetSent west after Gettysburg and led successful attack at ChickamaugaGoes back east and is wounded at WildernessResumes command in 1865 and is there at AppomattoxScourge of South for becoming a Republican and supporting GrantUS Minister to Turkey and commissioner of Pacific railwaysDies 1904

  • Where they go from there DavisCaptured in Georgia in May of 1865Imprisoned for 2 years in Va. b