The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?

  • The Chemistry of LifeWhat are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?

  • Elements of Life96% of living organisms is made of: carbon (C)oxygen (O)hydrogen (H)nitrogen (N)

  • Molecules of LifePut C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organismsWhat are bodies made of?carbohydrates sugars & starchesproteinsfats (lipids)nucleic acidsDNA, RNA

  • Why do we eat?We eat to take in more of these chemicalsFood for building materialsto make more of us (cells)for growthfor repair Food to make energycaloriesto make ATP


  • Dont forget waterWater70% of your body is H2Owater is inorganic doesnt contain carbonRest of you is made of carbon moleculesorganic moleculescarbohydratesproteinsfatsnucleic acids

  • How do we make these molecules?We build them!2006-2007

  • Building large molecules of lifeChain together smaller moleculesbuilding block molecules = monomers

    Big molecules built from little moleculespolymers

  • Building large organic moleculesSmall molecules = building blocks

    Bond them together = polymers

  • What do we call these large molecules?MacromoleculesLarge molecules sometimes composed of a large number of repeating subunits

  • Building important polymerssugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide nucleotideCarbohydrates = built from sugarsProteins = built from amino acidsNucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides

  • A Few Definitions Anabolic reactions:Reactions that produce large molecules from smaller subunits

    Condensation reactions:Reaction that creates a covalent bond between two interacting subunits linking them to each other

  • A Few Definitions Catabolic reactions:Reactions that break macromolecules into constituent individual subunits

    Hydrolysis reactions:A catabolic reaction in which a water molecules is used to break a covalent bond holding subunits together

  • How to build large moleculesSynthesis (condensation rxn)H from one OH group and an entire OH from another molecule create water (condensation)Water is madeATP is stored

  • How to build large moleculesSynthesis (condensation rxn)building bigger molecules from smaller molecules (anabolic reaction) building cells & bodies (repair, growth, reproduction) +ATP

  • How to take large molecules apartDigestion (hydrolysis reaction)Reverse rxn of synthesisa water molecule is usedenergy is releasedtaking big molecules apart (catabolic reaction)

  • How to take large molecules apartDigestion (hydrolysis reaction)getting raw materialsfor synthesis & growthmaking energy (ATP)for synthesis, growth & everyday functions+ATP

  • Example of digestionStarch is digested to glucosestarchglucoseATPATPATPATPATPATPATP

  • Example of synthesisamino acids = building blockprotein = polymeramino acidsproteinProteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids

  • Penguins gone bad! Any Questions?