The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane...

61
Cells 2 Basic Cell Types: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell Organelles Structure and Function The Cell Membrane

Transcript of The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane...

Page 1: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Cells • 2 Basic Cell Types:

• Prokaryotes • Eukaryotes

• Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane

Page 2: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function

in living things.

3. All cells are produced from other cells.

Page 3: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Two Basic Cell Types:

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

Cells

Page 4: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Two Basic Types

• Remember….cells are the basic unit of life

for ALL living things.

• There are two basic types of cells:

1. Prokaryotic cells – found in bacteria

2. Eukaryotic cells – found in protists, fungi,

plants and animals

Page 5: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Characteristics Shared

• Perform the same basic functions

• Surrounded by plasma membrane to control

what enters and leaves the cell

• “Filled” with cytoplasm

• Contain ribosomes to make protein

• Contain DNA to give the general

instructions for the cell’s life

Page 6: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

What Makes Eukaryotic Cells

Different?

• Much larger • Much more complex

• Contain a true nucleus to house the genetic material (DNA)

• Linear DNA packaged into chromatin found inside the nucleus

• Contains specialized structures in the cytoplasm called organelles to carry out various functions

• Not all have a cell wall

Page 7: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Eukaryotic Cells

Page 8: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

What Makes Prokaryotic Cells

Different?

• Much smaller

• Less complex

• No true nucleus

• Circular DNA that is found in the cytoplasm

• No organelles found in the cytoplasm

• Surrounded by a cell wall

Page 9: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Prokaryotic Cell

Page 10: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

What does size have to do with

it? • Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than

eukaryotic cells. Why?

– Smaller surface area to volume allows nutrients to

easily and quickly reach inner parts of the cell.

– Eukaryotic cells are larger and can not pass

nutrients as quickly. They require specialized

organelles to:

• carry out metabolism

• provide energy

• transport chemicals throughout the cell

Page 11: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic
Page 12: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Prokaryotic Cell

http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/bactcell.htm#top

Page 13: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic
Page 14: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Cell Organelles

Page 15: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Review

• No organelles in prokaryotic cells

• Both plants and animals are eukaryotic

cells!

Page 16: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Animal Cell

Page 17: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Plant Cell

Page 18: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Organelles Found in Plant and

Animal Cells

• Cell Membrane

• Nucleus

• Nucleolus

• Mitochondria

• Endoplasmic reticulum

• Ribosomes

• Golgi apparatus

• Vacuoles (small in animals; large in plants)

• Lysosomes

Page 19: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

The Cell Membrane • Location: Around the outside of the cell

• Function: Controls what substances enter and

leave the cell

• Aka: “plasma membrane”

Page 20: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Nucleus • Location: In the cytoplasm

• Function: Directs all of the cell’s activities; stores

the chromatin

• Aka: “control center”

Page 21: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Nucleolus • Location: In the nucleus

• Function: Makes ribosomes

• Aka: “little nucleus”

Page 22: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Mitochondria

• Location: In the cytoplasm

• Function: Produces energy

• Aka: “Powerhouse” or “Mighty

Mitochondria”

Page 23: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Ribosomes • Location: In the cytoplasm and on the

rough ER

• Function: Makes protein

• Aka: “Protein packs”

Page 24: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

• Location: In the cytoplasm around the nucleus

• Function: Modifies materials needed in the cell

• Aka: “Fashion designers”

Rough ER (has ribosomes)

Smooth ER (no ribosomes)

Page 25: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Golgi Apparatus

• Location: In the cytoplasm

• Function: Sorts and ships materials to the correct

parts of the cell

• Aka: “the post office”

Page 26: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Vacuoles • Location: In the cytoplasm (large in plants;

small in animals)

• Function: Storage

• Aka: “the closet”

Animal Cell Vaculole = small Plant Cell Vaculole = large

Page 27: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Lysosome • Location: In the cytoplasm

• Function: Destroys worn out cell parts

• Aka: “the death chamber:

Page 28: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Cilia / Flagella

• (*animal cells only: not all cells have one of

these)

• Location: on the cell membrane

• Function: help the cell move

• AKA: the “motor”

Page 29: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Organelles Found in Only Plant

Cells

• Cell Wall

• Chloroplast

Page 30: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Cell Wall • Location: Around the cell membrane of

plant cells

• Function: Gives the cell shape and

protection

• Aka: “plant cell armor”

Page 31: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Chloroplast • Location: In the cytoplasm

• Function: Photosynthesis: Makes sugar

from sunlight (also takes in carbon dioxide

and gives off oxygen)

• Aka: “mean green sugar machine”

Page 32: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

See the Cell in Action!

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Z9pqST72is

&feature=related (14 min.)

• Visit this link to see the cell in action, just click

on the various organelles to get a better idea of

how they work!

http://www.johnkyrk.com/CellIndex.html

http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm

Page 33: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm

Page 34: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Animal Cell • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm

Page 35: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Prokaryotic Cell

http://www.cellsalive.com/c

ells/bactcell.htm#top

Page 36: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm

Name_________________

Page 37: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Animal Cell • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm

Name_________________

Page 38: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Prokaryotic Cell

http://www.cellsalive.com/c

ells/bactcell.htm#top

Name_________________

Page 39: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Movement Through

the Cell Membrane

http://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology/biology1111/animations/passive1.swf

Page 40: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Selectively-Permeable Membranes

• A selectively-permeable membrane will allow

certain molecules to pass through it, but not

others.

• Generally, small

particles can pass

through…

Partially permeable

membrane

…but large

particles

cannot

Page 41: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Structure of the Plasma/Cell

Membrane

• Plasma Membranes consist of 2 types of

molecules – phospholipids and proteins

Page 42: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Diagram of a Phospholipid

Phospholipids have 2 regions:

• Polar head region:

– attracts water molecules (hydrophilic)

– Phosphorous group

• Non-polar tail region:

– nonpolar tails repel water molecules

(hydrophobic).

– Made of long carbon chains (fatty acids)

Page 43: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Phospholipid bilayer

• Due to the hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of the

phospholipid, a double layer is formed where the heads

protect the tails from the water. This is called the

phospholipid bilayer. The bilayer is fluid, not a hard shell.

Page 44: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Proteins are Embedded Within the Bilayer

• Proteins act as passageways for nonpolar

(hydrophobic) molecules to pass through.

• Without proteins embedded in the bilayer, essential

molecules needed for communication, energy, etc.,

would not reach the interior of the cell.

• Carbohydrates are attached to the proteins.

– Allow for cell recognition and communication.

Page 45: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Proteins are Embedded Within the

Bilayer (continued)

• The model of the lipid bilayer with embedded

proteins is called the Fluid Mosaic Model.

Page 46: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

TWO Types of Transport Through a

Cell Membrane

1. Active Transport – the movement of molecules

through a cell membrane using energy

2. Passive Transport – the movement of molecules

through a cell membrane without the expenditure

of energy

Page 47: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

3 Types of Passive Transport

1. Diffusion - Movement of molecules from areas

of high concentration to low concentration

2. Osmosis - Diffusion of water molecules from

higher concentration of water to lower

concentration of water

3. Facilitated Diffusion - Diffusion through pores

or channel proteins

Page 48: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

DIFFUSION

• Molecules tend to move from areas where there is more

of them to where there is less

high concentration low concentration

– This is called moving WITH the concentration gradient.

• Diffusion continues until equilibrium is reached, or

where molecules are equally distributed.

– Some solutes will be able to move through when others will

not.

Page 49: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Diffusion (continued)

Page 50: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

OSMOSIS

• Water passes through cell membranes rapidly.

• Osmosis is a specialized form of diffusion that moves water molecules through membranes.

• Osmotic pressure – when more water molecules accumulate inside a cell, pressure increases. This pressure is called osmotic pressure.

– when osmotic pressure is high inside the cell, water will want to leave the cell.

Page 51: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

OSMOSIS

Page 52: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

3 Types of Solutions

hypertonic solution -solute concentration is HIGHER in

the solution than in the cell.

• Water will move out of the cell- cell will shrivel

hypotonic solution - solute concentration is LOWER in

the solution than in the cell.

• Water will move into the cell- cell will swell

isotonic solution - EQUAL solute concentrations in the

solution and in the cell.

• Water will move in and out of the cell at equal rates.

Page 53: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

– some molecules cannot diffuse through on their own

(membrane is impermeable to them), and will need

assistance (facilitate).

– Passive transport aided by proteins. Each are very

specific to the size/shape/polarity of solute.

-transport proteins

-channel proteins

*aquaporins- facilitated diffusion of water

*ion channels- open and close in

response to a stimulus (gated channels)

Page 54: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Active Transport

• Some molecules exist in low amounts on one side of a

membrane and need to be moved to areas of high

amounts

• active transport- the use of energy to move molecules

from LOW concentration to HIGH concentration

(against or opposite the concentration gradient)

• Cell membranes have mechanisms to move these

molecules against their concentration gradients:

1. ion/molecular pumps

2. endocytosis

3. exocytosis

Page 55: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Types of Active Transport

1. ion/molecular pumps

-Molecules can be moved through the membrane by specific proteins embedded in the membrane

-Na, K, Ca ions are transported in this manner

-sodium-potassium pump is the major pump of animal cells

-proton pump is main pump of plants, fungi, and bacteria

Page 56: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

2. endocytosis- process of cells engulfing large particles by forming a vesicle around them

-different names for different sizes of particles:

pinocytosis (cell drinking)

-occurs if the particles have been partially broken down into a liquid of tiny dissolved molecules

phagocytosis (cell eating)

- If the particles are cell fragments or organic matter

3. exocytosis -process by which wastes or secretions (hormones) are brought to the cell membrane, packaged into vesicles and sent out of the cell

– the reverse of endocytosis

Page 57: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic
Page 58: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Unicellular vs. Multicellular

• Unicellular organisms – single celled.

• Include both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

• Maintain homeostasis by growing, responding to the environment, transforming energy, and reproducing.

• Multicellular organisms – many cells working together to create an organism.

• Cells are specialized – different cell types play different roles.

• Ex. Move, respond, communicate, substance production.

• Cells communicate with one another to maintain homeostasis for the organism.

Page 59: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

• The organization allows them to divide labor in order to maintain homeostasis.

Page 60: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic
Page 61: The Cell Theory · 2013-10-29 · • Cell Organelles Structure and Function • The Cell Membrane . The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic

Cellular communication

• Cells in large organisms must communicate with one another in order to work together to maintain homeostasis!

• Occurs via chemical signals that influence the behavior of the cells receiving the signals.

• Receptors are often found on the outside of cells where they bind chemical signaling molecules and influence cellular activity.