The Cardiovascular System. DIAGRAM OF THE HEART Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Ventricle Inferior...

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The Cardiovascular System

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  • The Cardiovascular System

  • DIAGRAM OF THE HEARTRight AtriumRight VentricleLeft VentricleInferior Vena CavaSuperior Vena CavaLeft AtriumPulmonary ArteryPulmonary VeinTo LungsFrom LungsAortaMitral ValveAortic ValvePulmonary ValveTricuspid Valve

  • Blood Flow in Pulmonary & Systemic Systems



    Digestive Tract(Mesenteric)


    Kidneys(Renal)BrainCarotid ArteryJugular VeinPulmonary ArterySuperior Vena CavaInferior Vena CavaHepatic VeinAortaPulmonary VeinMesenteric ArteryRenal ArteryRenal VeinTo the HeartAway from The Heart

  • 3 Layers of the Heart & PericardiumPericardial CavityMyocardiumMuscle of HeartEndocardiumSmooth Inner Lining of HeartVisceral PericardiumTough Outer Lining of HeartParietal PericardiumPart of Outer Sack

    #1#2#3Fibrous Layer of Outer Sack

  • Phases of Diastole & SistoleDiastole Phase:-Atria & Ventricles are relaxed-The Tricuspid and Mitral Valves are open-Atrial Contraction occurs -This pumps blood into the Ventricles

    Sistole Phase:-The Tricuspid and Mitral Valves Close-The Pulmonary and Arotic Valves Open-The Ventricles Contract -This Pumps Blood to the Lungs & Aorta How is this related to Blood Pressure?

  • Cardiac OutputStroke Volume:-The amount of blood pumped in one contraction of the heart

    Heart Rate:-How many times the heart pumps in one minute

    CARDIAC OUTPUT=STOKE VOLUME X HEART RATEThe more blood pumped in each contraction (Stroke Volume), the more beats the heart has in a minute (Heart Rate) the greater the Cardiac Output.What happens when you do Cardio Work?

  • What is the difference between: (Veins, Venules, Arteries & Capillaries)Veins Move blood to the heart from the rest of the bodyValves prevent deoxygenated blood from travelling backwardsVenules Transfer waste products including CO2 from the body to the veins for transport back to the lungsTransfer occurs at the single cell level through osmosis and diffusion

  • Arteries:Transport oxygen & energy in the blood from the heart to the bodyBlood is kept moving by the elastic and muscular construction of the arteriesCapillaries:Transfer oxygen & energy to the bodyTransfer occurs at the single cell levelExercise increases the amount of capillaries at the muscular level

    Why is the last statement important when performing cardio exercises?

  • Arteries and VeinsArteries are more muscular

  • Major Constituents of BloodBlood Plasma (55%)Mostly water (95%)Contains nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, ions & proteinsRed Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)Act as transport for O2 & CO2Most of the 3 types of blood cellsWhite Blood Cells (Leukocytes)Crucial to our defense against disease & infectionBlood Platelet Cells (Thrombocytes)Important for clotting (when wounds scab)

  • What Blood Type Are You?What are the different Blood Groups?Differences in human blood are due to the presence of proteins called antigens located on Red Blood Cells and antibodies located in your blood plasmaIndividuals have different types & combinations of these depending on what you inherited from your familyIf your blood has the same Antibodies as your donors Antigen then the transfusion will not workBlood Group: Type AYou have Group A antigens on your red blood cells & B antibodies in your blood plasmaBlood Group Type BYou have Group B antigens on your red blood cells & A antibodies in your blood plasma

  • Type O: The Uneversal Donor

    Blood Group: Type OYou have no Group A or B antigens on your red blood cells & both A and B antibodies in your blood plasmaAs a result your blood is easily accepted by the other Types of BloodThe bad news is you only accept your blood type or else you A and B antibodies will react with the other types blood Antigens Blood Group Type ABYou have no A or B antibodies in your plasma so you can receive blood from almost any blood typeYou have both A and B antigens on your Red Blood Cells so your blood is the least accepted blood by othersYou are known as the Universal Receiver

  • Blood Pressure/Heart Rate & Health

    What does Blood Pressure Measure?Systolic PressureMeasures the amount of pressure required to collapse an artery during the Systole Phase (When the ventricles contract to move blood out of the heart)This is the top number and is higher because the greatest pressure is created by the Pump of the ventricle trying to push blood through the body Diastolic PressureMeasures the amount of pressure required to collapse an artery during the Diastole Phase (When the Atria and Ventricles are relaxed)This is the bottom number and is lower because this is when pressure is lowest because the heart is relaxed

  • Blood Pressure/Heart Rate & Health

    What is Good Blood Pressure Measure?120/80 + or 10 110-130/70-90Systolic PressureDiastolic Pressure

  • Blood Pressure/Heart Rate & Health

    What if my Blood Pressure is High?Your Arteries are too tense (Hypertension)This can be as a result of StressThis can be a result of clogging or hardening of the arteries from a poor dietYour Heart will have to work harder to move the same amount of bloodRemember your arteries are supposed to be elastic and muscular so they help your heart but when your blood pressure is high your heart has to do more workThis over works your heart wearing it out sooner

  • Blood Pressure/Heart Rate & Health

    What if my Blood Pressure is Low?HypotensionYour Arteries are not providing enough tensionThis means not enough blood is moved through your body (to your brain and other organs)This can result in poor performance of these vital organsYou can become faint easilyYou will have poor circulation Always coldWhat is your blood pressure?

  • Blood Pressure/Heart Rate & Health

    What do I need to know about my resting heart rate?Resting Heart Rate measures the hearts efficiency (Measure of Cardiac Output at rest)The lower the Resting HR the betterThis means the heart has a high stroke volume and can therefore move a lot of blood without much work (Efficient)After hard Cardio Work my Heart Rate should return to resting within 5 minutes of finishingYour heart rate should rise quickly as you work hard but should also return to your resting quickly (Efficient)A great Resting HR is 80 needs work

    What is your Resting Heart Rate?

  • Diseases

  • Hardening of the arteries is silent and not just for the overweight

    Results in enlarged hearts, strokes and heart attacks

  • Blood Supply to the Muscles

    All muscles contain vessels that branch into a fine network of tiny vessels called capillaries and venules

    Capillaries- supply oxygen rich blood to the muscles

    Venules- remove deoxygenated blood & waste

    The blood required by contracting muscles at times can be 100 times greater than at rest

    Training increases the amount of capillaries at the muscular level

  • Training Increases Capillaries

    Aerobic and Weight Training increase the capillary network at the muscular levelIncreased blood flow to the muscle brings more Oxygen, Energy & Building material to the muscleIncreased blood flow away from the muscle removes more waste products from the muscle allowing for Quicker RecoveryThis means you will have greater Cardiac Output (Higher stroke volume)

  • 3 Energy Systems We Work in ClassFast Twitch Type X Muscle Fibers(Anaerobic Glycolytic System)Also called the Phosphagen SystemCreatine Supplements try to help this systemUses the most powerful muscle fibers in the bodyThese fibers can exert the most force but fatigue quicklyAll out for up to 45 secondsShorter time for less fit athletesTypically all out sprints or heavy lifts in weight trainingIt takes 6:1 Rest to Work to recoverGets energy from the food we eat [Glycolytic]Is performed without oxygen [Anaerobic]Therefore can only be performed for short time periods

  • Fast Twitch Type 2a Muscle FibersAlso Called: Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolytic SystemAlso called: Lactic SystemWhen we work so hard that we do not get enough O2 Lactic Acid forms {The point where this happens is our Lactate Threshold}Uses Oxygen [Oxidative]When not enough O2 is present Lactic Acid formsLactic acid is the burning feeling we get in our musclesGets energy from food we eat [Glycolytic]Energy is formed from food we eat (from carbs in our diet)Can perform at almost full out for up to 2 minutesIt takes 6:1 Rest to Work to recoverWe uses this a lot in Sports [High end aerobic activity]We use this a lot in the Weight Room [Hypertrophy]

  • Slow Twitch Aerobic Muscle FibersLow force outputLowest force output of the muscle fibersFatigue resistantCan use these fibers foreverAthletes run death racesUsed in low intensity activities & in recoveryUsed while recovering from hard work from fast twitch muscle fibersPower walks or light jog in Wellness CenterMuscle Activation Program at the beginning of the year Uses energy indirectly from food we eatWe convert byproducts of the Fast Twitch Systems and convert it into large amounts of energy