The Axial Skeleton 1. Axial skeleton  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage Appendicular...

download The Axial Skeleton 1. Axial skeleton  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton  Pectoral and pelvic girdles  Upper and lower.

of 53

  • date post

    24-Dec-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    224
  • download

    4

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of The Axial Skeleton 1. Axial skeleton  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage Appendicular...

  • Slide 1
  • The Axial Skeleton 1
  • Slide 2
  • Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton Pectoral and pelvic girdles Upper and lower limbs Skeletal system includes both: 2
  • Slide 3
  • The Skull 3
  • Slide 4
  • The cranium Cranial vault or calvaria Superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull Cranial floor or base Anterior fossa Middle fossa Posterior fossa 4
  • Slide 5
  • Consists of the cranium and the bones of the face Sutures Lambdoid-between occipital and parietal bones Coronal-between parietal and frontal bones Sagittal-between parietal bones Squamous-between parietal and temporal bones The skull 5
  • Slide 6
  • 6
  • Slide 7
  • 7
  • Slide 8
  • 8
  • Slide 9
  • one occipital bone foramen magnum two parietal bones one frontal bone frontal sinuses glabella Cranial Bones two temporal bones auditory ossicles one sphenoid one ethmoid 9
  • Slide 10
  • The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull 10
  • Slide 11
  • The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull 11
  • Slide 12
  • The Occipital and Parietal Bones 12
  • Slide 13
  • Occipital and Parietal Bones Occipital bone Foramen magnum Occipital condyle External occipital protuberance Parietal bone Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Glabella 13
  • Slide 14
  • Frontal bone 14
  • Slide 15
  • Temporal bone 15
  • Slide 16
  • Temporal bone Squamous suture Zygomatic process Zygomatic arch Mandibular fossa External auditory meatus Styloid process 16
  • Slide 17
  • Temporal bone is divided in regions Mastoid process Mastoiditis Meningitis Stylomastoid foramen Passage for cranial nerve VII Internal acustic meatus Passage for cranial nerves VII and VIII 17
  • Slide 18
  • The Sphenoid 18
  • Slide 19
  • Sphenoid bone Greater wings Sella turcica For the pituitary gland 19
  • Slide 20
  • The Ethmoid 20
  • Slide 21
  • Ethmoid bone Crista galli Attachment of the dura mater Cribiform plate Passage of olfactory nerves 21
  • Slide 22
  • Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate Forms the superior part of the nasal septum Superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates) Covered by mucosa Warms and humidifies the air 22
  • Slide 23
  • Maxillary bones Mandible Palatine bones Nasal bones Vomer Facial bones Inferior nasal conchae Zygomatic bones Lacrimal bones 23
  • Slide 24
  • Alveolar margim Palatine process- anterior hard palate Incisive fossa- passage for nerves and blood vessels Maxillae 24
  • Slide 25
  • Maxillary bone 25
  • Slide 26
  • Zygomatic bone articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone forming the zygomatic arch Vomer, Zygomatic and Lacrimal bones 26
  • Slide 27
  • Facial bones 27
  • Slide 28
  • Body- horizontal portion Ramus-vertical portion Mandibular condyle- articulates with temporal bone Coronoid process Angle Alveolar margin- with sockets for the teeth Mandibular foramen site of Novocain injection Mandible 28
  • Slide 29
  • The mandible 29
  • Slide 30
  • The Mandible and Hyoid Bones 30
  • Slide 31
  • Cranial Foramens to identify External view: Supraorbital foramen-for blood vessels and nerves Infraorbital foramen-blood vessels and nerves Mental foramen-blood vessels and nerves Stylomastoid foramen- nerve VII Carotid canal-for carotid artery External auditory meatus-leads to eardrum Incisive fossa-for blood vessels and nerves 31
  • Slide 32
  • Cranial Foramens to identify Internal view Optic canal -for optic nerve Superior and inferior orbital fissure ROS Rotundum- for a branch of V Ovale-for a branch of V Spinosum-for middle meningeal artery 32
  • Slide 33
  • Cranial Foramens to identify Foramen lacerum -internal carotid Jugular foramen -for jugular vein; IX, X,XI cranial nerves Internal acustic meatus -for VII,VIII Hypoglossal canal -for XII Foramen magnum -for spinal cord 33
  • Slide 34
  • The Fetal Skeleton 34
  • Slide 35
  • Fontanels Anterior or frontal Palpable for the first 1 to 2 years of age Posterior of occipital Closes by the end of the first year of age Mastoid Closes by the end of the first year of age Sphenoid Closes by the end of the first year of age 35
  • Slide 36
  • Cranial bones Frontal It is parted Temporal It is incompletely ossified Presence of ossification centers Conical protusions on the cranial bones 36
  • Slide 37
  • The Vertebral Column 37
  • Slide 38
  • 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 sacrum fused vetebrae 3-5 fused coccyx vertebrae Vertebral column 38
  • Slide 39
  • Vertebral column Intervertebral discs- pads of fibrocartilage between the vertebrae Nucleus pulposus- central soft region Annulus fibrosus- outer ring. Collagen fibers Herniated disc- protusion of the nucleus pulposus 39
  • Slide 40
  • Spinal curvatures 40 Figure 7.16
  • Slide 41
  • Four spinal curves- posterior view Primary curvatures present at birth Thoracic - convex Sacral- convex Secondary curvatures develops after birth Cervical- concave Lumbar- concave Spinal curvatures 41
  • Slide 42
  • Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine 42
  • Slide 43
  • Body- rounded portion. Anterior part Vertebral Foramen-for the spinal cord Transverse process Spinous process-single and posterior Intervertebral foramina-it is seen when 2 vertebras are put together. Passage of the spinal nerves Structure of a typical vertebra 43
  • Slide 44
  • Transverse foraminas- only present in cervical vertebrae Atlas or C1 No body Join with the head and provides for range of motion (when you nod yes) Cervical vertebra 44
  • Slide 45
  • Cervical vertebra Axis or C2 Odontoid process or dens-allows rotation of the head (when you nod no) 45
  • Slide 46
  • Thoracic vertebrae Spinous process-long and downward Rib facet for articulation with 1 rib 46
  • Slide 47
  • Massive body Short and thick and more horizontal spinous processes No rib facets No transverse foramem Superior and inferior articular processes Lumbar vertebrae 47
  • Slide 48
  • Medial sacral crest-remnant of the spinous processes Alae- formed by fusion of the transverse processes. It articulates with the hip bones Sacral foramina- passage for blood vessels and nerves Sacral canal- continuation of the verterbral canal Sacrum 48
  • Slide 49
  • Sacrum and coccyx Sacral hiatus-inferior opening of the sacral canal Sacral promontory- rim on the anterior and superior part of the sacrum Coccyx Attached to the sacrum by ligaments 49
  • Slide 50
  • Sternum Manubrium-articulates with the clavicle Body Xiphoid process-inferior end. Made of hyaline cartilage in children and is ossified in adults Jugular notch Sternal angle-between the body and the manubrium The bony thorax 50
  • Slide 51
  • Tubercle is inferior Costal groove depression along the inferior side Sternal end-articulates with sternum The ribs 51
  • Slide 52
  • True Ribs 1-7 Attached to the sternum through their own cartilage Types of ribs 52
  • Slide 53
  • False 8-12 8-10 are vertebrochondral ribs Attaches to the sternum indireclty through the cartilage of the C7 11-12 are floating ribs No attachment to the sternum Types of ribs 53