Textile Dyeing Machinery


Transcript of Textile Dyeing Machinery

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Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshirID: 201000040000813th Batch (session 2009-2013)Department : Wet Processing Technology Email: [email protected] : www. Textilelab.blogspot.com (visit)

Southeast University Department Of Textile Engineering

I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh

Prepared By :

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Total Textile Process at a Glance

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To Classify Dyeing & Finishing MachineryTo Know Function of The MachineryTo Know Working Process of The MachineryTo Know Some Brand Name

To Know Advantage & Disadvantage

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Textile Dyeing:Dyeing is a coloration process of textile which is invariable carried out in an aqueous medium.In the other hand, dyeing can be define as a process by which a yarn, fabric, garments and any other materials that come to contact of dye by presence of auxiliaries that create the condition of dyeing environment

Dyeing machine:

The machine which is used to dyeing or coloring of materials like yarn, fabric, garments or any other materials is called dyeing machine.

Dyeing machines come in all shapes and sizes to accommodate the various forms and quantities of textile materials. It is impossible to provide exhaustive coverage of this field. Therefore, the most important types of machine, and their problems, will be at the forefront.

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Types of Dyeing Machine

Fibre Dyeing MachineYarn Dyeing MachineKnit Dyeing MachineWoven Dyeing Machine

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Package Yarn Dyeing Machine (Vertical Type):

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Package Yarn Dyeing Machine (Horizontal Type):

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• This types of machine consists of a cylindrical carrier, having perforations over its surface, over which perforated spindles can be placed, radiating from the surface.

• The top of the carrier is provided with a hook, by which an overhead crane can lower into or raise from an outer cylindrical dye vessel.

• In case of this types of machine, carrier is filled with package and is placed in the dye vessel by robotics system.

• This type of machine is suitable for scouring, bleaching, dyeing and washing.

• According to objective chemicals and auxiliaries are pumped into the dye vessel by centrifugal pump.

• Then due to circulation of dye liquor in the dye vessel pretreatment or dyeing is performed.

Function & Feature:

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• The material is dyed on cross wound packages ,therefore bigger unit weight( 1.2 kg -1.5 kg for cotton) in dyeing is possible.

• Economical dyeing due to lower liquor ratio, compact and enclosed dyeing vessels .

• Different liquor ratio is possible in different process steps such as partial filling in washing and soaping and fully flooded in rinsing make the process economical.

• More uniform dyeing is possible due to higher number of contacts at high and optimized flow rates

• High temperature ,high pressure and high flow rates results into shorter dyeing cycles

• Due to complete automation ,the machines are less labor intensive.

The main advantages of package dyeing over other yarn dyeing methods are

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• Modern machines with partial loading spindles are more flexible for different size lots .

• Very less handling and damage to dyed substrate ,due to shorter dyeing cycles.

• All operations from pretreatment to hydro extraction in single machine are possible

• The package dyeing machines are more versatile because almost all type of substrates can be dyed and almost all types of dyestuffs applications is possible.

• The same machines can be used for multiple make ups such as yarn, fiber, tow ,tops, bumps and beams on suitable dyeing carriers.

• Most advanced machines are equipped with pH regulators and controllers and salt sensors to for achieving very reliable and reproducible results. 

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• The OBEM API/V machines are the traditional type, vertical kier dyeing machines

• They are really the multi-purpose solution apparatuses for processing all kind of fibres and in any type of form like in packages, tops, loose fibre and tow, only by changing the material-holders.

• The API/V capacity is variable from 20 to 10,000 kg

• Low liquor ratio, variable from 1:3 to 1:8

• PLC Controlled.• Fully automatic.

OBEM API/V Package Dyeing Machine:

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Winch Dyeing Machine:

Figure: Roto Master (Thies Winch Dyeing Machine)

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Figure: Schematic view Roto Master (Thies Winch Dyeing Machine)

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• Inner rotating fabric chamber ensures positive fabric transport and gentle treatment of the fabric• Electro-pneumatic operated valves• Adjustable winch drive combined with programmable nozzle pressure permits fabric speeds of 40-400 m/min• Analog Dosing Fully automated dosing of dyes and auxiliaries according to a programmed time and curve (also under HT conditions)• Analog level - dyeing kier Controls the liquor level in the machine usig an electrical transmitter• Max. operating temperatures to 100°C and 140°C• Automatic control via industrial PC

Technical Details of Roto Master (Thies):

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Winch dyeing machine:

A dyeing machine consisting essentially of a dye vessel fitted with a driven winch (usually above the liquor level) which rotates and draws a length of fabric, normally joined end to end, through the liquor

In all winch dyeing machines a series of fabric ropes of equal length are immersed in the dye bath but part of each rope is taken over two reels. Winch dyeing machines are a low cost design that is simple to operate and maintain.

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Principle of winch dyeing machine:

The basic principle of all winch dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or ropes of the fabric in the dye bath, these ropes are of equal length, which are mostly immersed in the liquor in the bath. The upper part of each rope runs over two reels which are mounted over dye bath. At the front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is a smaller reel, which is called jockey or fly roller. The fly roller remains freewheeling along with fabric rope. At the back of winch tank is the winch wheel, which pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath over the jockey reel for dropping in the dye bath for immersion. From the dropped location, the fabric rope travels back. To be lifted and fed to winch wheel. The dyeing process on winch dyeing machines is based on higher M: L as compared with other dyeing machines. The process is conducted with very little tension. The total dyeing time is lengthier as compared to other machines.

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Advantages of Winch Dyeing:

Construction and operation of winch are very simple.

The winch dyeing machines are suitable for types of wet processing operations from desizing to softening.

The winch dyeing machine is suitable for practically all types of fabrics, which can withstand creasing in rope form processing.

The tension exerted on winch is less than jigger; the material thus dyed is with fuller hand.

The appearance of the dyed goods is clean and smooth on winch dyeing machines.

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Limitations of Winch Dyeing :

Batch dyeing operations needs trimming, sewing, opening out the rope, loading and unloading for individual lots separately.

Since several lengths of fabric are run over the winch reel into the liquor and sewn end to end, Continuous length processing is not possible in a single batch.

Fabric is processed in rope form which may lead to crease marks, particularly in heavy, woven, thin and light synthetics.

Most of the machine works under atmospheric conditions.

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Jet Dyeing Machine:

A machine used for dyeing of fabric in rope form. Jet dyeing machines came into existence with a purpose to minimize or eliminate the drawbacks of earlier machines like winch , jigger and beam dyeing units.

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Jet dyeing is a process that can be used for batch dyeing operations such as dyeing, bleaching, washing and rinsing. In this process, dyeing is accomplished in a closed tubular system, basically composed of an impeller pump and a shallow dye bath. The fabric to be dyed is loosely collapsed in a form of a rope, and tied into a loop. The impeller pump supplies a jet of dye solution, propelled by water and/or air, which transport the fabric within the dyeing system ,surrounded by dye liquor , under optimum conditions. Turbulence created by the jet aids in dye penetration and prevents the fabric from touching the walls of the tube, thus minimizing mechanical impact on the fabric.

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Types of Jet Dyeing Machines:

Overflow Dyeing MachineSoft-flow Dyeing MachineAirflow Dyeing Machine

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Overflow Dyeing MachineFunctioning of a Overflow Dyeing Machine:

A typical Overflow Dyeing Machine works like this. A winch that is not motor driven usually is located in the top side of the machine where the fabric is hanged. A longer length of textile is made to hang from the exit side of the winch as compared to the inlet side. By applying the force of gravitation the longer length of textile is pulled downward more strongly than the shorter one. Consequently the fabric is soaked in the bath without any sort of tension. The following diagram well illustrates the working process.

Advantages: No evaporative losses, No build up of steam condensate in the dyebath,Low liquor ratios, Excellent dye liquor contact, Computer control

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HTHP Soft-flow Dyeing Machine

Technical features:Compact body made of stainless steel. High efficiency heat exchanger for quick heating/cooling. Compact body made of stainless steel. Heating rate - around 4°C/Min upto 900°C - around 3°C/Min upto 135°C At steam pressure of 6 Bar. Cooling Rate- around 4°C/ Min At water pressure of 4 Bar and 15°C. Maximum working temp is 135°C. Maximum working pressure of 3.2 Bar. Control manual as well as automatic. Heavy duty stainless steel pump.

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Airflow Dyeing Machine

Features of Air flow Jet Dyeing Machine:

Completely Separated circuit for liquor circulation without getting in touch with the textile Bath less Dyeing operation Rinsing process offers all the added benefits of continuous processing as it is no longer a batch operation Extremely low liquor ratio Virtually non stop process

Comparatively lesser energy requirement due to faster heating/cooling and optimum heat recovery from the hot exhausted dye liquors Reduction in consumption of the chemicals (e.g. salt) dosage of which is based on the amount of dye bath Lesser water consumption savings up to 50% from the conventional Jet dyeing machines Sensitivity towards ecology Economical operation More safety while dyeing

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Limitations of Jet dyeing machines

High Initial investments and maintenance cost.

Limited accessibility during the dyeing process.

Foam forming substances are to be avoided.

Any roughness of the  inside surface cause damage to cloth

In case of cloth breakage , rethreading is complicated

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Hydro-extractor Machine:

Manufacturer: DilmenlerExtrction: 65% MaximumSpeed : 1000-1400rpmExtraction time : 5-10inFunction : To remove excess water from fabric by centrifugal extraction.

Hydro-extractor Machine

Moving baskets are round and made of steel. There are a lot of holes On the down side of this basket. Through this holes water can be drained out. It is located at the centre of the machine and is rotated by an electric motor.

Working Procedure:

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Dewatering or Squeezer Machine:

Manufacturer: Santex Function: -Open the fabric from the rope form.-Reduce water content-Apply chemicals-Apply overfeed to give some compaction.-Width-wise stretch the fabric-Plait the fabric.

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Dewatering, Chemicals, Application and Overstretching Machine:Dewatering, Chemicals, Application and Overstretching Machine:

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Slitting Machine:

Slitting is a process that is applied for cutting the tubular fabric through the intended brake Wales lime on length wise direction prior to stenter processing.

Manufacturer: Bianco

Machine parts:Rotary blade: To cut the fabric through break wales lineRing: To help cuttingGuide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaitingPlaiting: To plate the fabricSensor: sense for cutting through break wales line

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Schematic Digram of Slitting machine

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Compactor Machine:

Functions:•To control shrinkage•To control Width•To control GSM•To smooth fabric•Heat setting of Fabric for lycra

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14 15 16








12 13 15 14









24 6 5



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FUNCTIONAL SELECTION LEGEND1 – Fabric Brake 13 – Felt Centering Rollers

2 – Fabric Feeding roller 14 – Felt Tensioning Rollers

3 – Beater 15 – Heated Roller

4 – Safety Photocell indicating Lack of Fabric 16 – Felt Drawing Rollers Covered with Rubber

5 – Fabric Conveyor Belt 17 – Rollers with Loading Cell for automatic Fabric Tension Control

6 – Photocell Loop Control 18 – Exit Belt Drawing Roller

7 – Operator Platform 19 – Fabric Conveyor Belt

8 – Re – directing Roller 20 – Movable Arms

9 – Automatic Spreader Mod. ALBATROS 21 – Fabric Conveyance Hopper

10 – Steaming Chamber 22 – Plaiting Roller

11 – Motorized Adjustable Rollers 23 – Fold Pressing Device

12 – Felt Re – directing Adjustable Rollers 24 – Plaiting Platform

OPTION:A – Ring Spreader for Tubular Fabric C – Cardboard Positioning Device

B – Cooling Chamber at Exit D – Cutting Device

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Stenter Machine:

Manufacturer: Santex

Function:Apply chemical and softenerTo dart set the T/C fabric Drying of fabricTo control widthCuring of fabricApply pigment dyeingTo control GSM To control shrinkageTo decrease spiralityTo decrease bowing effectSurface coating for teflon finishApply soil release chemical finishHeat set for cotton/lycra fabric Etc.

Figure: Stenter Machine

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Schematic Diagram of Stenter Machine

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Singing & De-sizing Range:

Schematic Diagram of SWASTIK Singeing & De-sizing Machines

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Description of SWASTIK Singeing & De-sizing Machines

Sr No   Description

1. Tension Unit With Guide Rollers & Bars

2. S.S. Pre-drying Cylinder (Optional)

3. Pre-bushing Unit With Suction

4. Singeing Chamber With Exhaust

5. Water-cooled Roller

6. Water-cooled Burner

7. Carburetor With Blower

8. Steam Quenching Device

9. Post Brushing With Suction (Optional)

10. De-sizing Unit St-12/St-15

11. Squeezing Mangle 3 Tons.

12. Main Drive (A.C. Motor With Frequency Controller)

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Feature of SWASTIK Singeing & De-sizing Machines

Special burners, two of which are provided for the machine. These burners have a particular combustion chamber and are provided with water-cooling arrangement. The cloth can be threaded so as to allow singeing of either one or both sides. It is essential to note that the gas consumption per meter of fabric is less as compared with a machine of conventional design.

Both burners are titled away simultaneously (by 45º) by electro-magnets.

High Singeing speeds, infinitely variable between 80 mts. To 150 mtrs/min.

Excellent and uniform singeing effect with economical gas consumption.

Burners turning away automatically when the machine stops.

Efficient dust extraction device

De-sizing compartment with 12 /16 mts. Contents can be provided with a suitable squeezing mangle.

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Scouring & Bleaching Range:

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• Building block structure, suit for different weight fabric and different processing.

• High liquid supply system can increase pick-up of liquid quantity, it makes the fabric suck the chemicals equally and fully.

• The upper guide rollers of combination steamer are adjusted by frequency conversion transmission. It reduces crinkles due to changes of tension and meets the requirement of high-density poplin.

• The fabric is heated enough before folding to insure the chemicals penetrate evenly,

• This structure makes the saturated steam easy to penetrate and keeps temperature and humidity of the fabric so that it ensures the consistency of the scouring & bleaching.

• It is not easy to get crinkles • Roller width:        1800-3600mm•   Machine speed:    15-80m/min•   Drive:                  PLC, AC motor with inverter

Feture of Scouring & Bleaching Range:

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Jigger Dyeing Machine:

Figure: Thies Jigger

Technical Details:

Feature:Atmospheric (up to 98°C) & HT Economical dyeing & Low liquor ratioPLC ControlledFabric tension: 50-800 NFabric speed: 10-150 m/minFabric width: max. 5400 mmRoller width: max. 5600 mm

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A Jig Dyeing machine, is an efficient dyeing technique. It is also known by the name of jigger. Jig Dyeing machine processes fabrics in open width to avoid creasing problems in fabric dyeing. The process works like this. The Jig Dyeing machine operates by transferring the fabric back and forth. This happens from roller to roller via the medium of a dyebath, that is located at the base of the machine. As soon as the second roller gets full, the direction of movement of fabric can be reversed. In Jig dyeing, the duration of the process is measured on the basis of the number of passages or ends of the fabric passing through the dye bath from roller to roller. The end in dyeing parlance is known as the passing of fabric through a dye liquor from one roller to the other one.

Function of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

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Latest in Jig Dyeing Machines:

FeaturesOperates by electricity, and fully controlled by a PLCCutting edge technology in the form of speed measuring device on foot roll barrel. This helps in maintaining uniform line speed along with a reliable testing signal.Comes with built in dye solution circulatory system and charging system.Use of latest technologies in the form of automatic:

ReverseWay-changeLength CountTemperature Control

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Pad Batch Dyeing machine:

Pad Batch Dyeing machine is one of the widely used technique for semi-continuous dyeing process. It is mainly used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibre like cotton or viscose (knit and woven fabric) with reactive dyes. The characteristics of this machine is simple, and flexible and a substantial reduction in capital investment for equipment.

Schematic layout of a pad-batch:

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Types of Pad-batch dyeing machine:

Pad-batch process (semi-continuous)Pad-roll process (semi-continuous)Pad-jig process (semi-continuous)Pad-steam process (continuous)Thermosol process (continuous)Pad-dry process (continuous)

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Special Features of Pad Batch Dyeing Process:

Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to other conventional dyeing processes.

Excellent wet fastness properties.

A uniform dye quality is achieved with even color absorbency and color fastness.

As compared to rope dyeing, Pad batch dyeing produces much lower defect levels

In pad batch dyeing, qualities like high shade reliability and repeatability are common. This is because of high reactivity dyes with rapid fixation rate and stability.

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Mercerizing Machine

Function:Open with mercerizing machine for all kind of cotton & cotton blended as well as PES fabrics.It will improve the fabric luster, increase the flexibility of the fabric and reduce dyestuff consumption.During mercerization fabric is treated with 15% NaOH under high tension and pressure.

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Sanforizing Machine:

OWER-SHRINK Sanforizing machine (Brückner)

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Better shrinkage results thanks to the high tech drive system with loadcell control

Extremely constant shrinkage results thanks to automatic shrinkagecontrol (option)

Production output increased by 20 – 40 % due to an improvedgeometrical design of the rubber belt unit

Extended life span of the rubber belt due to larger diameter ofcompression and tensioning rollers and an optimized cooling system

Reproducible results as all machine parameters are automated withrecipe administration software. No manual settings (e. g. valves, handwheels) required

Rubber belt resurfacing/grinding unit fully integrated into the machine(no mounting of external unit necessary) – grinding process controlled via PLC to avoid operation errors

Very solid and long lasting machine design with minimized vibrations to ensure a smooth fabric run

All bearings are located outside the wet to avoid corrosion

Feature of OWER-SHRINK Sanforizing machine (Brückner):

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Some Popular Dyeing and Finishing Machine manufacturing Company

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Some Popular Dyeing and Finishing Machine manufacturing Company

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