Terrorist Rehab

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    Jessica Deitzer

    TerroristRehab:

    Can it work?

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    Saudi ProgramThe Advisory Committee Counseling Program

    PRAC:

    Prevention

    Rehabilitation

    Aftercare

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    Saudi Program

    Four Subcommittees:

    SecurityPsychological and Social

    ReligiousMedia

    Egypt, Algeria, Singapore,Indonesia, Malaysia, andYemen, and Pakistan have

    also tried terrorist rehabs inthe recent years

    (Boucek, 2008)

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    DSM-IV Axes

    Clinical Disorders

    Personality Disorders

    Medical Disorders

    Psychosocial Stressors

    Global Level of Functioning

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    DSM-IV Axes

    Clinical Disorders

    Personality Disorders

    Medical Disorders

    Psychosocial Stressors

    Global Level of Functioning

    If terrorists are psychologically normal, how dowe treat the fourth axis?

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    Research Behind Rehab Denial Perspective vs. Re-integrative Perspective

    (Ginges, 1997)

    War on Terror vs. positive Legal & Social actions

    Groups are very important to the decisions of theindividual

    Understanding the psychology of the terrorist, Re-

    integrative strategies hold the most validity

    Need to treat the cultural aspects and re-integrate former terrorists into society

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    Terrorist Rehab ProgramsIndonesia

    Ali Imron (took part in Bali bombings)

    now wants to help deprogramother jailed terrorists (Horgan &Braddock, 2010)

    Focuses on changing Jemaah

    Islamiyahs understanding of Islamand Jihad

    Wants to change attitudes, beliefs,and misconceptions

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    Terrorist Rehab ProgramsYemen

    Yemens Religious Dialogue Committee

    decided that terrorism has faultyintellectual foundations and they candebate to make a change andweaken terrorist efforts (Horgan &Braddock, 2010)

    Al-Hitarleads the Committee forReligious Dialogue

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    Terrorist Rehab ProgramsPakistan

    Use Psychiatry, Education, and Religion

    "The basic concept is to provide them all theircomparative education, where they are able todecide for themselves what is right and what iswrong, that whatever was told to them previously is

    not true," Pakistani Col. Iman Bilal said.

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    Terrorist Rehab Programs All these programs target ideology

    Ideology is the real enemy within terrorist

    motivations

    Their ideology concentrates their thinking &controls their actions. (Beck, 2002)

    Bin Hassan (2012) argues for the role of counter-

    ideological approaches in the war on terror.

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    Are there solutions?

    Despite claiming high success rates, its

    difficult to truly measure recidivism andchanging ideological beliefs

    Many individuals who disengage fromterrorism are not necessarily de-

    radicalized; conversely, many who arede-radicalized do not necessarilyhave low recidivism rates (Horgan &Braddock, 2010)

    Said Ali al-Shihri,participant of the Saudirehabilitation program,

    became a major Al-Quaeda leader in

    Yemen

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    We need Evidence-Based

    EVALUATIONHorgan & Braddock (2010):

    1. There are no explicit criteria for success

    associated with any initiative.

    2. There is little data associated with any of theseinitiatives that can be reliably corroboratedindependently.

    3. There has been no systematic effort to study anyaspect of these programs, even individually, letalone collectively.

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    We Need Evidence-Based

    PRACTICE De-radicalization is more than a change in

    behavior, its a change in cognitions

    We must consider how the organization exertscontrol over thinking and behavior

    Suggests Cognitive-Behavioral models of behaviorapply to terrorism (Taylor & Horgan, 2007)

    Often, the motivations for disengagementinclude disillusionment with the organization

    How can we encourage counter-ideologies?

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    We Need Evidence-Based

    PRACTICE The therapist and patient collaborate to identify

    distorted cognitions, which are derived frommaladaptive beliefs or assumptions. These

    cognitions and beliefs are subjected to logicalanalysis and empirical hypothesistesting whichleads individuals to realign their thinking withreality. David A. Clark (1995)

    Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the mostwidely researched and effective types oftherapy. (Butler et al 2006)

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    We Need Evidence-Based

    PRACTICE Cognitive Distortions of terrorists:

    overgeneralization

    dichotomous thinking tunnel vision

    Reframe the enemy, group therapy, meetingsof victims and perpetrators

    Multidisciplinary approach- need clinicians towork in this new field

    (Beck, 2002)

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    We Need Evidence-Based

    EDUCATION Pakistans program is unique in reaching out to

    teens

    "I am going to spread and preach whatever Ilearn here and tell people that what they weredoing is wrong

    Chief Minister Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Ameer HaiderKhan Hoti has said that promotion of educationwas the only way forward to cope withchallenges of extremism, terrorism, poverty,illiteracy, law and order and unemployment.

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    We Need Evidence-Based

    EDUCATION Ministry of Education Saudi program educates in

    schools about dangers of terrorism and terroristideologies

    Dont expect to reach todays terrorists- instead,focus on the next generation, the generation oftomorrow (Wagner, 2006)

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    Bibliography Beck, A. T. (2002). Prisoners of hate. Behaviour Research and

    Therapy,40(3), 209-216.

    Boucek, C. (2008). Saudi arabiassoft counterterrorism strategy:

    Prevention, rehabilitation, and aftercare . Carnegie Endowment forInternational Peace, 1(97), 1-28.

    Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. (2006). Theempirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses . Clinical Psychology Review,26, 17-31.

    Clark, D. A. (1995). Perceived limitations of standard cognitivetherapy: A reconsideration of efforts to revise Beck's theory andtherapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 9(3), 153172.

    Goldman, R. (2010, January 1). Does rehab for terrorists work?.ABCNews. Retrieved fromhttp://abcnews.go.com/International/guantanamo-release-saudi-

    rehab-ali-al-shihri-now/story?id=9458164

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    Bibliography Ginges, J. (1997). Dettering the terrorist: A psychological evaluation of different

    strategies for deterring terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(1), 170-185.

    Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists?: Challenges in

    assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs . Terrorism and PoliticalViolence,22, 267291.

    Naeem, A. (2012, October 18). Promotion of education only way to cope withchallenges of extremism, terrorism: Hoti. Business Recorder. Retrieved fromhttp://www.brecorder.com/top-news/108-pakistan-top-news/86744-promotion-of-education-only-way-to-cope-with-challenges-of-extremism-terrorism-hoti-.html

    Raddatz, M., & Netter, S. (2010, December 31). Rehab for terrorists: Pakistan triesreintegration program on teen extremists.ABC News. Retrieved fromhttp://abcnews.go.com/International/rehab-terrorists-pakistan-reintegration-program-teen-extremists/story?id=12515154

    Taylor, M., & Horgan, J. (2006). A conceptual framework for addressingpsychological process in the development of the terrorist . Terrorism and PoliticalViolence, 18, 585601.

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    Questions?

    Terrorist Rehab: Can it

    work?

    Jessica Deitzer