Terrestrial Biomes

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Terrestrial Biomes. What is a biome?. A biome is a geographic area with the same climate, flora, and fauna. Abiotic factors. Abiotic factors : never living things of the environment. Examples: soil, air, light, temperature, water. Biotic factors. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Terrestrial Biomes

  • Terrestrial Biomes

  • What is a biome?A biome is a geographic area with the same climate, flora, and fauna.

  • Abiotic factorsAbiotic factors: never living things of the environment.

    Examples: soil, air, light, temperature, water

  • Biotic factorsBiotic factors: living or once living things of the environment.

    Examples: people, bacteria, animals, plants, fungi, insects, dead plants and animals, etc.

  • Levels of Organization

  • Terrestrial Biomes: differ by location, plants, and animalsTemperate/Deciduous Forest (TDF)Tropical Rain Forest (TRF)Taiga/Boreal Forest/Coniferous ForestTropical Grassland/SavannaTemperate Grassland/PrairieTropical DesertCold DesertChaparralTundraMountain

  • Biomes of the WorldEach of the worlds biomes has its own unique characteristics.

  • 3 Main Climate ZonesPolar to 66.5 NTemperate 66.5N to 23.5NTropical 23.5 N to 23.5 STemperate 66.5S to 23.5SPolar to 66.5 S

  • Polar ZoneLocated from the Poles to 66.5 N and S.Coldest Temperatures of all 3 zonesTundra BiomeTaiga Biome

  • Temperate ZoneLocated from 66.5 N and S to 23.5 N and S.Change of SeasonsExperience hot and cold temperatures.Temperate ForestPrairieChaparralDesert

  • Tropical ZoneLocated from 23.5 N to 23.5 S.Area along the equator.Receives most solar radiation.High temperatures/Precipitation variesDesertRain forestSavanna

  • Earths Climate ZonesComplete the diagram: Draw the lines at the correct latitude and label the lines of latitude. Label the zones: Temperate, Tropical and Polar. Color the Tropical zone red, the Temperate zone green and the Polar zone blue.

  • Temperate Deciduous ForestTemperature: -22 to 86 FahrenheitPrecipitation: 24-60 inches annuallyCharacteristics: Has 4 distinct seasonsYou live hereLeaves change color in autumnZone: Temperate

  • Temperate Deciduous ForestFlora: the plants of a biomeExamples: oak tree, maple tree, azaleas, shrubs, grassesFauna: the animals of a biomeExamples: ants, deer, turkeys, frogs, eaglesInteresting facts:Deciduous trees lose their leaves to conserve water

  • Temperate Deciduous ForestCovers 1/3 of the Earths areaDominated by trees and woody vegetationPrecipitation is distributed evenly throughout the yearAnimal life includes many things such as bears, deer,and rodents

  • Pictures of TDF FloraWhite oak, Genus: Uercus Species: albaLady Fern, Genus: Athyrium Species: felix-femina

  • Pictures of TDF faunaAmerican Bald EagleEuropean Red SquirrelWhite-tailed Deer

  • Insects of the TDF

  • Rain Forest

  • Tropical Rain ForestTemperature: 75 to 85 FahrenheitPrecipitation: 50-260+ inches annually

    Characteristics: 12 hours of daylight2 seasons: rainy and dryPoor soil

    Interesting facts: Most diverse biomeMany plants there could be used for medicines.85% of the worlds TRF have been deforested.

  • Tropical Rain ForestThe Rain Forest is made of 3 layers:The first layer is the canopy.The second layer is the understory.The third is the forest floor.

    The Rain Forest contains about 45% of all animal species in the world making it the biome with highest biological diversity.

  • TRF Flora and FaunaFlora: the plants of a biomeExamples: orchids, ferns, treeswould find many buttress trunks hereFauna of the TRF is very shallow rooted.Fauna: the animals of a biomeExamples: birds, bats, insects, frogs, & small mammals

  • Flora of the TRFBougainvillea Genus: Bougainvillea Species: spectabilisMangrove Forests Tualang Common Names: Mengaris, Honey Bee Tree, Doh Genus: Koompassia Species: excelsa

  • Fauna of the TRF

  • Fauna of the TFRGolden Lion Tamarin Genus: Leontopithecus Species: rosaliaAfrican Forest Elephant Common Names: Pygmy Elephant Genus: Loxodonta Species: cyclotisToco Toucan Genus: Pamphastos Species: toco

  • Taiga

  • Taiga/Boreal Forest/Coniferous ForestTemperature: 14 to 57 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 14-30 inches annually

    Zone: Temperate

    FYI: Current extensive logging may soon cause the taiga to disappear.

  • Taiga/Boreal Forest/Coniferous ForestCharacteristics: Animals migrate, hibernate, or insulate to survive.Cone shape of trees helps them shed snow & prevents damage to trees.Soil is low in nutrients & high in acid. Why?Found in the Northern Hemisphere near the polar region & very few people live there.

  • Taiga/Boreal Forest/Coniferous ForestInteresting facts:Find in Moscow, Toronto, etc.Taiga is the Russian word for marshy pine forest.It is home to bogs and ponds.It has some permafrost but not as much as the tundra.It occupies about 17% of the Earths land area.

  • Taiga/Boreal Forest/Coniferous ForestFlora of the Taiga:Include conifers (cone-producing plants) such as spruce, firs, and pinesRarely see birch and aspen trees (deciduous trees)

    Fauna of the Taiga:Include moose, deer, bears, bobcats, squirrels, moles, eagles, birds, and insects

  • Taiga FloraEastern Red Cedar Common Names: Red Cedar, grave yard tree Genus: Juniperus Species: virginianaBlack Spruce Common Names: Black Spruce, Bog Spruce, Swamp Spruce, pinette noire Genus: Picea Species: mariana

  • Taiga FaunaLong-Eared Owl Common Names: Cat Owl Genus: Aiso Species: otusSnowshoe Rabbit Common Names: Varying Hare Genus: Lepus Species: americanusAmerican Black Bear Genus: Ursus Species: americanusWolverine Genus: Gulo Species: luscus

  • Tropical Grassland/Savanna

  • Tropical Grassland/SavannaTemperature: 61 to 93 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 20-50 inches annually

    Zone: Tropical

  • Tropical Grassland/SavannaCharacteristics: Has treesHas wet and dry seasonsDry season is always followed by fire and is necessary for survival of the savanna.

  • Tropical Grassland/SavannaFlora: grass, trees, and shrubsJackal Berry Tree Common Names: Jackalberry Tree, Jakkalbessie, African Ebony Genus: Diospyros Species: mespiliformis

    Elephant Grass Common Name: Napier grass, Uganda grass Genus: Pennistum Species: purpureum

  • Tropical Grassland/SavannaFauna: giraffe, zebras, gazelles, elephants, wildebeestsGrant's Zebra Common Names: Plains Zebra Genus: Equus Species: burchelli bohmiWildebeest

  • Temperate Grassland (Prairie)Temperature: -40 to 100 + Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 20-35 inches annually

    Zone: Temperate

  • Temperate GrasslandCharacteristics:Few grasslands left due to clearing of land for farmsfor croplands

    Interesting facts: Biome with the richest/most fertile soil

  • Temperate Grassland Flora: grasses, flowers, and trees, only near water

    Fauna: spiders, insects, rabbits, coyotes, mice, prairie dogs

  • Tropical DesertsTemperature: -0.4 to 120 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: less than 20 inches annually

    Zone: Tropical

  • Tropical DesertsCharacteristics:Cover 1/5 of the Earths surface

    Have rich soil

    Hot and dryInteresting facts:4 deserts in North America

    Plants have shallow roots near the soil surface, waxy coverings, & spiny leaves to conserve water.

    Sahara Desert in Africa is the worlds largest, covering over 3.5 million acres of land.

  • Deserts of North America

  • Fauna examples: also include spiders, insects, birdsDesert Kangaroo Rat Genus: Dipodomys Species: deserti

    Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope Common Names: Genus: Antilocarta Species: americana sonoriensisCoyote Common Names: Coyote Genus: Canis Species: latransDesert Tortoise Common Names: Gopher Tortoise Genus: Gopherus Species: agassizii

  • Fauna ExamplesSonoran Desert Toad Common Names: Sonoran Toad Genus: Bufo Species: alvarius

    Cactus Ferruginous Pygmy Owl Genus: Glaucidium Species: brasilianum cactorum

  • Flora: Also include shrubs, small trees, yuccas, and agaves Joshua Tree Genus: Yucca Species: brevifolia Saguaro Cactus Genus: Carnegiea Species: gigantea


  • Blue agave farm in Mexicohttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://z.about.com/d/gomexico/1/0/n/0/-/-/IMG_6019-1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://gomexico.about.com/od/fooddrink/ss/mezcal_process.htm&usg=__Mko5xbM8f175VDmfk9FxbkB3j3k=&h=300&w=400&sz=48&hl=en&start=16&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=5dxJfSha_SR43M:&tbnh=93&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dagave%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-ContextMenu%26rlz%3D1I7SUNA%26tbs%3Disch:1

  • Agave plant in bloomcalled century plants in the south since they take 25 years to bloomhttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/images/Agave_americana_stalks.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Agave_americana.html&usg=__lnqQHe0Ynn7Ehzdbnhwt91t5f6U=&h=401&w=275&sz=43&hl=en&start=7&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=IB7RNtBU53jHBM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=85&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dagave%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-ContextMenu%26rlz%3D1I7SUNA%26tbs%3Disch:1

  • The flower of an agave plant

  • Aloe Vera not to be confused with Agave

  • Polar (cold) DesertTemperature: 28-79 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 6-10 inches annually

    Zone: polar

  • Polar desert characteristics & factsCold winters with high precipitation

    Short summers

    Soil is heavy and saltyFind in Antarctica, Greenland, and Asia

  • Fauna of the Cold DesertEmperor penguins and gazelles

  • Flora of the cold desertLichen

    Pin cushion mossFire moss (above and algae below)

  • ChaparralTemperature: 50-104 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 15-40 inches annually

    Zone: Temperate

  • Chaparral Characteristics:shrubby coastal area with hot, dry summers and cool, mild, wet wintersInteresting Facts:Shallow-rooted plantsDrought and fire are commonPlants are adapted to fire

  • Chaparral Flora Examples: Also include scrub oak, cacti, yuccasCommon Sagebrush Common Name: Sagebrush, Big Sagebrush Genus: Artemisia Species: tridentata Blue Oak Common Name: Californis Blue Oak, Iron Oak, Mountain White Oak, Mountain Oak Genus: Quecus Species: douglasii

  • Yuccahttp://www.geographylists.com/mojave_yucca.jpg

  • Chaparral Fauna Examples:Also include birds, insects, & reptilesBlack-tailed Jackrabbit Genus: Lepus Species: californicusGolden Jackal Genus: Canis Species: aureus

    Bezoar Goat Common Names: wild goat Genus: Capra Species: aegagrus

  • TundraTemperature: -30 to 57 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 6-10 inches annually

    Zone: polar

  • TundraCharacteristics:Coldest of all biomesLow diversityExperiences large changes in population numbers due to migrationInteresting facts:Much permafrost found in this layerAnimals migrate, hibernate, or insulate to survive the cold of this biome.

  • TundraFlora: lichen, hedges, shrubsFauna: hares, birds, wolves, elk, sheepCaribou Moss Common Name: Caribou Moss, Reindeer Lichen Genus: Cladonia Species: rangiferina

    Arctic Fox Common Names: Polar Fox, White Fox Genus: Lagopus Species: alopex

    Caribou Common Names: Caribou, Reindeer Genus: Rangifer Species: tarandus

  • Mountain/AlpineTemperature: 10-59 Fahrenheit

    Precipitation: 12 inches annually

    Zone: temperate

  • Mountain/AlpineCharacteristics:Too cold and too much UV from sun, causing few organisms to live thereFound at elevations of 10,000 feetAnimals migrate, hibernate, or insulate to survive the cold of this biome.Animals have shorter tails, legs, & ears to reduce heat loss. Animals have larger lungs and more red blood cells

  • Mountain/AlpineInteresting facts:Very dryCover 16% of Earths surface areaSandy, rocky, well drained soilTemperature can go from warm to freezing in a few hours to a dayRainshadow effectEvery 3,280 feet increase in elevation = 18 degree drop in temperature

  • Mountain flora and faunaNot many plants because of little carbon dioxide.

    Find small plants near the ground and dwarf trees, grasses, heaths, and shrubs.

    Fauna include goats, sheep, elk, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies.

  • Mountain flora examplesBristlecone Pine Genus: Pinus Species: longaeva

    Pygmy Bitterroot Common Names: Alpine Bitterroot, Pursh Genus: Lewisia Species: pygmaea

  • Mountain fauna examples:Chinchilla Genus: Chinchilla Species: brevicaudasa

    Snow Leopard Genus: Panthera Species: uncia