Tecnicas de Inspeccion Termograficas

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

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    TM\ISINBMSMHICIB Bn. [email protected] [email protected]

    0 1

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    BHICM

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    0 NDGMXN.

    Mj prmsmbtm hncuombtn timbm cnon lib`jih`h hm @himstr`r ` jns p`rticip`btms mb j`s tcbic`s hmibspmccib tmroner`lic`s, `s cnon t`odib mb mj usn y o`bmgn `hmcu`hn hmj mquipn tmronvisnr.

    4 [email protected] HM @[email protected]

    Ms `pjic`djm ` tnhn mj pmrsnb`j qum j`dnr` mb mj rm` hm Histriducib, Xr`bsoisib y Tmhms

    Mjctric`s.

    3 HNC]OMBXNS [email protected]@HNS.xxxxxxxxxxx

    8 HMLIBICINBMS [email protected]

    Sistmo` mbmreiz`hn7 Sistmo` cnbmct`hn mjctric`ombtm ` ub` lumbtm hm pntmbci`j.

    O`btmbioimbtn Cnrrmctivn7 Cnoprmbhm mj qum sm jjmv` ` c`dn cnb mj lib hm cnrrmeir

    (rmp`r`r) ub` l`jj` mb mj mquipn. Sm cj`silic` mb7 Bn pj`bilic`hn7 Mj cnrrmctivn hm momrembci`

    hmdmr `ctu`r jn os rpih`ombtm pnsidjm cnb mjndgmtivn hm mvit`rcnstns y h`nso`tmri`jms y/n

    fuo`bns o`ynrms; Qj`bilic`hn7 Sm s`dm cnb `bticip`cib qu ms jn qum hmdm f`cmrsm, hm onhn

    qum cu`bhn sm p`rm mj mquipn p`r` mlmctu`r j` rmp`r`cib, sm hispnbe` hmj pmrsnb`j, rmpumstns y

    hncuombtns tcbicns bmcms`rins p`r` rm`jiz`rj` cnrrmct`ombtm.

    O`btmbioimbtn Qrmvmbtivn7O`btmbioimbtn pmrihicn fmcfn ` ub sistmo` n ibst`j`cib, cnb

    mj prnpsitn hm nptioiz`r jns cnstns hm npmr`cinbms y o`btmbioimbtns y oibioiz`r j` pnsidijih`h

    hm l`jj`s. Sm cnbncm cnon O`btmbioimbtn Qrmvmbtivn Hirmctn n Qmrihicn pnr cu`btn sus

    `ctivih`hms mstb cnbtrnj`h`s pnr mj timopn. Sm d`s` mb j` Cnbli`dijih`h hm jns Mquipns sib

    cnbsihmr`r j`s pmcuji`rih`hms hm ub` ibst`j`cib h`h`. Mgmopjns7 jiopimz`, judric`cib,rmc`odins prner`o`hns.

    O`btmbioimbtn Qrmhictivn7Ms mj Smrvicins hm smeuioimbtn hmj hmse`stm hm ub` n os pimz`s

    n cnopnbmbtm hm mquipns prinrit`rins ` tr`vs hm `bjisis hm sbtno`s, n mstio`cib fmcf` pnr

    mv`ju`cibmst`hstic`,tr`t`bhn hm mxtr`pnj`r mjcnopnrt`oimbtn hm ms`s pimz`s n cnopnbmbtms y

    hmtmroib`r mj pubtn mx`ctn hmc`odin.

    http://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=objetivo&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=costos&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=materiales&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=documentos&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=Peri%E3%A4%A9co&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=evaluaci%E3%AE%A6?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=estad%EF%BF%BDica&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=comportamiento&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=cambio&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=cambio&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=comportamiento&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=estad%EF%BF%BDica&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=evaluaci%E3%AE%A6?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=Peri%E3%A4%A9co&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=documentos&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=materiales&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=costos&?intersearchhttp://www.monografias.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=objetivo&?intersearch
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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

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    Cmbtrn hm Npmr`cib hm Histriducib (CNH)7 ]bih`h nre`biz`tiv` mbc`re`h` hm j`

    cnnrhib`cib y mj cnbtrnj, qum cmbtr`jiz` y o`btimbm j` iblnro`cib `ctu`jiz`h` sndrm mj mst`hn

    hm j`s rmhms hm histriducib; `hmos iop`rtm ibstruccinbms ` tnhn mj pmrsnb`j `utnriz`hn p`r`

    npmr`r mj sistmo` ` lib hm o`btmbmr j` oxio` cnbli`dijih`h hmj oison.

    Xr`d`gn hm o`btmbioimbtn mb jbm`s `rm`s mbmreiz`h`s7Ms mj tr`d`gn hm o`btmbioimbtn

    qum sm rm`jiz` mb ub sistmo` mjctricn sib ibtmrruopir j` cnbtibuih`h hmj smrvicin.

    Xr`d`gn hm o`btmbioimbtn mb jbm`s `rm`s hmsmbmreiz`h`s7 Ms mj tr`d`gn hm

    o`btmbioimbtn qum sm rm`jiz` mb ub sistmo` mjctricn cnb ibtmrrupcib hmj smrvicin.

    Ibspmccib7J` `ctivih`h pnr j` qum sm mx`oib`b hismns, prnhuctns, ibst`j`cinbms, prncmsnsprnhuctivns y smrvicins p`r` vmrilic`r mj cuopjioimbtn hm jns rmquisitns qum jm sm`b hm

    `pjic`cib.

    Ibspmccib \isu`j7 J` ibspmccib \isu`j mst` d`s`h` mb j` ndsmrv`bci` hmt`jj`h` hm jns

    cnopnbmbtms hm j` jbm` ` ibspmccinb`r, dimb sm` pnr omhin hm j` ndsmrv`cib hirmct`, lntner`l`

    n lijoner`lic`ombtm.

    Ibspmccib Xmroner`lic`s7 J`s ibspmccinbms tmroner`lic`s mstb nrimbt`h`s ` hmtmct`r jns

    pubtns c`jimbtms n hilmrmbci`s hm tmopmr`tur` mxistmbtms mb jns cnopnbmbtms hm ub` jbm` y `s

    pnhmr hmtmct`r l`jj`s ibcipimbtms.

    Ibspmccib pnr Moisib ]jtr`sbic`7J`s ibspmccinbms hm rmhms cnb tmcbnjne` hm moisib

    ujtr`sbic`s bns pmroitm hmspist`r pribcip`jombtm hmsc`re`s mjctric`s, mlmctns cnrnb` y pmrhih`s

    hm mst`bqumih`h hm jns mquipns.

    Ibspmccib pnr Er`himbtm hm \njt`gm7 Mj otnhn hm er`himbtms hm vnjt`gm ms ub otnhn p`r`

    j` prumd` hm `isj`hnrms mb ub` c`hmb` hm mstns, pnr jn qum sm jioit` ` `isj`hnrms cmroicns y hm

    vihrins.

    Cnbmxinbms7J`s cnbmxinbms, mjmombtn o`siv`ombtm utijiz`hn mb j`s rmhms hm histriducib,

    timbm cnon lib pribcip`j j` ubib hm hns cnbhuctnrms hm lnro` jibm`j n p`r` rm`jiz`r

    hmriv`cinbms.

    Xmbsib Bnoib`j7 Ms mj v`jnr hm tmbsib hm hismn y lubcinb`oimbtn hm ub mquipn p`r`

    prmst`r ub smrvicin cnbtibun (035-1=).

    @dsnrcib7 C`btih`h hm r`hi`cib `dsnrdih` pnr ub ndgmtn cnb rmspmctn ` j` r`hi`cib

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    Cumrpn bmernNdgmtn qum bn rmljmg` bibeub` r`hi`cib. Xnh` j` r`hi`cib qum moitm sm hmdm `

    su prnpi` tmopmr`tur`.

    Hilmrmbci` hm tmopmr`tur`Tmsujt`hn hm rmst`r hns v`jnrms hm tmopmr`tur`.

    Moisib mspmctr`jC`btih`h hm mbmre` moitih` pnr ub ndgmtn pnr ubih`h hm timopn, rm` y

    jnbeituh hm nbh` (U/o4/o).

    Moisivih`hC`btih`h hm r`hi`cib prncmhmbtm hm ub ndgmtn cnb rmspmctn ` j` hm ub cumrpn

    bmern. Sm mxprms` omhi`btm ub bomrn cnoprmbhihn mbtrm 1 y 0.

    Moit`bci`C`btih`h hm mbmre` moitih` pnr ub ndgmtn pnr ubih`h hm timopn y rm` (U/o4).

    Mbmre` hm r`hi`cibC`btih`h hm mbmre` moitih` pnr ub ndgmtn pnr ubih`h hm timopn (U).Mbmre` r`hi`h` C`btih`h hm mbmre` moitih` pnr ub ndgmtn pnr ubih`h hm timopn, rm` y

    beujn (U/o4/sr).

    Msc`j` hm tmopmr`tur` Lnro` mb qum sm oumstr` ub` io`emb hm iblr`rrngns. Sm mxprms`

    omhi`btm hns v`jnrms hm tmopmr`tur` qum jioit`b jns cnjnrms.

    LijtrnO`tmri`j tr`bsp`rmbtm sjn mb `jeub`s jnbeituhms hm nbh` iblr`rrng`s.

    LN\Siej`s hmj ibejs Limjh nl vimw (c`opn hm visib). beujn fnriznbt`j visidjm ` tr`vs hm

    ub` jmbtm hm iblr`[email protected] Siej`s hmj ibejs Lnc`j pj`bm `rr`y (o`triz hm pj`bn lnc`j). Ms ub tipn hm hmtmctnr hm

    iblr`rrngns.

    Fuomh`h rmj`tiv`Qnrcmbt`gm hm `eu` prmsmbtm mb mj `irm cnb rmspmctn ` jn qum ms lsic`ombtm

    pnsidjm. Hmpmbhm hm j` tmopmr`tur` hmj `irm.

    ILN\Siej`s hmj ibejs Ibst`bt`bmnus limjh nl vimw (c`opn hm visib ibst`btbmn). Omhih` hm

    j` rmsnjucib emnotric` hm ub` co`r` hm iblr`rrngns.

    bhicm hm rmljmxibC`btih`h hm r`hi`cib rmljmg`h` pnr ub ndgmtn cnb rmspmctn ` j` r`hi`cib

    rmcidih`. Sm mxprms` omhi`btm ub bomrn cnoprmbhihn mbtrm 1 y 0.

    Iblr`rrngnT`hi`cib ibvisidjm cnb ub` jnbeituh hm nbh` hm 403 o.

    ITIblr`rrngn

    Isntmro`Lubcib qum rms`jt` j`s p`rtms hm ub` io`emb situ`h`s pnr mbcio` n pnr hmd`gn hm

    ub` tmopmr`tur`, n dimb mbtrm ubn n v`rins ibtmrv`jns hm tmopmr`tur`.

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    Isntmro` hndjmIsntmro` cnb hns d`bh`s hm cnjnr mb jue`r hm ub`.

    Isntmro` tr`bsp`rmbtmIsntmro` qum oumstr` ub` prnp`e`cib jibm`j hm cnjnrms mb jue`r hm

    cudrir j`s p`rtms rms`jt`h`s hm j` io`emb.

    Jsmr Jnc`tIT Lumbtm hm juz cnb `jiombt`cib mjctric` prmsmbtm mb j` co`r` qum moitm

    r`hi`cib jsmr omhi`btm ub f`z libn y cnbcmbtr`hn omhi`btm mj cu`j sm pumhm `pubt`r ` cimrt`s

    p`rtms hmj ndgmtn situ`hn hmj`btm hm j` co`r`.

    BMXHSiej`s hmj ibejs Bnism mquiv`jmbt tmopmr`turm hillmrmbcm (hilmrmbci` hm tmopmr`tur`

    mquiv`jmbtm `j ruihn). Omhih` hmj bivmj hm ruihn hm j` io`emb mb ub` co`r` hm iblr`rrngns.

    Bivmj\`jnr cmbtr`j hm j` msc`j` hm tmopmr`tur` mxprms`hn bnro`jombtm cnon v`jnr hm ub`sm`j.

    ptic` mxtmrb`Jmbtms, lijtrns, mscuhns troicns, mtc. `hicinb`j qum sm pumhmb cnjnc`r mbtrm j`

    co`r` y mj ndgmtn qum sm mst oihimbhn.

    Q`jmt`Cnbgubtn hm cnjnrms utijiz`hns p`r` onstr`r ub` io`emb hm iblr`rrngns.

    Q`romtrns hm ndgmtnCnbgubtn hm v`jnrms qum hmscridmb j`s circubst`bci`s mb j`s qum sm f`

    rm`jiz`hn j` omhih` hm ub ndgmtn y mj ndgmtn mb s (cnon j` moisivih`h, j` tmopmr`tur` `odimbtm,

    j` hist`bci`, mtc.).Qxmj Hmj ibejs picturm mjmombt (mjmombtn hm io`emb). Sm tr`t` hm ub pubtn ibhivihu`j

    pmrtmbmcimbtm ` ub` io`emb.

    T`hi`cibLmbombn pnr mj cu`j ub ndgmtn n ub e`s moitm mbmre` mjmctrn- o`ebtic`.

    T`hi`hnrMquipn hm r`hi`cib iblr`rrng`.

    T`hi`hnr hm c`vih`hT`hi`hnr cnb lnro` hm dntmjj` cuyn ibtmrinr ms `dsnrdmbtm y qum pumhm

    vmrsm ` tr`vs hmj cumjjn hm j` dntmjj`.

    T`hi`hnr hm cumrpn bmern Mquipn hm r`hi`cib hm iblr`rrngns cnb j`s prnpimh`hms hm ub

    cumrpn bmern utijiz`hn p`r` c`jidr`r j`s co`r`s hm iblr`rrngns.

    T`benJoitm hm omhih` hm tmopmr`tur` ejnd`j hm ub` co`r` hm iblr`rrngns. J`s co`r`s

    pumhmb tmbmr hivmrsns r`bens. Sm mxprms` omhi`btm hns tmopmr`tur`s hm cumrpn bmern qum

    jioit`b j` c`jidr`cib.

    T`ben hm tmopmr`tur`s Joitm hm omhih` hm tmopmr`tur` ejnd`j hm ub` co`r` hm

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    iblr`rrngns. J`s co`r`s pumhmb tmbmr hivmrsns r`bens. Sm mxprms` omhi`btm hns tmopmr`tur`s hm

    cumrpn bmern qum jioit`b j` c`jidr`cib.

    TuihnQmqum` ibtmrlmrmbci` supmrlju` hm j` io`emb hm iblr`rrngns.

    Sm`j hm ndgmtn\`jnr sib c`jidr`r rmj`cinb`hn cnb j` c`btih`h hm r`hi`cib rmcidih` pnr j`

    co`r` hmshm mj ndgmtn.

    Xmopmr`tur` hmj cnjnrXmopmr`tur` mb j` qum mj cnjnr hm ub cumrpn bmern cnibcihm cnb ub

    cnjnr cnbcrmtn.

    Xmopmr`tur` hm rmlmrmbci`Xmopmr`tur` cnb j` qum pumhmb cnop`r`rsm jns v`jnrms omhihns.

    Xmroner`o`Io`emb hm iblr`rrngns.Xr`bsoisib Jns e`sms y ntrns o`tmri`jms pumhmb smr os n ombns tr`bsp`rmbtms. J`

    tr`bsoisib ms j` c`btih`h hm r`hi`cib iblr`rrng` qum p`s` ` tr`vs hm mjjns. Sm mxprms` omhi`btm

    ub bomrn cnoprmbhihn mbtrm 1 y 0.

    Xr`bsoisib mstio`h`\`jnr hm tr`bsoisib prnpnrcinb`hn pnr mj usu`rin qum rmmopj`z` `j

    c`jcuj`hn.

    Xr`bsoisib prncms`h` \`jnr hm tr`bsoisib c`jcuj`hn ` p`rtir hm j` tmopmr`tur`, j`

    fuomh`h rmj`tiv` hmj `irm y j` hist`bci` `j ndgmtn.\isu`jF`cm rmlmrmbci` `j onhn hm vhmn hm ub` co`r` hm iblr`rrngns pnr npnsicib `j onhn

    tmroner`licn, qum ms mj bnro`j. Cu`bhn ub` co`r` sm mbcumbtr` mb mj onhn hm vhmn, c`ptur`

    ioembms hm vhmn bnro`jms, oimbtr`s qum mb mj onhn hm iblr`rrngns sm c`ptur`b ioembms

    tmroner`lic`s.

    = [email protected] HM IBSQMCCINB [email protected]@S

    =.0. IBXTNH]CCINB

    ]b` co`r` hm iblr`rrngns oihm y tno` ioembms hm j` r`hi`cib iblr`rrng` moitih` pnr ubndgmtn.Mj

    fmcfnhmqumj`r`hi`cibsm`ub`lubcibhmj`tmopmr`tur`hmj` supmrlicimhmjndgmtnpmroitm`j`co`r`

    c`jcuj`ryvisu`jiz`rhicf`tmopmr`tur`.

    Sibmod`ren,j`r`hi`cibomhih`pnr j`co`r`bnsjnhmpmbhmhmj` tmopmr`tur` hmjndgmtn,sibnqum

    `hmosmsub`lubcibhmj`moisivih`h.X`odibsmnrieib`r`hi`cibmbmjmbtnrbn,j`cu`jsmrmljmg`mbmj

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    ndgmtn. J` r`hi`cibprncmhmbtm hmj ndgmtn y j` r`hi`cib rmljmg`h` sm vmrb ibljuih`s t`odib pnr j`

    `dsnrcibhmj``toslmr`.Q`r` omhir j` tmopmr`tur` cnbprmcisib, ms bmcms`rin cnopmbs`r jns mlmctns hm hi- vmrs`s lumbtms hm

    r`hi`cib histibt`s. Mstm prncmsn jn rm`jiz` `utnotic`ombtm j` co`r`. Bn ndst`btm, ms bmcms`rin

    prnpnrcinb`rjnssieuimbtmsp`romtrnshmjndgmtn `j`co`r`7

    J`moisivih`hhmjndgmtn

    J`tmopmr`tur rmljmg`h`

    J`hist`bci`mbtrmmjndgmtn yj`co`r`

    J`fuomh`hrmj`tiv`

    =.0.0.MOISI\[email protected]

    Mjp`romtrn hm ndgmtn os iopnrt`btm qum hmdm `gust`rsm cnrrmct`ombtm ms j` moisivih`h,qum,mb

    pnc`sp`j`dr`s,msub`omhih`hmj c`btih`hhmr`hi`cibmoitih`pnr mjndgmtn mbcnop`r`cibcnbj`hmub

    cumrpnbmernpmrlmctn.

    Bnro`jombtm, jns o`tmri`jms hmj ndgmtn, `s cnon jns tr`t`oimbtns supmrlici`jms, prmsmbt`bub`

    moisivih`hqumnscij` prnxio`h`ombtmmbtrm1,0y1,9=.]b supmrlicim mxtrmo`h`ombtmpujih`(ubmspmgn)

    smsit`pnr hmd`gnhm1,0,oimbtr`squmub`supmrlicimnxih`h`npibt`h`prmsmbt`ub`moisivih`houcfn

    o`ynr.J`pibtur``jjmn, ibhmpmbhimbtmombtmhmjcnjnrhmjmspmctrnvisidjm,timbmub`moisivih`hpnr

    mbcio` hm1,9mbmjiblr`rrngn.J`moisivih`hhmj`pimjfuo`b`sm`cmrc``0.

    Jns omt`jms bn nxih`hns rmprmsmbt`b ub c`sn mxtrmon hm ub` np`cih`h c`sipmrlmct` y ub` mbnrom

    rmljmctivih`h mspmctr`j, jn qum bnv`r`mber`bomhih`cnb j` jnbeituh hm nbh`. Mb cnbsmcumbci`, j`

    moisivih`h hm jns omt`jms msd`g` y sjn `uombt` cnb j` tmopmr`tur`. Mb mj c`sn hm jns ndgmtns bn

    omtjicns,j`moisivih`htimbhm smr`jt` yhisoibuymcnbj`tmopmr`tur`.

    Hmtmroib`cib hmj`moisivih`h hmub ndgmtn

    Omhi`btmubtmronp`r7Smjmccinbmubpubtn hmrmlmrmbci`yoih`sutmopmr`tur`utijiz`bhnubtmronp`r. @jtmrmj`moisivih`hf`st`qumj`tmopmr`tur`omhih`pnr j`co`r`cnibcih`cnbj` jmctur`hmj

    tmronp`r. Mj rmsujt`hn smr mj v`jnr hm j` moisivih`h hmj ndgmtn hm rmlmrmbci`. Xmbe` mb cumbt` qum j`

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    tmopmr`tur`hmjndgmtn hm rmlmrmbci` bnhmdm mbcnbtr`rsm hmo`si`hncmrc`hmj` tmopmr`tur``odimbtm

    p`r`qummst`tcbic`lubcinbm.

    Omhi`btmub`moisivih`hhmrmlmrmbci`7 Msprmcisncnjnc`rsndrmmjndgmtn ub`cibt`npibtur`cuy` moisivih`h bns sm` cnbncih`. Oih` j` tmopmr`tur` hm j` cibt` n j`pibtur` omhi`btm j` co`r`,

    `gust`bhn j` moisivih`h mb mj v`jnr cnrrmctn. @bntm j` tmopmr`tur`. C`odim j` moisivih`h f`st` qummj

    rm`cnbj`moisivih`hcnbncih``hy`cmbtm`j`cibt`nj`pibtur`prmsmbtmj` oiso`jmctur`hmtmopmr`tur`.

    Mjv`jnrhmmoisivih`hpnhr jmmrsmmbmsmonombtn. @j ieu`jqum`btms, j` tmopmr`tur`hmjndgmtn hm

    rmlmrmbci bnhmdmmbcnbtr`rsmhmo`si`hncmrc`hmj`tmopmr`tur``odimbtmp`r`jjmv`r`c`dnmst`t`rm`.

    [email protected]][email protected] @ODIMBXM [email protected]@

    Mstmp`romtrn smutijiz`p`r`cnopmbs`rj`r`hi`cibrmljmg`h`pnr mjndgmtn yj`r`hi`cibmoitih`pnr j`

    `toslmr`mbtrmj`co`r`ymjndgmtn.

    Sij`moisivih`hmsd`g`,j`hist`bci`ouyer`bhmyj`tmopmr`tur`hmjndgmtn mstrmj`tiv`ombtmcmrc`hmj`

    tmopmr`tur `odimbtm, smr ouy iopnrt`btm `gust`r y cnopmbs`r j` tmopmr`tur` `odimbtm hm lnro`

    cnrrmct`.

    [email protected]@

    Smtr`t`hmj`hist`bci`mbtrmmjndgmtn yj`jmbtmlrnbt`jhmj`co`r`.

    Mstmp`romtrnsmmopjm`p`r`cnopmbs`rmjfmcfnhmqump`rtmhmj`r`hi`cibsm `dsnrdmmbtrmmjndgmtn y

    j`co`r`, scnonmjfmcfnhmqummjbhicmhmtr`bsoisib hisoibuymcnbj`hist`bci`.

    =.0.8.F][email protected] [email protected]\@

    J`co`r`pumhmcnopmbs`rmjfmcfnhmqummj bhicmhmtr`bsoisibhmpmbh`mbp`rtmhmj`fuomh`h

    rmj`tiv`hmj``toslmr`.Q`r`mjjn,mst`djmzc`mjv`jnrcnrrmctn hmfuomh`h rmj`tiv`. Embmr`jombtm,p`r`

    hist`bci`scnrt`syfuomh`hbnro`j,j` fuomh`hrmj`tiv`pumhmpmro`bmcmrcnbmjv`jnrprmhmtmroib`hn

    hmj=1 %.

    =.0.=.NXTNS [email protected]

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    04/80

    @hmos, jeub`sco`r`syprner`o`shm bjisispmroitmbcnopmbs`rjnsp`romtrnssieuimbtms.

    Xmopmr`tur``tonslric`7j`tmopmr`tur`hmj``toslmr`mbtrmj`co`r`ymjndgmtn. Xmopmr`tur`hmj`ptic`mxtmrb`7j`tmopmr`tur hmj`sjmbtmsnvmbt`b`smxtmrb`s utijiz`h`shmj`btm

    hmj`co`r`.

    Xr`bsoisibhmj`ptic`mxtmrb`7j`tr`bsoisibhmj`sjmbtmsnvmbt`b`smxtmrb`s utijiz`h`shmj`btm

    hmj`co`r`.

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    03/80

    hmj`stmopmr`tur`sonstr`d`bubibcrmombtn lign hmshmmjmx- trmonvinjmt`f`st`mjrngn.Mstnbnmr`

    mspmci`jombtm snrprmbhmbtm, y` qum mj ibvmstie`hnr it`ji`bnJ`bhri`bif`d`ndsmrv`hnmx`ct`ombtmmjoisonmlmctnmbubmxpmriombtn sioij`r rm`jiz`hn mb 0555.Bn ndst`btm, lum Fmrscfmj mjpriomrn mb

    h`rsm cumbt`hmqum hmd`f`dmr ub pubtn mb mjqum mjmlmctn c`jnrlicn jjme`sm`j oxion yqumj`s

    omhih`scnblib`h`s j`p`rtmvisidjmhmjmspmctrnbnonstr`d`bmstmpubtn.

    @jonvmrmjtmroomtrn mbj`rmeibnscur`,os`jjhmjmxtrmonrngn hmjmspmctrn, Fmrscfmjcnbliro

    qummjc`jnrsmeu` uombt`bhn.Mjpubtn oxion,cu`bhnjn mbcnbtr,mst`d`oucfnos jjhmjmxtrmon

    rngn,hmbtrnhmj`rmeibqumfnycnbncmonscnon"jnbeituhmshmnbh`iblr`rrng`s".

    Cu`bhnFmrscfmjrmvmjsuhmscudrioimbtn,hmbnoib`mst`bumv`rmeibhmjmspmctrn mjmctrno`ebticn"mspmctrntmronotricn"[email protected]` j`prnpi`r`hi`cibcnon"c`jnrnscurn"nsiopjmombtm

    "jnsr`ynsibvisidjms".Irbic`ombtmycnbtr`- hicimbhnj`npibibpnpuj`r,bnlumFmrscfmjmjqum`cumj

    troibn"iblr`rrngn".Mst`p`j`dr`sjnmopmz`utijiz`rsmmbhncuombtnsioprmsnsubns5=`nshmspus,

    y sucrm`hnr`bpmro`bmcmmbmj`bnbio`tn.

    MjqumFmrscfmjutijiz`r`crist`jmb jnspriso`shmsumxpmriombtnnrieib`jprnvnc cimrt`cnbtrnvmrsi`

    ibici`jcnb`jeubnshmsuscnbtmopnrbmns`cmrc`hm j`mxistmbci` rm`j hm j`s jnbeituhms hm nbh`

    iblr`rrng`s. Hilmrmbtms ibvmstie`hnrms, ibtmbt`bhn cnbliro`rj`v`jihmzhmsutr`d`gn,utijiz`rnbhilmrmbtms

    tipnshmcrist`jhm lnro` ibhiscrioib`h`,ndtmbimbhnhilmrmbtms tr`bsp`rmbci`smb jns iblr`rrngns.Mbsus

    mxpmriombtnspnstmrinrms, Fmrscfmj ndsmrv j` tr`bsp`rmbci jioit`h` hmj crist`j ` j` r`hi`cib troic`

    rmcib hmscudimrt`, y jjme ` j` cnbcjusib hm qum j`s jmbtms utijiz`h`sp`r` jns iblr`rrngnshmd`b smr

    lnrzns`ombtmmjmombtnsrmljmct`btms(mspmgnscurvnsyjisns). @lnrtub`h`ombtm,mb0631smhmscudriqummstn

    bnmr`cimrtn,cu`bhnmjibvmstie`hnr it`ji`bnOmjjnbirm`jizsuer`bhmscudrioimbtn7j`s`j hmrnc`(B`Cj),

    qum mst`d` hispnbidjm mbcrist`jms b`tur`jms jn sulicimbtmombtm er`bhmsp`r` f`cmr jmbtms ypriso`s, ms

    cnbsihmr`djmombtmtr`bsp`rmbtm`jnsiblr`rrngns.J`cnbsmcumbci`lumqumj`s`j hmrnc`smcnbvirtimbmj

    pribcip`jo`tmri`jpticnp`r`jnsiblr`rrngns,ycnbtibu sibhnjnhur`btmjns011`nssieuimbtms,f`st`

    qumsmhnoib mj rtmhmj`crm`cib hmcrist`jsibtticnmbjns`ns31.

    Jns tmroomtrnslumrnbjnsbicnsomhihnrmshmr`hi`cibf`st`0649,`nmbmjqumBndijiibvmbtmj

    tmronp`r. (Mj tmroomtrn hm Fmrscfmjpnh` omhir snj`ombtm f`st` 1,4 C [1,13< L_ y jns onhmjns

    pnstmrinrmspnh`b f`cmrjn f`st` 1,1= C [1,19 L_.) Qnstmrinrombtm smprnhugn ub er`bhmscudrioimbtn7

    Omjjnbicnbmctv`rinstmronp`rms mb smrimp`r` crm`r j`priomr` tmronpij`. Mj bumvn hispnsitivn mr` `j

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    08/80

    ombns 81 vmcms ossmbsidjm`j`r`hi`cibc`jnrlic`qummjomgnrtmroomtrnhmjonombtn.Mr`c`p`z hm

    hmtmct`rmjc`jnrhmub`pmrsnb``ub`hist`bci`hm3omtrns.

    J`c`ptur`hmj`priomr`"io`embhmc`jnr"smfiznpnsidjmmb0681,cnonrmsujt`hn hmj tr`d`gn hm Sir

    Gnfb Fmrscfmj, fign hmj hmscudrihnr hm jns iblr`rrngns y l`onsn `strbnon pnr oritnsprnpins.

    D`sbhnsmmbj`hilmrmbtmmv`pnr`cibhmub`lib` c`p`hm cmitm jmxpnbmrj` ubp`trb hmc`jnrmblnc`hn

    f`ci`mjj`,j`io`embtroic` pnh`vmrsmer`ci`s`j`juzrmljmg`h`mb jnsjue`rmsmbjnsqum jnsmlmctnshm

    ibtmrlmrmbci`hmj`c`p`hm`cmitmf`c`bqumj`io`emblumsmvisidjmp`r`mjngn fuo`bn.Sir Gnfbt`odib

    cnbsieuindtmbmrubrmeistrnprioitivn hmj`io`embtroic`mbp`pmj yjn jj`o"tmroner`l`".

    J`s omgnr`s mb j` smbsidijih`h hm jns hmtmctnrms hm iblr`rrngns lumrnb sucmhibhnsm jmbt`ombtm.Ntrnhmscudrioimbtnhmer`biopnrt`bci`,rm`jiz`hnpnr J`bejmymb0661, lumj`ibvmbcibhmjdnjomtrn.stm

    cnbsist` mb ub` hmje`h` tir` hm pj`tibn nscurmcihn cnbmct`h` ` ubn hm jnsdr`zns hm ubpumbtm hm

    Ufm`tstnbmsndrmj`qumsmmblnc`d`j r`hi`cibiblr`rrng`y j`qumrmspnbh`ube`jv`bomtrnsmbsidjm.Mb

    tmnr`, mstmibstruombtnmr`c`p`zhmhmtmct`rmjc`jnrhmub`v`c``ub`hist`bci`hm811 omtrns.

    ]bcimbtlicnibejs,SirG`omsHmw`r,lummjpriomrnmbutijiz`re`smsjquihnscnon `embtmsmblri`hnrms

    (pnrmgmopjn, bitrembn jquihncnbub` tmopmr`tur`hm -09< C [-341,6 L_)mb ibvmstie`cinbms`d`g s

    tmopmr`tur`s.Mb0694ibvmbtubrmvnjucinb`rin cnbtmbmhnr isj`btmhmv`cnqumpmroit` jo`cmb`re`smsmbmst`hnjquihnhur`btm v`rinsh`s.Jns"tmrons"bnro`jmshmfnymbh`,qumsumjmbutijiz`rsmp`r`cnbsmrv`r

    dmdih`slr`snc`jimbtms,mstbd`s`hnsmbsuhmscudrioimbtn.

    Mbtrmjns`ns0911y0941, jnsibvmbtnrmshmjoubhn"hmscudrimrnb"jnsiblr`rrngns. Smcrm`rnboucf`s

    p`tmbtmshmhispnsitivns p`r hmtmct`rpmrsnb`s,`rtijjmr`,`vinbms, d`rcnsm ibcjusn icmdmres.Jnspriomrns

    sistmo`squmlubcinb`d`bmbmjsmbtihnonhmrbncnombz`rnb`hms`rrnjj`rsmhur`btmj`eumrr`hm0908`

    0906,cu`bhn`odns d`bhnstmb`bprner`o`shmibvmstie`cibhmhic`hns`j`s`pjic`cinbmsoijit`rmshm

    jns iblr`rrngns. Mstnsprner`o`s ibcju`b sistmo`s mxpmriombt`jmsp`r` j` hmtmccib hm ibtrusinbms hmj

    mbmoien, smbsnrms hm tmopmr`tur` rmontns, cnoubic`cinbms smeur`s y "tnrpmhns `rmns" eui`hns. ]b

    sistmo` hmdsqumh` pnr iblr`rrngnsprnd`hn hur`btm mst` pnc` lum c`p`z hm hmtmct`r ub `vib

    `prnxiobhnsm`ub`hist`bci` hm0,= ko(1,98oijj`s)yub`pmrsnb` ub`hist`bci`hmoshm311omtrns

    (968pims). Jns sistmo`s os smbsidjms f`st` j` lmcf` mst`d`bd`s`hns mb v`ri`cinbms sndrm j` ihm`hmj

    dnjomtrn,pmrn mjpmrnhn hm mbtrmeumrr`s lum tmstien hmj hms`rrnjjn hm hns bumvns hmtmctnrms hm

    iblr`rrngnsrmvnjucinb`[email protected],mjcnbvmrsnr

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    0=/80

    hmioembmslummjqumos`tmbcibrmcidi pnr p`rtm hm jns oijit`rms, y` qum pnr vmzpriomr` mb j`

    fistnri`pmroit``ub ndsmrv`hnrvmrmbj`nscurih`hjitmr`jombtm.Sibmod`ren,j`smbsidijih`h hmjcnbvmrsnr

    hmioembmsmst`d`jioit`h``j`sjnbeituhmshmnbh`iblr`rrng`soscmrc`b`syjns ndgmtivnsoijit`rmsos

    ibtmrms`btms, pnr mgmopjn jns snjh`hns mbmoiens, tmb`b qum smr ijuoib`hns pnr f`cms iblr`rrngns hm

    dsqumh`.H`hnqummstniopjic`d`mjrimsen hmhmj`t`rj`pnsicib hmjndsmrv`hnr ubndsmrv`hnrmbmoien

    cnbubmquipnsioij`r, mscnoprmbsidjmqummjibtmrsoijit`r mbmjcnbvmrsnrhmioembmslumr`rmhucibhnsm

    prnermsiv`ombtm.

    J`shmsvmbt`g`stctic`sp`r`jnsoijit`rmshmjnsjj`o`hnssistmo`stroicnshmio`emb "`ctivns" (ms hmcir,mquip`hns cnb ub f`z hmdsqumh`)prnpnrcinb`rnb ub cimrtn iopujsnhmspushm j`eumrr`hm0939`

    098= ` prner`o`s hm ibvmstie`cib oijit`r smcrmtns y os `odicinsns, qum tmb`b mj ndgmtivn hm

    hms`rrnjj`r sistmo`s "p`sivns" (sib f`z hmdsqumh`) tno`bhn cnond`sm mj mxtrmo`h`ombtm smbsidjm

    hmtmctnr hm lntnbms. Hur`btm mstmpmrnhn, j`s bnro`tiv`s sndrm jns smcrmtns oijit`rms mvit`d`b pnr

    cnopjmtnqumsmrmvmj`smmjmst`hnhmj`tmcbnjne`hmioembmsiblr`rrng`s.Mstm smcrmtisonsjnmopmz`

    hms`p`rmcmr`omhi`hnshmjns=1,yhmshmmsmonombtn j`cimbci`yj`ibhustri`civijmopmz`rnb`tmbmr`su

    hispnsicibhispnsitivnshmioembmstroic`s`hmcu`hnsp`r`susbmcmsih`hms.

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    0

  • 7/27/2019 Tecnicas de Inspeccion Termograficas

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    05/80

    ]bcumrpnbmernsmhmlibmcnonubndgmtn qum dsnrdmtnh`j`r`hi`cibqumibcihm sndrmjcnbcu`jquimr

    jnbeituh hmnbh`.J``p`rmbtmcnbtr`hiccibhmjj`o`rbmern `ubndgmtn qummoitmr`hi`cibsmmxpjic`omhi`btmj`JmyhmKircffnll(jj`o`h``s mbfnbnr`Eust`vTndmrtKircffnll,06480665),qummst`djmcm

    qumubcumrpnc`p`z hm`dsnrdmrtnh`j`r`hi`cibmbcu`jquimrjnbeituh hmnbh`msieu`jombtmc`p`zhm

    moitirj`.

    J`cnbstruccibhmub` lumbtmhmcumrpnbmern ms,mbpribcipin, ouy siopjm. J`s c`r`ctmrstic`shm j`

    r`hi`cib hm ub` `dmrtur` mb ub` c`vih`h isntroic` lnro`h` pnr ub o`tmri`j np`cn `dsnrdmbtm

    mquiv`jmbc`simx`ct`ombtm`j`sprnpimh`hmshmub cumrpnbmern.]b``pjic`cibprctic`hmjpribcipin

    hm j`cnbstruccibhmub`dsnrdmbtmpmrlmctn hm j` r`hi`cib cnbsistm mb ub` c`g` fmrotic` ` j` juz,mxcmptnpnr ub``dmrtur`mbub`hmsusc`r`s.Cu`jquimrr`hi`cibqumpmbmtrmpnr mjnrilicinms lijtr`h`y

    `dsnrdih` pnr j`s rmljmxinbms rmpmtih`s, hm lnro` qum bic`ombtm pumhm msc`p`r ub` lr`ccib

    iblibitmsio`j.J`bmerur`ndtmbih`mbj``dmrtur`msc`siieu`j` ubcumrpnbmernyc`sipmrlmctnp`r`tnh`s

    j`sjnbeituhmshmnbh`.

    @jhnt`r`hicf`c`vih`hisntroic`cnbubc`jmbt`hnr`hmcu`hn,smcnbvimrtmmbjn qumsmcnbncmcnon

    r`hi`hnrhmc`vih`h.]b`c`vih`hisntroic`c`jmbt`h``ub` tmopmr`tur`ubilnromembmr`r`hi`cibhm

    cumrpn bmern, cuy`s c`r`ctmrstic`s sm hmlibmb bic`ombtm pnr j` tmopmr`tur` hm j` c`vih`h. Hicfns

    r`hi`hnrmshmc`vih`h sm utijiz`b bnro`jombtm cnon lumbtms hm r`hi`cib mb bnro`s hm rmlmrmbci` hm

    tmopmr`tur mbjnsj`dnr`tnrinshmc`jidr`cibhmibstruombt`jtmronerlicn.

    Si j` tmopmr`tur` hm j` r`hi`cib hmj cumrpn bmern `uombt` pnr mbcio` hm =4= C (955 L), j` lumbtm

    cnoimbz``smrvisidjm,hmlnro`qumhmg`hmsmrbmer`p`r`mjngn fuo`bn.st`msj`tmopmr`tur`ibcipimbtm

    hmjrngn hmjr`hi`hnr,qumpnstmrinrombtm smcnbvimrtmmbb`r`bg`n`o`rijjn`omhih`qumj`tmopmr`tur`

    `uombt`.Hmfmcfn, j`hmlibicibhmj`jj`o`h`tmopmr`tur`hmibc`bhmscmbci hmubndgmtn msj`tmopmr`tur`

    `j`qumubcumrpnbmerntmbhr`qumc`jmbt`rsmp`r` jc`bz`rmjoison spmctn.

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    06/80

    Mst`hmscripcibhmj`situ`cibhmomhicib,t`jycnonsmoumstr`mbj`io`embsieuimbtm,msd`st`btm

    limj hm j`s cnbhicinbms rm`jms. Jns mjmombtns noitihnspnhr`b smr pnr mgmopjn r`yns hm juz snj`rhistriduihns mb j` `toslmr` n r`hi`cibpmrhih` prncmhmbtms hm `jeub` ibtmbs` lumbtm hm r`hi`cib

    situ`h` lumr` hmj c`opn visu`j. J`s ibtmrlmrmbci`s hm mstm tipn snb hilcijms hm cu`btilic`r `ubqum,

    `lnrtub`h`ombtm, mbj`o`ynrp`rtmhmjnsc`snssnbjnd`st`btmpmqum`sp`r`qumpumh`bnoitirsm. Mb

    c`sn hm qum sm` iopnsidjm noitirj`s, j` cnblieur`cib hm j`s omhicinbms f`r qum mj rimsen hm

    ibtmrlmrmbci`s sm` ndvin, `j ombnsp`r` ub usu`rin mxpmriombt`hn. Mb msmc`snmsrmspnbs`dijih`hhmj

    usu`rin onhilic`r j` situ`cib hm j`s omhicinbmsp`r` mvit`r ibtmrlmrmbci`s, pnr mgmopjn c`odi`bhn j`

    hirmccibhmvisu`jiz`cib,djnqum`bhn j`slumbtmshmr`hi`cibibtmbs`s,mtc.Si`cmpt`onsj`hmscripcib`btmrinr,pnhmonsutijiz`rj`lieur`sieuimbtmp`r`mxtr`- pnj`rub`lrouj`

    qumbnspmroit` c`jcuj`rj`tmopmr`tur`hmjndgmtn `p`rtirhm jns rmsujt`hnsndtmbihnscnbub`co`r`

    c`jidr`h`.

    @suoimbhnqumj`mbmre`hmr`hi`cibrmcidih`Uhmub`lumbtmhmtmopmr`tur hm cumrpnbmernXlumbtm

    mbub`hist`bci`cnrt`embmrmub`sm`jhm s`jih`hm j`co`r` ]lumbtm prnpnrcinb`j` j`pntmbci`hm

    mbtr`h`(co`r`hmpntmbci`jibm`j),pnhmons lnrouj`rj`mcu`cib07

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    [email protected] HM [email protected]@S

    [email protected]]@J

    09/80

    Ndimb,hmlnro`siopjilic`h`7

    (HnbhmCmsub`cnbst`btm.)

    Sij`lumbtmmsubcumrpneriscnbub`moit`bci`,j`r`hi`cibrmcidih`smr`Ulumbtm. @fnr`mst`onsjistns

    p`r mscridirjnstrmstroibnshmpntmbci`hmr`hi`cibhmlibihns7

    0Moisibhmjndgmtn? Undg,hnbhmmsj`moit`bci`hmjndgmtn ymsj`tr`bsoit`bci hmj``toslmr`.J`

    tmopmr`tur hmjndgmtn msXndg.

    4Moisibrmljmg`h`hmshmlumbtmshmjmbtnrbn? (0)Urmlj,hnbhm(0)msj`rmljmct`bci hmjndgmtn.J`

    tmopmr`tur hmj`slumbtmshmjmbtnrbnmsXrmlj.

    Fmons`suoihnqumj`tmopmr`tur`Xrmlj msj`oiso`p`r`tnh`sj`ssupmrlicimsmoisnr`shmbtrnhmub`

    smoimslmr`vist`hmshmubpubtn hmj`supmrlicimhmjndgmtn.Qnr supumstn,mb`jeubnsc`snsmstnpumhmsmr

    ub`siopjilic`cibhmj`situ`cibrm`j.Bn ndst`btm,msub`siopjilic`cibbmcms`ri p`r`ndtmbmrub`

    lrouj`qumlubcinbmy `hmos,`Xrmlj sm jmpumhmh`rubv`jnr(`jombnsmb tmnr`)qumrmprmsmbtm

    ub` tmopmr`tur`mlic`zmbubmbtnrbncnopjmgn.

    Xbe`smmbcumbt`t`odibqumfmons`suoihnqumj`moit`bci`hmjmbtnrbn? 0. Mstnmscnrrmctnsmeb

    j`jmyhmKircffnll7tnh`r`hi`cibqumibcih`mbj`ssupmrlicims hmjmbtnrbnirsimbhn`dsnrdih`pnr j`sprnpi`ssupmrlicims.Qnrjn t`btn,j`moit`bci`

    ? 0.(@b s,f`yqumtmbmrmbcumbt`qumj`jtio` `liro`cibrmquimrmp`r cuopjirsm qumsmcnbsihmrmub`

    mslmr`cnopjmt``jrmhmhnrhmjndgmtn.)

    3Moisibhmshmj``toslmr`? (0)U`to,hnbhm(0 )msj`moit`bci`hmj` toslmr`.J`

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    tmopmr`tur hmj``toslmr`msX`to.

    @fnr`pnhmonsmscridirj`pntmbci`tnt`j hmj`r`hi`cibrmcidih`(mcu`cib4)7

    Sioujtipjic`onsc`h`troibnpnr j`cnbst`btmC hmj`mcu`cib0ysustituionsjnsprnhuctnsCU pnr

    suscnrrmspnbhimbtms] smeb j`oiso`mcu`cib,ndtmbmons

    (mcu`cib3)7

    @jrmsnjvmrj`mcu`cib3p`r`ndtmbmr]ndg,ndtmbmons(mcu`cib8)7

    Hnbhm7

    ]ndg- \njt`gmhms`jih`hmj`co`r`c`jcuj`hnp`r`ubcumrpnbmernhm tmopmr`tur`Xndg.Mshmcir,ub

    vnjt`gmqumpumh`cnbvmrtirsmhirmct`ombtmmbj`tmopmr`tur`hmndgmtn snjicit`h`mbrm`jih`h.

    ]tnt- \njt`gmhms`jih`hmj`co`r`omhihnmbmjc`snrm`j

    ]rmlj- \njt`gmhms`jih`tmricnhmj`co`r`p`r`ubcumrpnbmernhm tmopmr`tur`Xrmlj smebj`

    c`jidr`cib.

    ]`to- \njt`gmhms`jih`tmricnhmj`co`r`p`r`ubcumrpnbmernhm tmopmr`tur`X`to smebj`

    c`jidr`cib.

    Mjusu`rinhmdmprnpnrcinb`r`jeubnsv`jnrmshmp`romtrnsp`r`jnscjcujns7

    j`moit`bci`hmjndgmtn

    j`fuomh`hrmj`tiv` X`to

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    j`hist`bci``jndgmtn (Hndg)

    j`tmopmr`tur`(rm`j)hmjmbtnrbnhmjndgmtn ndimbj`tmopmr`tur` odimbtmrmljmg`h`Xrmlj

    j`tmopmr`tur`hmj``toslmr`X`to

    Mst`t`rm`pumhmsupnbmrmbnc`sinbmsub`pms`h`rmspnbs`dijih`hp`r`mjusu`rin, h`hnqumbnro`jombtm

    bnf`yo`bmr`slcijmshmndtmbmrv`jnrmsli`djmshmmoit`bci` hmjndgmtn ntr`bsoit`bci `tonslric`p`r`

    c`h`c`sn.J`shns tmopmr`tur`ssumjmb smrubprndjmo`ombnr, simoprm ycu`bhn mb mj mbtnrbn bn sm

    mbcumbtrmbibeub` lumbtmhmr`hi`ciber`bhmmibtmbs`.

    ]b`prmeubt`b`tur`jms j`sieuimbtm7quiopnrt`bci` timbmmx`ct`ombtmcnbncmr jns v`jnrms rm`jmshm

    mstnsp`romtrns>Qumhmsmribtmrms`btmndtmbmrub`ihm`hm mstmprndjmo`ndsmrv`bhnhilmrmbtmsc`snshmomhicinbmsycnop`r`bhnj`so`ebituhmsrmj`tiv`shmjnstrmstroibnshmr`hi`cib.Mstnpumhm`yuh`r`

    s`dmrcubhn msiopnrt`btmutijiz`rjnsv`jnrmscnrrmctnshmhmtmroib`hnsp`romtrns.

    J`s sieuimbtms lieur`s ijustr`b j`so`ebituhmsrmj`tiv`shm j`s trmscnbtriducinbms` j` r`hi`cib hm trms

    tmopmr`tur`shmndgmtns hilmrmbtms, hns moit`bci`s yhns r`bens mspmctr`jms7NC (nbh` cnrt`)yNJ (nbh`

    j`re`).Jnshmosp`romtrnstimbmbjnssieuimbtmsv`jnrmsligns7

    ? 1,66

    Xrmlj

    ? +41C(+

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    5 CNBHICINBMS [email protected]

    5.0. QTNCMHIOIMBXNS @ SME]IT @BXMS HM [email protected] @J SIXIN HM [email protected]@GN.

    Xnh` ]bih`h hm Ibspmccib tmroner`lic`s hmdm cnbt`r p`r` su npmr`cib mlmctiv` y smeur` hm jn

    sieuimbtm7

    5.0.0 ]b` Co`r` Xmroner`lic`s.

    5.0.4 ]b` Co`r` Lntnerlic`.

    5.0.3 ]b Dibncuj`r.

    5.0.8 ]b @bmoomtrn.5.0.= Mquipn hm prntmccib pmrsnb`j, c`scn hm prntmccib, dnt`s himjctric`s, `btmngns prntmctnr,

    prntmctnr `uhitivn, mbtrm ntrns.

    5.0.

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    `b`jiz`b mstb7 hur`cib y lrmcumbci` hm l`jj`, o`tmri`jms l`jj`hns, c`us`s hm j`s l`jj`s,

    tnpnjne` hm jns circuitns, pj`bns, c`r`ctmrstic`s tcbic`s hm jns cnopnbmbtms, rut`stnpnerlic`s, criticih`h hm jns cjimbtms, mbtrm ntrns.

    5.0.08Bibeb tr`d`gn hm ibspmccib Xmroner`lic` pnhr smr rm`jiz`hn si bn mxistm ub hi`ebnsticn y

    mj pj`b hm tr`d`gn rmspmctivn prmvin.

    5.4. QTNCMHIOIMBXNS @ SME]IT MB MJ ONOMBXN HM [email protected] @J SIXIN HM

    [email protected]@GN.

    5.4.0 Mj Xmroer`ln y mj @sistmbtm, hmdmrb utijiz`r jns mquipns hm Qrntmccib Qmrsnb`j.5.4.4 Q`r` j` Ibspmccib tmroner`lic`, sm c`jidr`r` j` co`r` tmroner`lic`, omhi`btm jns

    sieuimbtms p`sns7

    5.4.4.0Mblnqumhmj Ndgmtn ` mstuhi`r.

    5.4.4.4T`benhm tmopmr`tur` ` omhir.

    5.4.4.3Hist`bci` hmj Ndgmtn, mstn v` ibcihir mb mj tipn hm jmbtm ` utijiz`r y mb j` hist`bci`

    oxio` y oibib` p`r` mj mstuhin hmj ndgmtn. (\mr t`dj` hm hist`bci` LN\).

    5.4.4.8Q`romtrn hm Ndgmtn7 Moisivih`h, hist`bci` hm j` co`r` `j ndgmtn, tmopmr`tur`

    `tonslric`, fomh` rmj`tiv` (p`r` mstn sm utijiz`r` mj `bmoomtrn).

    5.4.3 Q`r` j` Ibspmccib \isu`j, sm ndsmrv`r` hmt`jj`h` jns cnopnbmbtms hm j` jbm` `

    ibspmccinb`r, ` lib hm cnoprnd`r mb lnro` hirmct`, j`s cnbhicinbms rm`jms hm jns mquipns,

    dimb sm` pnr omhin hm j` ndsmrv`cib hirmct`, dibncuj`rms, lntner`l` n lijoner`lic`ombtm.

    5.4.8 Mb j`s Ibspmccinbms mjctric`s, hmdmr cnbt`r cnb j` `sistmbci` hm ub mjmctricist`, p`r`

    ihmbtilic`r y hmscudrir jns mquipns ` ibspmccinb`r. Mj Xmroer`ln, hm bibeb onhn hmdmr

    rm`jiz`r bibeub` j`dnr mb sistmo`s mjctricns qum bnro`jombtm sm` rm`jiz`hn pnr mj pmrsnb`j

    c`p`cit`hn hm pj`bt`. Bn tnc`r` n rmonvmr cnopnbmbtms n mquipns qum mstb d`gn j`rmspnbs`dijih`h hm ntr`s pmrsnb`s c`jilic`h`s.

    5.4.= Mj Xmroer`ln, bn rm`jiz`r` omhicinbms hm c`re`s mb sistmo`s mjctricns mbmreiz`hns, bi

    tnc`r` bibeb mquipn, hmj cu`j simoprm sm o`btmbhr ` ub` hist`bci` smeur` (vmr t`dj` hm

    hist`bci` hm smeurih`h).

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    5.4.

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    4

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    9 LJ]GN HM [email protected]@GN XIQICN

    9.0.HMSCTIQCINB HM JNS [email protected] MB MJ LJ]GN HM [email protected]@GN.9.0.0 Q`sn 07Mb j` ibspmccib pnr iblr`rrngns, utijicm su co`r` p`r` c`ptur`r j`s ioembms visu`jms

    n hm iblr`rrngns qum hmsmm.

    9.0.4 Q`sn 47Cnbmctm j` co`r` `j mquipn, mopjm`bhn p`r` mjjn j` cnoubic`cib smrim TS-434, j`

    cnoubic`cib ]SD (]bivmrs`j Smri`j Dus) n j` cnoubic`cib LirmUirm.

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    9.0.3 Q`sn 37Xr`d`gm cnb j`s ioembms qum hmsmm, utijiz`bhn j`s lubcinbms qum ibcnrpnr` snltw`rm.

    Qumhm smjmccinb`r ioembms, `buj`r j` smjmccib, onvmr ioembms ` ntr`s udic`cinbms hmj mquipn nmjioib`r j`s ioembms qum bn hmsmm cnbsmrv`r. X`odib pumhm `erme`r hmscripcinbms hm io`emb,

    jmmr tmopmr`tur`s y c`odi`r mj bivmj y mj c`opn.

    9.0.8 Q`sn 87Crmm iblnroms utijiz`bhn ubn hm jns sieuimbtms otnhns7

    Crmm smbcijjns iblnroms mb lnro`tn QHL hm @hndm @crnd`t omhi`btm mj embmr`hnr hm

    iblnroms `ccmsidjm hmshm mj omb @rcfivn (Eu`rh`r cnon QHL).

    Crmm iblnroms omhi`btm Oicrnsnlt Unrh `rr`str`bhn j`s ioembms ` Oicrnsnlt Unrh y

    `erme`bhn hmspus sus prnpins cnombt`rins y hmscripcinbms. Crmm iblnroms omhi`btm Xfmro`[email protected] Tmpnrtmr hm LJIT Systmos `rr`str`bhn ioembms `

    Xfmro`[email protected] Tmpnrtmr.

    9.4. [email protected]@CINB HMJ TMQNTXM ][email protected] MJ [email protected]

    9.4.0 @CXI\@CINB HM UNTH

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    9.4.4 @QMTX][email protected] HM [email protected]@ HMJ [email protected] HMJ TMQNTXMTN

    9.4.3 SMJMCCIB HM [email protected]@

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    9.4.8 @CXI\@CINB HMJ @SISXMBXM HMJ TMQNTXMTN

    9.4.8 [email protected] HMJ HNC]OMBXN

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    9.4.= @[email protected] HM IOEMBMS Y [email protected]

    9.4.< SMJMCCIB HM ][email protected] HM [email protected] [email protected]

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    9.4.5 SMJMCCIB HM [email protected] [email protected]

    9.4.6 SMJMCCIB HM [email protected] IOEMBMS MB MJ TMQNTXMTN

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    9.4.9 MHICINB HM [email protected] [email protected]

    9.4.01 [email protected] HM IBLNTOM

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    9.4.00 MHICINB HMJ IBLNTOM Y @[email protected] HM [email protected] [email protected]

    9.4.04 CNBXMBIHN HMJ TMQNTXM

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    [email protected]@JISIS HM [email protected] IOEMBMSJ` tmopmr`tur` ms ubn hm jns priomrns p`romtrns ndsmrv`djms qum pumhm ibhic`r j` cnbhicib hm

    npmr`cib hm ub cnopnbmbtm. Q`r` hmtmroib`r ub` tmopmr`tur` hm npmr`cib `hvmrs` p`r` ub

    cnopnbmbtm, ms bmcms`rin hmtmroib`r j` tmopmr`tur` hm npmr`cib y cnop`r`r mstm v`jnr cnb j`

    tmopmr`tur` bnro`j hm npmr`cib.

    J`s omhicinbms cu`jit`tiv`s cnop`r`b mj p`trb iblr`rrngn hm ub cnopnbmbtm cnb ntrn ihbticn n

    sioij`r d`gn j`s oiso`s cnbhicinbms hm npmr`cib. Mst` cnop`r`cib ms rm`jiz`h` pnr ub

    tmroer`ln qum v` ndsmrv`bhn ub er`b bomrn hm cnopnbmbtms ` tr`vs hm su ibstruombtn

    iblr`rrngn, mb dusc` hm hilmrmbci`s mb jns p`trnbns hm tmopmr`tur`. J` `bno`j` ms ihmbtilic`h` pnr

    j` ibtmbsih`h hm j`s v`ri`cinbms mbtrm hns ndgmtns sioij`rms cu`jquimr`, sib `sieb`rjms v`jnrms hm

    tmopmr`tur` ` jns p`trnbms. Mst` tcbic` ms lcij y rpih`, y bn rmquimrm c`si hm `gustms hmj

    ibstruombtn p`r` cnopmbs`r j`s cnbhicinbms `tonslric`s n j` moisivih`h hm j` supmrlicim. Mj

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    3

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    [email protected]

    [email protected] 0. [email protected]@ HM SM\[email protected]`dj` I7 Critmrins hm Qrinrih`hms mb Omhicinbms Xmroner`lic`s

    ([email protected])[email protected] [email protected] CNTTMCXI\@

    t 2 3= C Tmp`r`r hm ibomhi`tn

    3= C 2 t 2 01 CTmp`r`r mb ub j`psn bn o`ynr hm 3

    smo`b`s

    01 C 2 t 2 = C O`btmbmr mb ndsmrv`cib

    = C 2 t Ibspmccib Bnro`j

    X`dj` II7 Qrinrih`hms d`s`h`s mb Sbtno`s pnr Sndrmc`jmbt`oimbtn mbCnopnbmbtms Omtjicns ([email protected])[email protected] [email protected] CNTTMCXI\@

    t 2 5= C Momrembci` - Tmp`r`r hm ibomhi`tn

    =1 C 2 t 2 5= CQrndjmo` smrin. Tmp`r`r t`b prnbtn

    sm` pnsidjm, bn o`s hm 01 h`s

    31 C 2 t 2 =1 CQrmc`ucib.

    Tmp`r`r hmbtrn hm jns prxions 31h`s

    01 C 2 t 2 31 CQrndjmo` Obion.

    Tmp`r`r cu`bhn mj prner`o` hm

    o`btmbioimbtn jn pmroit`

    X`dj` III7 Qrinrih`hms hm Sndrmtmopmr`tur` smeb @BSI/[email protected]/IMMM p`r`mjmombtns hm `jtn vnjt`gm

    [email protected] [email protected] CNTTMCXI\@

    t 2 81 CSm rmquimrm omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s

    ibomhi`t`s

    81 C 2 t 2 41 C

    Sm rmquimrm omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s t`bprnbtn sm` pnsidjm, hmpmbhimbhn hmj

    tipn hm c`re` qum `jiombtm y j`smvmrih`h hm j` sndrmtmopmr`tur` mb

    mstm r`ben

    41 C 2 t 2 01 CSm rmquimrmb omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s mb

    cu`btn mj prner`o` hm o`btmbioimbtnjn pmroit`

    01 C 2 t 2 1 CSm hmdmrb tno`r omhih`s

    cnrrmctiv`s mb mj prxion pmrinhn hmo`btmbioimbtn

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    X`dj` I\7 Qrinrih`hms hm Sndrmtmopmr`tur` smeb @BSI/[email protected]/IMMM p`r`

    mjmombtns hm d`gn vnjt`[email protected] [email protected] CNTTMCXI\@

    t 2 81 CSm rmquimrm omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s

    ibomhi`t`s

    81 C 2 t 2 41 CSm rmquimrm omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s t`b

    prnbtn cnon sm` pnsidjm

    41 C 2 t 2 01 CSm rmquimrmb omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s mb

    cu`btn mj prner`o` hm o`btmbioimbtnjn pmroit`

    01 C 2 t 2 1 CSm hmdmrb tno`r omhih`s

    cnrrmctiv`s mb mj prxion pmrinhn hm

    o`btmbioimbtn

    X`dj` \7 Qrinrih`hms ]tijiz`bhn cnb Tmlmrmbci` j` Xmopmr`tur` [email protected]

    [email protected] [email protected] CNTTMCXI\@

    1.3 X ox. : X npSmvmr`ombtm Sndrmc`jmbt`hnO`btmbioimbtn hm Ibomhi`tn

    1.< X o`x : X np : 1.9 X o`x

    Sndrmc`jmbt`hnCnopnbmbtm c`t`jne`hn p`r` smr

    rmopj`z`hn n rmp`r`hn mb j` priomr`npnrtubih`h

    1.3 X o`x : X np : 1.< X o`xC`jmbt`hn

    Mj cnopnbmbtm hmdmr o`btmbmrsmd`gn ndsmrv`cib

    X np : 1.3 X ox.Bnro`j

    Bn ms bmcms`rin tno`r omhih`scnrrmctiv`s

    Mstm prncmhioimbtn sm d`s` mb ub` omhicib hm tipn hirmctn; sm hmtmroib` j`hilmrmbci` hm tmopmr`tur` mbtrm j` tmopmr`tur` hm npmr`cib hmj cnopnbmbtm yj` tmopmr`tur` omhi` jnc`j. Hicf` hilmrmbci` sm cnrriem p`r` ndtmbmr mj v`jnrmquiv`jmbtm ` pjmb` c`re` (X np). H`h` j` hilmrmbci` oxio` `hois idjm p`r`mj cnopnbmbtm cnb rmj`cib ` j` tmopmr`tur` `odimbtm ` pjmb` c`re` (X

    ox.) sm mst`djmcmb j`s omhih`s cnrrmctiv`s.

    X`dj` \I7 Critmrins hm Qrinrih`hms mb Omhicinbms Xmroner`lic`s mbHmsc`re`hnrms hm Sndrm \njt`gm (p`r`rr`yns), smeb MHC

    Xipn hmOmhicib

    Bnro`jt C

    Criticn Bivmj It C

    Criticn Bivmj IIt C

    Cnop`r`tivn 3 3 : t 5 2 5

    Cu`jit`tivn = = : t 01 2 01

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    [email protected] 4. [email protected]@ HM [email protected]@ LN\

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    [email protected] 3. [email protected]@ HM [email protected] HM CNTTMCCINB.

    [email protected] HM CNTTMCCINB\[email protected] HMJ \IMBXN ( o/s ) [email protected] HM CNTTMCCINB

    0 0

    4 0,3