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Technology In Action © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1

Transcript of Technology In Action - Kent State Universitysalhajba/ch01.pdf · Technology In Action Chapter 1 ......

Technology In Action

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.1

Technology In Action

Chapter 1

Why Computers Matter to You:

Becoming Computer Fluent

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.2

Chapter Topics

• Computer fluency

• Computers and careers

• Computer functions

• Data vs. information

• Computer hardware and software

• Societal challenges and computers

• Future technologies

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.3

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.4

What is Computer Fluency?

• To be computer

fluent you must:

– Understand a

computer’s

capabilities and

limitations

– Know how to use a

computer

• Make good purchase decisions • Maintain your computer • Keep abreast of changes in

technology• Understand the real risks• Use the Internet wisely• Avoid online annoyances• Avoid hackers and viruses• Protect your privacy

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.5

Being a Savvy Computer User

and Consumer

Computers in your Career?

• Computer careers in:

– Business

– The Arts

– The Medical Field

– Law Enforcement

– Legal Fields

– Education

– The Sciences

– Gaming

– Homes

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.6

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.7

Computers in Business

• Point of Sale Terminals

• Tracking merchandise

• Data mining

Computers in Farmingand Ranching

• Assist in managing complex farming business and information systems

• RFID tags track and record animals in case of diseases

• Computerized sensors and equipment activation protect crops

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.8

• Virtual dance

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.9

Computers in the Arts

• Virtual art

• Virtual reality in medical applications

• Patient simulator • Da Vinci Surgical System

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.10

Computers in the Medical Field

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.11

Computers in Law Enforcement

• Computer forensics

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.12

Computers in the Legal Fields

• Surveillance cameras

• Forensic animation

Computers in Education

• Computers in the classroom

• Distance education

• Computerized research

• The Internet

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.13

Computers and the Sciences

• Supercomputers• Archeology• Meteorology

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.14

Computers in Sports

• Training

• Timing and scorekeeping

• Data storage and statistics

• “Smartballs” sense when soccer goals are scored

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.15

Computer Gaming Careers

• Programming

• 3D animation

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.16

Computers at Home

• Robotics

• Smart appliances

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Robomower

Internet-

connected

refrigerator

Technology of Tomorrow

• Nanoscience

• Biomedical chip implants

• Artificial Intelligence

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.18

Nanoscience

• Molecules and nanostructures

• Nanomachines

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.19

Four-α-helix

protein scaffold

5.4n

m

Fluid flow inside

Nanomachines

Biomedical Chip Implants

• Technological solutions to physical problems

• Identity chips

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.20

Retinal Implants

VeriChip

Artificial Intelligence

• Robots

• Neurons vs. Microchips

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.21

Challenges Facing a Digital Society

• Computer use ethics

• Privacy risks

• Personal data collection

• Monitoring e-mail

• Copyright infringement

• Software piracy

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.22

Becoming Computer Fluent

• Data processing

• Bits and bytes

• Computer hardware

• Computer software

• Computer platforms

• Specialty computers

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.23

Computers are Data Processing Devices

• Four major functions:

– Input data

– Process data

– Output information

– Store data and information

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.24

DATA

IN

INFORMATION

OUT

Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers

• Bit– Binary digit– 0 or 1

• Byte– Eight bits

• ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)– Each byte represents a letter,

number or special character

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.25

OFF

0

ON

1Microchip

Switch

10 0 001 1

= 40

0 0 0 0 01 1

= A0

How Much is a Byte?

NAME ABBREVIATION NUMBER OF

BYTES

RELATIVE SIZE

Byte B 1 byte Can hold one character of data.

Kilobyte KB 1,024 bytes Can hold 1,024 characters or about half of

a typewritten page double-spaced.

Megabyte MB 1,048,576 bytes A floppy disk holds approximately 1.4 MB

of data, or approximately 768 pages of

typed text.

Gigabyte GB 1,073,741,824 bytes Approximately 786,432 pages of text.

Since 500 sheets of paper is

approximately 2 inches, this represents a

stack of paper 262 feet high.

Terabyte TB 1,099,511,627,776 bytes This represents a stack of typewritten

pages almost 51 miles high.

Petabyte PB 1,125,899,906,842,624

bytes

The stack of pages is now 52,000 miles

high, or about one-fourth the distance from

the Earth to the moon.

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.26

Computer Hardware

• Input devices

• System unit

• Output devices

• Storage devices

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.27

Input Devices• Enter data to be processed

– Keyboard– Scanners– Mouse– Trackball– Touch screen– Microphone– Game controller– Digital camera

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.28

System Unit

• Cabinet that houses all components

• Motherboard

• CPU

• Memory modules

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.29

System Unit

CPU

Motherboard

Memory

Module

Output Devices• Enable us to see or hear the processed

information

– Monitor

– Speakers

– Printers

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.30

Storage Devices

• Enable us to store data or information to be accessed again

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.31

Hard Disk Drive CD / DVD DriveFloppy Disk

Flash Drive

Computer Software

• Software - programs

that enable the hardware to perform different tasks

• Application software

– Tools for getting things done

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.32

Computer Software

• System software

– Essential for platform operation and support

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.33

Computer Platforms: PCs and Macs

PC

• CPU – Intel, AMD

• Operating system –Microsoft Windows

Mac

• CPU – Motorola

• Operating system –Apple Mac OS

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.34

Specialty Computers

• PDA

• Server

• Mainframe

• Supercomputer

• Microcontrollers

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.35

Server

Mainframe

Supercomputer

PDA

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What does it mean to be “computer fluent”?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.36

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What is a savvy computer user and consumer?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.37

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• How can becoming computer fluent help you in a career?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.38

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What are some future technologies?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.39

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What kinds of challenges do computers bring to society?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.40

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What are a computer’s four main functions?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.41

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What is the difference between data and information?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.42

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What are a bit and a byte?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.43

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What hardware does a computer use to perform its functions?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.44

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What are the two main types of software?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.45

Chapter 1 Summary Questions

• What different kinds of computers are there?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.46