# TBT102 Basic Information Technologies Osman Nuri AH°N

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- Slide 1
- TBT102 Basic Information Technologies Osman Nuri AHN
- Slide 2
- Brief Info Osman Nuri AHN, MSc Lecturer&Head of Comp. Prog., Vocational School School of Foreign Languages Room: 111 Office Hours: Tuesday 10:00-12:00&15:00-16:00 E-mail: osman.sahin@zirve.edu.tr Twitter: @OsmanNuriSahin Facebook: facebook.com/osmannurisahin
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- Student can understand about computer designs and its processes. Student know how to use current applications. CORE objectives of this course:
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- Scoring MidTerm 30% (Multiple Choice) Final 40% (Multiple Choice) Assignment 10% Project 10% Attendance 10% (not mandatory but to encourage)
- Slide 5
- TBT102 Basic Information Technologies Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers
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- Chapter 1 Objectives Recognize the importance of computer literacy and history Define the term computer and identify its components Explain why a computer is a powerful tool Recognize the purpose of a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and the World Wide Web Recognize the difference between installing and running a program Identify the various types of software Describe the categories of computers Determine how the elements of an information system interact Identify the various types of computer users Discuss computer applications in society
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- A World of Computers What is computer literacy? Computers are everywhere 1. Business area 2. Medical science 3. Research 4. Banks 5. Defence, Military 6. New vehicle and transportation design 7. Space exploration 8. Entertainment 9. Education 10. Animation and graphic design
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- 8 How is a computer defined? What Is a Computer? A programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations, presents the results, and can store the data or results
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- 9 What is the information processing cycle? Input Process Output Storage Communication
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- FIVE ERAS IN COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT Pre-History Electronics Mini Micro Network
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- THE EARLIEST COMPUTING DEVICES Brief History of Computer
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- ABACUS ( 300 B.C. by the Babylonians ) The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation.
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- A very old Abacus
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- ABACUS A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands.
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- John Napier ( 1550 1617 ) John Napier is best known as the inventor of logarithms. He also invented the so- called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics.
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- NAPIER'S BONES In 1617 an eccentric Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms, which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand, which was originally obtained from a printed table. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks.
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- An original set of Napier's Bones [photo courtesy IBM]
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- A more modern set of Napier's Bones
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- William Oughtred s Slide Rule William Oughtred and others developed the slide rule in the 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier.
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- Slide Rule
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- Blaise Pascal In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at the age of 19, he invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Pascal built 50 of this gear- driven one-function calculator (it could only add) but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate (at that time it was not possible to fabricate gears with the required precision).
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- Pascaline or Pascal Calculator It can be called Arithmatique Machine The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used. It was designed and built by the French mathematician- philosopher Blaise Pascal between 1642 and 1644. It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating its dials.
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- A 6 digit model for those who couldn't afford the 8 digit model
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- A Pascaline opened up so you can observe the gears and cylinders which rotated to display the numerical result
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- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (July 1, 1646 November 14, 1716) A German mathematician and philosopher. He occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
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- Stepped Reckoner The Step Reckoner (or Stepped Reckoner) was a digital mechanical calculator invented by German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694.
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- Stepped Reckoner
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- Joseph Marie Jacquard (7 July 1752 7 August 1834) A French weaver and merchant. He played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom (the "Jacquard loom"), which in turn played an important role in the development of other programmable machines, such as computers.
- Slide 31
- The Jacquard Loom A mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence.
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- Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards
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- By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern
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- A close-up of a Jacquard card
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- This tapestry was woven by a Jacquard loom
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- Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 18 October 1871) By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables.
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- Babbages Differential Engine Designed to automate a standard procedure for calculating roots of polynomials
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- A small section of the type of mechanism employed in Babbage's Difference Engine
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- The Analytical Engine It was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage.
- Slide 40
- Babbages Analytical Engine 2 main parts: the Store where numbers are held and the Mill where they were woven into new results 2 main parts: the Store where numbers are held and the Mill where they were woven into new results
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- Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace (10 December 1815 27 November 1852) English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Referred to as the First Programmer
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- Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 November 17, 1929) An American statistician and inventor who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that later merged to become IBM. Hollerith is widely regarded as the father of modern automatic computation.
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- Hollerith machine
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- The first automatic data processing system. It was used to count the 1890 U.S. census. Developed by Herman Hollerith, a statistician who had worked for the Census Bureau, the system used a hand punch to record the data as holes in dollar-bill-sized punch cards and a tabulating machine to count them. The tabulating machine contained a spring-loaded pin for each potential hole in the card. When a card was placed in the reader and the handle was pushed down, the pins that passed through the holes closed electrical circuits causing counters to be incremented and a lid in the sorting box to open.
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- More Detail Each card was placed into this reader. When the handle was pushed down, the data registered on the analog dials.
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- Hollerith's Keypunch Machine All 62 million Americans were counted by punching holes into a card from the census forms.
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- EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING
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- Mark I developed by Howard Aiken at Harvard University
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- Mark I Official name was Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Could perform the 4 basic arithmetic oper

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