Task-Based Instruction Developing Learners Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction.
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Task-Based Instruction Developing Learners Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction Slide 2 Overview Goals of foreign language learning Current teaching practices Exercise vs. Task What is task? TBI Why?--Task-Based InstructionTBI TBI How to design and use TBI? Question-answer Slide 3 Language is communication used as a vehicle for communication Slide 4 Communication is Lee (2000) Expression Interpretation Negotiation of meaning Long (1996) Genuine human interaction Input feedback output Slide 5 Language Competence Fluency well How well? Accuracy accurate How accurate? Pragmatics appropriate How appropriate? Slide 6 Real-Life Situation A sunny afternoon on the street in Granada, Spain Mara: Hmm Me puedo,,, puedes decir donde ir a banco? Desconocido: Bueno, est muy cerca de aqu. Pase por el semforo y doble a la derecha en la primera calle. El banco est al lado del restaurante Pollo Loco Mara: Hmm semforo? [confused] Desconocido: [point it out the light] luces Mara: Ah vvvvoy a banco para dinero no restaurante, s? Desconocido: [took the pen out and started to draw the picture] Mire Mara: S, s, s, gracias! [smiling] T eres muy amable. Slide 7 Poor Mary T or Ud.? Pragmatics? donde ir a banco Accuracy? HmmAh Hmm Fluency? Expression Interpretation Negotiation of meaning Slide 8 Mary in Class Mara, No hables ms! Oye, Me escuchas? Slide 9 Blank, Blank, Blank Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb. Yo _________ (caminar) por el parque y sus amigos ________(practicar) frisbi en la playa. Nosotros _________(escribir) composiciones y Luis __________(leer) el texto de espaol. Slide 10 Matching Column A 1.Cmo es el profesor? 2.Cundo es la clase? 3.Quin siempre saca buenas notas? 4.Cuntos estudiantes hay? 5.Dnde es la clase? Column B A.Veintitrs B.En Horton Hall 303 C.Miguel DeRosa D.Muy serio y perfeccionista E. A la una de la tarde Slide 11 Pattern Practice Modelo Juan: Vas a la escuela? Mara: No, no voy a la escuela. 1.Vas a la biblioteca? 2.Va tu amigo a la playa? 3.Van tus amigos a la plaza? 4.Vamos al parque? Slide 12 Dialogue Perform the following memorized dialogue. Mara: Hola! Cmo ests? Juan: Muy bien. Y t? Mara: Regular. Tienes clase ahora? Juan: No. Tomamos caf juntos? Mara: S. Me gusta Green Mountain Juan: A m tambin. Slide 13 Communicative Drill Your partner is asking what you did last week. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. 1.Buy Christmas gifts 2.Study for a exam 3.See Halloween decorations 4.Attend a birthday party Slide 14 Exercises Exercises No More Exercises Slide 15 Lets Discuss exercises Why are these exercises? What teaching method is used? What is the main focus? practice Is it sufficient to practice the language? Why? Slide 16 Exercises Focus on Form No creativity Lack of authenticity Exhausting and boring Estoy agotado! Qu aburrido! Slide 17 Limitations drill Teacher = drill leader Student = learner but not user Focus = form Practice = perfect Audiolingual Method (ALM) Output = learned patterns Slide 18 Changes NOT Evolution NOT Revolution CLT From ALM to Communicative Language TeachingCLT exercisestasks From exercises to tasks Slide 19 Differences Ellis (2002) Exercise Form-focused language use Language learner Intentional Task Task Meaning-focused language use Language user Incidental Slide 20 More Changes From form to meaningform meaning + form From Communication = question + answer to Communication = expression, interpretation and negotiation of meaning (Lee, 2000) Slide 21 Tasks Slide 22 Task... task A task is an activity where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome. Jane Willis Slide 23 Example #1: Fill in forms Listen to Listen to the conversation and write the missing information of each student. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz Slide 24 Example #1: (continued) Now compare your answers with your partner. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz Slide 25 Example #2: Fill in a chart Listen to Listen to the automated ticketing service for Whats on around town this weekend. Make a list of movies, and concerts and how much they cost. Movies Concerts $$$________________ Slide 26 Example #2 (continued) First decide three activities you would like to do and then work with your partner to make up the schedule for the activities. Activity 1 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 2 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 3 What? Where? How much? What time? Slide 27 Example #3: Role-play You are in a clothing store and have $150 to spend. Card B: You are clerk --Offer to help --Tell him/her what is on sale --Suggestions: a bottle of perfume for mom, a pair of pants for brother, watch for boyfriend --Go to the customer Service Card A: You are customer --You are looking for gifts for three people --Your mom, brother and boyfriend --Ask for suggestions --Ask for prices --Ask him/her to wrap the gifts --Thanks him/her Slide 28 Example #4: Decision-making You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take. Slide 29 Example #4 (continued) Axe (8 kilos) Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.) Notebook computer (3.5 kilos) Rope (6 kilos). Fire lighting kits (500 grams each) Portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos.) Short-wave radio (12 kilos) Medical kit (2 kilos.) Bottles of water (1.5 kilos each) Packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk, coffee, tea. (Each packet weighs 500 grams) Cans of food (500 grams each) Box of novels and magazines (3 kilos) Source: Nunan D. (2000) Slide 30 Example #4 (continued) three Now work with three other students and choose the most important three items that you absolutely need to take with you. Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Slide 31 Example #5: Jigsaw Estebans routine Student A: drawings1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 Student B: drawings2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 Generate the story orally with your partner Write an essay together on a blank sheet of paper Time: 30 minutes Textbook: Sabas qu? (2002) Esteban se levanta y se lava . Slide 32 Lets Discuss Task? Why? What are the common features? Other types? Slide 33 Task... meaningform Focus on both meaning and form Meaninginformation, idea Formgrammar, vocabulary Qu divertido! Qu msica! Slide 34 Task-Based Instruction Slide 35 TBI communication interactionnegotiation promotes communication, interaction and negotiation active scaffolding fosters active participation and scaffolding extended allows extended discourse Slide 36 TBI linguisticcognitive requires linguistic and cognitive skills accuracy fluency focuses on both accuracy and fluency real-time engages in real-time language processing Slide 37 One Step More From Question-Answer To Task-based Activities Slide 38 Question-Answer Discussion --What did you do last weekend? Teacher: Did you go to the library? (select a student) John: No, I went to see a movie Teacher: What movie did you see? John: Shall we dance? Teacher: Who else went to see a movie? (select a student) Mary: No, I watched TV and ate pop corn. Teacher: What program did you watch? Mary: The Sopranos Slide 39 What did you do last weekend? Task-Based Activity Slide 40 Step 1 Activity Dance at a party Running five miles Playing video games Playing a sport Reading a book Watching TV Writing a letter Making dinner Sedentary Active __________________ Source: Lee (2000) Slide 41 Step 2: Five More Activities Activity ______________ Sedentary Active _______________ Slide 42 Step 3: Interview --Did you go fishing last week? --No, I read a book How to become a millionaire? Slide 43 Step 4: Compare Your partners responses to the categorizations you made in Steps 1 and 2. Slide 44 Step 5: Conclusion Use the scale to rate your partners week. very sedentaryas sedentary very active as active 12 3 4 5 Slide 45 Task-Based Activity The Most Interesting Person Slide 46 Steps Step 1 List 10 words that associate with interesting Step 2 Describe the person in U.S./in Spain/in France, etc. Step 3 Compare your answers with your partner Step 4 Who is the most interesting person? And why? Slide 47 Criteria Identifying a desired outcome Describe the person Breaking down the topic into subtopics 3-4 steps from easy to difficult Creating concrete tasks From words to sentences Building in linguistic support Vocabulary: adjectives Grammar: to be/like/ Slide 48 Types Listing Ordering and sorting Sequencing/ranking Categorizing/classifying Comparing similarities/differences Problem solving Decision making Information gap Sharing experiences Describing/narrating Slide 49 Participatory Structure Individual Intra-personal (private speech) Social Interpersonal Teacher-students Student-teacher/other students Student-student (group or pair-work) Slide 50 ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines Incorporation of four skills plus culture Tasks instead of exercises Final Thoughts Authentic materials /pictures Feedback