Task 1:Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South Africa
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Task 1:Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South Africa
Task 1:Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South AfricaRyan HansenTermsImperialismWhen a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life.Berlin Conference (1884-1885)European nationalism stimulated the competition for colonial territory and a potential for armed conflict. To avoid this conflict, Otto Von Bismarck, the German Chancellor, called together European diplomats to help redefine the role of Africa. This conference, the Berlin Conference, that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of BelgiumThis illustration depicts the struggle between major industrial European countries in the Scramble for Africa. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, several western European nations invaded and quickly divided up Africa.
Gold, copper, diamonds. cotton
These colonial governments reorganized Africa to tap the natural resources of the various African regions. Gold, diamonds, copper, and cotton were among the most significant raw materials.Europe, 1914RacismThe prejudice that members of one race or ethnic background are superior to those of other races; In the Union of South Africa, the Afrikaners emerged as the ruling element in a government that assigned Africans to reservations and established a system of racial segregation.Social DarwinismThe belief that all human groups compete for survival, and that the stronger groups will replace the weaker groups. Natural Selection- beliefs based on the works of Charles Darwin
BoersIn the 1830s Descendents of the original Dutch settlers who, in the 1830s, migrated into the interior of South Africa and began to engage in conflicts with the Zulu. ShakaThe legendary leader of the Zulu, a south African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill. Under Shakas rule, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa and attempted to fight off British imperialism.
Great TrekBetween 1836 and 1839 parties of Afrikaners embarked on a Great Trek, leaving British-ruled Cape Colony for the fertile high plateau to the north that two decades of Zulu wars had depopulated. This led to the foundation of three new settler colonies in southern Africa by 1850.Boer War (1899-1902)Great Britain decided to annex the Boer republics, and with Boer resistance came this war. The Boers employed guerilla tactics and the British eventually used 450,000 troops to achieve victory.
Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the worlds diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
MotivesTo bring Africa more fully into the global economy as both a supplier of raw materials and a purchaser of manufactured goods, Europeans invaded and set up colonial governments. The forms of colonial administration varied with the social and economic conditions of the colonies. Some colonies retained their traditional governments, and some were administered directly.Natives ResistIn southern Africa, certain tribes with a pastoral or a warrior tradition attempted to resist European imperialism. 2/3 of the pastoral Herero people who rose up against German invaders in 1904 were quickly exterminated.Shaka and the Zulu also attempted to resist European imperialism. Positive effects of imperialism in AfricaEducation further increased in many African communities with Christian missionaries setting up local schoolhouses.Along with basic skills, many Africans acquired western ideas of justice and progress. It brought an end to tribal fighting and slave raiding.African men were assigned private property and property rights.
Negative effects of imperialism in AfricaChanges in landholding were especially disruptive for most Africans were farmers or herders for whom access to land was a necessity. African peasants were exploited for labor, often being paid less than one-tenth of what a European would be paid for the same labor.Almost all the jobs open to Africans were reserved for men and women benefited less from imperialism- some were even led into captivity.
Modern PerspectiveBecause European nation carved Africa up with no regard for traditional tribal boundaries, Africa still suffers from tribalism. Modern African nations often contain several different tribes that harbor ill feelings towards one another. Therefore, inter-tribal conflict is a common in Africa often leading to civil wars and power struggles within national governments.Also, racism is still a very prevalent issue in our world today, similar to the way it was when white South African parliament passed the Native Land Act in 1913 which isolated the native Africans.ReferencesEarth and It's People Advanced Placement Version Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin College Division, 2004.http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/africahttp://www.fresno.k12.ca.us/schools/s090/lloyd/imperialism.htm