TANKER OPERATOR (APRIL 2011)

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APRIL 2011 www.tankeroperator.comTAKEROperatorFeatures:

MEG on the brink

Training budget vital

CSR high on agenda

Bunker testing role

Bilge data recorder

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PANTONE Green C: For positional purposes only Do NOT PrintI FC: OBC. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 06 Page 1April 2011 TANKEROperator 01ContentsMarkets Slow steaming- the answer? Beware of C/P speedsMiddle East Report Turning back from the brink Specialist service providers Dubai satcoms player grows NITC hampered by politics GAC expands STS offeringManning & Training Dont ditch training budget Training network opens Warsash restructuresClassification Ueda looks to the future DNVs outlook LR sees major change04Front cover photo From 1st July, new regulations from the IMO willrequire new vessels of over 150 gt to carry abridge navigational watch alarm system (BWAS).The overall aim is to reduce the risks of accidentsdue to an incapacitated officer on watch (OOW).Several type approved BWAS systems areavailable, including those from Martek Marineand Uni-Safe. Their purpose is to monitor bridgeactivity and detect operator disability. 3632ProfileMarteks rapid riseTechnology36 Bunker Operations Prevention is the cure Management tool upgraded40 Bilge Water Data recorder launched Rethinking the solution45 Tank Servicing New tank coating eCourse now available LCHS installed112228p1: p1. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 08 Page 1The shipping industry is not immune to countryrisk, blogged shipping guru Clay Maitland acouple of months ago.One story, dated 18 February, tells us that General NationalMaritime Transport of Libya has just purchased an 180,000 dwtcapesize drybulker. Well, I wish the company the best of luck,Maitland said.By the beginning of April, we were hearing that the Libyan oilexport ports were firmly shut, as the rebels battled pro-Gaddafiforces to and fro along the coastal cities. The current unrest in the Middle East and North Africa is of morethan slight interest to shipowners. The ferment in the Middle East andNorth Africa, and the growing aggressiveness (and violence) of Somalipirates are a compound scenario for instability in our industry, Maitlandblogged. Perhaps, a bit on an understatement in hindsight.Commercial shipping runs on oil. While the present threat ofdisruption is likely to be temporary, the underlying trends are a realthreat to what is still a fragile global recovery. The shippingindustry has not, historically, been good at hedging its bets againstrising fuel costs and supply bottlenecks. In that, we are no differentfrom most other businesses. What makes us particularly vulnerableis that we have little of the think tank mentality that characterisesthe more sophisticated markets analysts of, say, the Warren Buffettype, Maitland thought. However, a few observations may behelpful. First, it is becoming apparent that even the threat of interruptionin supply is likely to cause price instability and inflation.Speculation is driving the rise in oil and iron ore prices bothhighly consequential to those who own or operate ships. To avoid damaging swings in the price of bunkers, we mustdevelop stocks of fuel that will last for more than a few weeks. Thismeans that production must in fact increase, which in turn requiresthat more offshore oilfields must be developed. The key is to diversify global oil supplies beyond the shakyregimes of Africa and the Middle East. The risks and weaknessesinherent in the existing oil supply chain are growing, and untilgovernments cope with rising demand, led by China, the shakyeconomic recovery rests on a very rickety oil market, he said. Today, more than 40 mill barrels of oil a day are tradedinternationally, and this amount is growing. It means that supply andpoint of delivery, and therefore use, are increasingly far apart. Whatnew supplies there are, continue to be produced in states that arehardly stable democracies with the possible exception of Brazil. Even Saudi Arabia, a trusted source of reserve capacity as well asactual production, is now seen as being potentially unstable. Thisrealisation is a major reason for oil price instability and inflation, ofthe type we are now seeing. The implications for shipping are clearer by the day. And whatdoes this have to do with piracy? you may ask. The fact is, a majorinterruption of traffic flow in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Oceanwould add up to two disruptions at once. You do the arithmetic, heconcluded. Of course, since Maitlands comments, we have seen the tragicevents unfold in Japan plus cyclones and floods in Australia. Thishas led to speculation that gas could be king for a while, especiallyin the Asia/Pacific region.There is even talk of the US exporting shale gas by sea, but thatwould fly in the face of Obamas aim of making the US more self-sufficient in energy. However, Maitland is right. We still rely on oil more than anythingelse and with the price heading North, the knock-on effect is risingprices across the board. Any disruptions to the supply chain have theknock-on effect of skyrocketing prices, be they for bunkers, orconsumer goods. We probably havnt seen the last of the rumblings of discontent incertain Middle Eastern countries. Just look at Yemen. If this creepingrevolution does hit Saudi Arabia in a big way batten down thehatches and shut the manifolds. Then there are the impendingelections in Iran to cope with. And so the list goes on.Robert F Kennedy said, "There is a Chinese curse which says,'May he live in interesting times'. Like it or not, we live ininteresting times..." He could not have known just how interestingthese times would become. This year has already gone down inhistory as the most volatile, both politically and environmentally. Perhaps the shipping industry is afflicted by that very sameChinese curse. COMMENTIt is risky out there!TOTANKEROperator

April 2011 02TANKEROperatorVol 10 No 5Tanker Operator MagazineLtd2nd Floor, 8 Baltic Street EastLondon EC1Y 0UP, UK www.tankeroperator.comPUBLISHER/EVENTS/SUBSCRIPTIONSKarl JefferyTel: +44 (0)20 7017 [email protected] CochranTel: +44 (0)20 7017 [email protected] SALESMelissa SkinnerOnly Media LtdTel: +44 (0)20 8950 [email protected] year (8 issues)$220 / 160 / 1502 years (16 issues)$330 / 240 / 225Subscription hotline:Tel: +44 (0)20 7017 3405Fax: +44 (0)20 7251 9179Email: [email protected] CheeTel: +44 (0)20 8995 [email protected] by ALYA SP. z o.o. ul. Bukowa 11 41-700 Ruda lska; Polandp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 220 years experience. 1 simple solution. Type Approved PMS Minimal Training Required Rapid Technical Support Service No Per Seat or any Annual License Fees Global Customer Base from VLCCs to Workboats Complete Package or Single Modular Components available PMS, Stock, Procurement, Dry Dock, Safety & Document Management SolutionsFrom ship to shore,simplicity is the key to success.Visit www.marinesoftware.co.uk or email [email protected] 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 3INDUSTRY - NEWS - BOOK REVIEWOW Bunker, one of the worldsleading suppliers and traders ofmarine fuel, has launched anoperation in Brazil. The move is part of its continued strategy todevelop its operations in South Americafollowing the recent commencement ofphysical operations in Panama and Uruguay,the company said.Based in Rio de Janeiro, a full range ofquality products are offered, including lowsulphur fuel oil, an important factor followingthe impending introduction of an ECA inNorth American waters. Local customers will also benefit from OWCommenting on the move, Flavio Ribeiro,branch manager, OW Bunker Brazil, said:The strength of OW Bunkers globaloffering, its physical assets, state-of-the artfleet of vessels, and deep understanding of theshipping industry, combined with a thoroughknowledge of the local market is a highlyattractive proposition for both domestic andinternational customers. They want fast turnaround on quotes, the best possible deal and assurance thatthey will receive quality products, at theright amount, and delivered when they want them. OW Bunker can meet thesedemands, he said. New player in Brazilian bunker marketBunkers specific expertise in offshoredelivery. With a presence in Brazil, Panama,Uruguay and Chile, the company is wellpositioned to cover the whole of the westcoast of South America.Customers will also benefit from OWBunkers in-depth knowledge of the localmarket, strong relationships with localsuppliers, wholly supported by theinfrastructure and strength of its globalnetwork, which ensures that customersreceive the best prices for products, as well as having access to other servicesincluding risk management, the companyclaimed.TANKEROperator

April 2011 04What is claimed to be a uniqueguide to the technical aspects ofmarine hull and machineryinsurance - a market handlingmany millions of dollars worth ofclaims each year - has beencompiled by marine consultancyand survey company, BMT Marine& Offshore Surveys, a member ofBMT Group.Indications have already emerged that thecompanys new Hull & Machinery Guide*will become a standard reference publication,in the light of the welcome it has receivedfrom leading figures in the Londonunderwriting market and beyond. Simon Stonehouse (Brit Insurance), one ofthe leading hull underwriters at Lloyds, said;This is an essential reference guide for themarine insurance industry and a mostwelcome initiative. It has been many yearssince something of this calibre has beenpublished and, as its available electronically,underwriters and claims teams can refer to itwhenever and wherever a great stepforward.The publication is seen by BMT as just apart of its professional interaction with shipoperators, hull insurers, P&I providers,brokers and other specialists. It is set to be ofvalue to experienced practitioners andnewcomers alike, and all in between.Marine survey reports frequently containengineering terminology which can beunfamiliar to the non-engineers in the widerspectrum of the shipping industry, said thelead author, Dinos Levantis.In an attempt to bridge this gap we haveproduced this guide, which covers some of thecommon terminology often encountered insurvey reports for ships, their engines andtheir operations, he explained.Piraeus-based Levantis is BMT businessdirector for the Mediterranean and EasternEurope region. He is a naval architect,surveyor and marine engineer, with substantialexperience in casualty investigations.Rather than seek to compile what would bean unwieldy dictionary of the entireterminology, Levantis and his colleagues inPiraeus and other BMT offices have produceda small, easy-to-use handbook with clearillustrations of ship components, which figureoften in insurance claims. The book is divided into three parts -general, hull, machinery. A blank page hasbeen left next to each easily understoodillustration for users to write additional notesand queries they may have which thecompanys technical staff can advise on.The team has drawn on material from 24authoritative sources to produce more than 70pages of diagrams and explanations of termsrelating to the key functions of ships including those such as rocker arm, pushrod,scavenger air inlet, sterntube aft bearing,crosshead bearings.Users of the guide will gain greater insightinto questions of propulsion, steering gear,engines, and boilers. The importance offactors such as ocean wave geometry isunderlined: In a seaway, the vessels structurewill be continuously subjected to deformationin all directions, said the guide.The generated stresses will alternate andthe material forming the structure willtherefore be subjected to fatigue. A well-designed structure having a well-conceivedgeometry and being of suitable material isexpected to withstand the fatigue stresses for asubstantial period of time, the guideexplained.This is the first version of the booklet andLevantis said that he would welcomesuggestions from users, which could enhancefuture editions. BMT Marine & Offshore Surveysincorporates the casualty expertise of TheSalvage Association and BMT Murray Fenton.The group handles all types of vessels up toVLCCs.For several years, the company has beenbuilding on its professional relationships withinsurance specialists through its shipyardfamiliarisation courses, what it terms itsassault courses, organised for small groupsof underwriters and brokers, and based aroundvisits to shipyards and other facilities inGreece and the UK.Managing director Nigel Clark said: Thehands-on familiarisation visits we havearranged so far have proved so successful andwell received that we are planning to runadditional courses this year and to extendthem to more of our overseas offices. As well as being an extremely informativedocument for everyday use, the new guidewill also be an excellent reference tool forthose attending the courses, he concluded. *The guide can be downloaded fromwww.bmtmarinerisk.com via the documentsand resources section.An insiders guide to ships hulls and machinery p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 4Kongsberg provides simulator solutions that maximise performance in a range of operations at sea. Our simulator solutions are based on unrivalled experience with real systems, to provide you with the highest degree of realism in use and appearance.You get the ability to train your students or crew to act with precision and certainty in difficult conditions. You can train on day-to-day challenges as well as emergency and critical operations, helping to increase knowledge, safety and efficiency at sea. With Kongsberg simulators you will benefit from best practice learnt by training on operations over and over again, until you get THE FULL PICTURE!www.km.kongsberg.comMARITIME & OFFSHORE SIMULATORSINCREASE EFFICIENCY & SAFETY AT SEA BENEFIT FROM BEST PRACTICE!THE FULL PICTURE Ships Bridge Simulators ECDIS, Radar and ARPA Simulators Offshore Vessel Simulators Anchor Handling Simulators Dynamic Positioning Simulators Engine Room Simulators Cargo & Ballast Handling Simulators Crane & Winch Simulators Communication (GMDSS) Simulators VTS SimulatorsINDUSTRY NEWS April 2011 TANKEROperator 05Wilhelmsen Technical Solutions(WTS) has received orders for fiveUnitor Ballast Water TreatmentSystems (Unitor BWTS) fromChinese yards, including two tobe installed on asphalt carriersbeing built at Nanjing East StartShipbuilding. The asphalt carriers building at Nanjing EastStart Shipbuilding are for the Singapore basedshipowner Stolt Bitumen Services, a newdivision of the Stolt Nielsen Group. Each system has a capacity of 200 cu m perhour and the vessels will be delivered in 4Q11and 1Q12.With an increasing number of type approvedballast water treatment systems in the market,the competition for securing new contracts istough. We have developed a system thatbenefits both the installers and operators,claimed Petter Traaholt, WTS president. A small footprint and flexible installationoptions are valued by the yards. Feedback fromowners suggest that treatment on ballastingonly, low power consumption and easyoperation are seen as key factors when selectinga ballast water treatment system, he continued.This is the first ballast water treatmentsystem we have ordered. With little serviceexperience with any system, we wanted tochoose a supplier that has excellent worldwidesupport and the backup of a large organisation,said a representative at Stolt Bitumen Services.Unitors BWTS is applicable to all vesseltypes and sizes. To date, WTS has won contractsto install the system on a range of vessel types,including the asphalt carriers and an LNGC. The technology is provided by the SouthAfrican company Resource Ballast Technology(RBT). However, the system is produced,marketed and sold globally by WTS. Meanwhile, sister company WilhelmsenShips Service (WSS) is preparing to move toPhase 2 of its recently launched Ships SparesLogistics (SSL) First Mile to Last Mile offer.This is a service which provides a singlepoint of contact for managing the delivery ofspare parts from manufacturer to vessel, withtotal visibility on data and associated prices. Vidar Hole, WSS business directormaritime logistics services said: Over 60customers and more than 200 vessels havenow started to use this offer. We are pleased tosee that the number of customers signing uphas increased significantly in the past months. The next phase will include upgrades in theSSL application to allow for increased efficienciesin quoting and invoicing processes, which willgive the customer quicker response times.SSL combines the establishment of a centralfreight forwarding centre with an onlineservice which provides its contract customerswith the ability to see the location and statusof their orders as well as offering a number ofreporting features. There is a growing market for thesemaritime related logistics services, said Hole.WSS has a great network of offices, localknowledge and capabilities. Until the launchof SSL, our logistics activities had been ratherfragmented geographically. Our key challenge is to connect ourinternational logistics capabilities and developcompetitive global offerings. This will requireresources, time and alignment on differentmanagement levels, but I am very confident thatwe will succeed in increasing our market sharein the segments we have selected, he said. Unitor ballast water treatment systems ordered in Chinap2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 5TANKEROperator

April 2011 06INDUSTRY NEWSMaran Tankers opts for Eniram Finnish software house Eniramhas installed its DynamicTrimming Assistant (DTA)software on board Maran TankersVLCC Maran Canopus. Enirams DTA provides the bridge with a visualdisplay of the optimum trim of the vessel,which is calculated in real-time taking intoaccount a large number of affecting variables. As the affecting factors change - for example,weather, sea state, draft, speed and bunkerlevels - so does the vessels optimum trim.Using this dynamic optimum trim, the bridgeteam can make adjustments to the vessel inorder to stay within the optimum trim.The benefits of staying in the optimum trim arereduced bunker consumption for a given speed. Maran Canopus currently operates on aworldwide spot basis; long voyage legs typicallyinvolve loading in the Persian Gulf, dischargingin the Gulf of Mexico, ballasting to West Africaand then loading for discharge in India followedby ballasting back to the Persian Gulf. Philip Padfield, Eniram CEO, said: We aredelighted to be working with such a majorplayer in the world tanker market. We haveachieved very encouraging results in theVLCC sector on vessels with similar voyageand operational characteristics as the MaranCanopus and her sisterships. We are particularly excited to help MaranTankers actualise bunker savings and a reductionin their carbon emissions, as part of theirongoing energy efficiency initiatives, he said. Miltiades Sfantsikopoulos, superintendentengineer at Maran Tankers, said: With theinstallation of DTA on board Maran Canopuswe hope to achieve a fuel saving of between2% and 4%. This could translate into $200,000-$400,000 savings in fuel per calendar year, aswell as significant reduction in air emissions. Maran Tankers has a strong history as anearly adopter of energy efficiency initiativesand allocates significant resources in thecontinual improvement of the environmentalperformance of vessel operations. In-house company programmes comprisevessel performance monitoring, training ofseafarers and office personnel on bestoperational, environmental and energymanagement practices, employment of noveltechnologies and solutions on the new vesselsfor improvement of energy efficiency andreduction of environmental impact. Sfantsikopoulos added: We hope that theEniram system will prove to be a useful toolfor further voyage performance optimisation. From the positive results already seen fromthe VLCC sector, Eniram said that it wasconfident that Maran Tankers would makesubstantial fuel savings and contribute towardsits ongoing vessel optimisation programmethrough the use of the DTA. Enirams core business is providing themaritime industry with decision supportsystems to reduce fuel consumption andemissions, as well as supporting the decisionmaking process with information analytics. The companys solutions range from single onboard applications to comprehensive fleetanalysis. Eniram claimed that it had accumulatedextensive knowledge from the shipbuildingindustry, seafarers and software specialists. Based on Enirams vessel managementplatform, the company offers solutions in theareas of performance improvement,environmental savings and informationintelligence. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 6INDUSTRY MARKETSApril 2011 TANKEROperator 07Since the beginning of the year, worldwide bunker prices have risen22% in step with increasing crude prices. Is slow steaming the answer?The higher bunker prices continueto eat up an ever larger portion ofthe voyage revenues, reportsMcQuilling Services in itsweekly report.In the backdrop of lower freight rates andhigh bunker prices, the industry is revisitingthe topic of slow steaming to reduce bunkercosts and consumption. At the current market rates (Mid-March),fuel costs make up over 55% of the freightrevenue for a VLCC operating on thebenchmark MEG Gulf/Japan TD3 route.The practice of slow steaming worked verywell for the container industry which suffereddramatic operating losses during 2009. Linercompanies were able to reduce speed, increasethe number of vessels on a particular traderoute and maintain their weekly sailingschedules while reducing costs and returningto profitability quickly.Shipowners who participate in both thetanker and container markets are nowapplying similar tactics to their tanker fleets.The speed at which the tanker fleet operatesdepends on a number of factors in the marketincluding: bunker costs, freight rates, andemployment opportunities, McQuilling said. The optimum speed curve implies thatvessels should operate at different speedsdepending on market conditions.It is reported that some shipowners areultra-slow steaming. This practice effectivelyreduces tonnage supply by making vessels lessfrequently available to meet cargo liftingrequirements. Further reports indicate that owners may beexecuting hot layups when the lack of suitableemployment justifies this practice. In a hotlayup, a vessel will steam then shut down fora few days mid-voyage then continue sailing.This reduces bunker consumption.Charterers are reluctant to slow down theirvoyages on the laden leg. Doing so wouldrequire more vessels to deliver the sameamount of barrels per day to their requirements.Freight costs for an additional slowsteaming voyage would be higher than asingle voyage operated at 14.5 knots. Only theshipowners have the incentive to operate asslowly as possible, McQuilling said.Engine problemsOn ballast voyages ultra-slow steaming canbe as low as 8-9 knots. At this speed, anormal diesel engine would experiencetechnical problems, such as sludge buildupand failure. To counteract this, someshipowners are making engine modificationsto allow for ultra-slow steaming withoutcausing engine damages.McQuilling estimated that a VLCC on aladen voyage at 14.5 knots consumes about100 tonnes of bunker fuel per day. The ballastconsumption is lower at 80 tonnes per daywhile operating at the same speed.Table 1 shows the effect of a uniform speedreduction across vessel sectors. A change ofjust 1 knot has a marked effect on total fleetsupply. This effect is most pronounced in theVLCC sector where a decline in speed of 1knot would reduce the supply of vessels by 3%.The long term market effect of a concertedindustry slowdown is an interesting dichotomyfor vessel supply. A fleet slowdown wouldeventually result in freight rates going up, asthe supply of tonnage becomes moreconstrained. Higher rates will encourage owners toresume higher speeds to maximise theirrevenue potential.A voyage completed in a fewer number ofdays would increase the TCE earnings.US$/Day VLCC SUEZ AFRA PAA MRumber of vessels 11-24 6-13 8-18 2-5 7-13 Fleet size change 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% Table 1 Effective number of vessels added/deleted from supply for each 1 knot of speedchange.GL - Your compeIiIive edge More miIes Ihrough e!!icienI ship managemenI */6KLS0DQDJHUMore miIes beIveen repairs Ihrough 3-D huII modeIIing */+XOO0DQDJHUMore miIes per !ueI-Ionne Ihrough opIimised Irim (&2$VVLVWDQWvvv.gI-group.comlmore-miIesDeIivering more miIes !or your !IeeISource: McQuilling Services. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 7TANKEROperator

April 2011 08INDUSTRY MARKETSOverall, successful shipowners aremotivated to generate respectable freightrevenues and to reduce operating costs.Currently, slow steaming is just one techniqueowners are employing to reduce bunker costs.Innovative owners and industry participantscontinue to seek creative ways to reduce costsand they must do so to be competitive. Commodities trading house Cargill recentlyannounced it will utilise sails on some of itssmaller long term timechartered drybulkvessels. It has partnered with SkySails todeploy a 320 sq m sail on its bulkers in the25,000-30,000 dwt range. It is estimated that bunker consumption canbe reduced by up to 35% in ideal sailingconditions. Deployment of the sails isexpected to be completed by the first quarterof 2012.With big players beginning to makeannouncement about their enterprise levelefforts to reduce costs, we can expect theinnovative trends in the shipping industry tocontinue, McQuilling concluded. TOMRs firm in the Atlantic Basin After fairly disappointing results during the firsttwo months of this year with daily earnings ofaround $4,000-$9,000 per day, the returns for37,000 tonne clean cargoes trading UK/Continent- US Atlantic Coast improved in March.The TCE assessments were $18,000 per day by the middle of thatmonth, said Gibson Research in its weekly report. A much firmer market has also been seen in other regions of theAtlantic Basin. For example, in the Caribbean, daily returns for38,000 tonne clean shipments to New York firmed to $21,000 perday that week, the highest level since September 2008. The reasons for the pick up in rates were both localised andgeneral, ranging from firm/steady demand to ship products,arbitrage opportunities, weather related delays and replacements totighter tonnage availability amid simultaneous improvements acrossdifferent trading zones. In addition, there were factors that might provide support tothe benchmark transatlantic gasoline market in the immediatefuture. US gasoline stocks plummeted by 21.4 mill barrels overthe five week period ending 18th March - from well above thefive year maximum for this time of year to just below the fiveyear average. The last time gasoline inventories dropped below this five yearseasonal average was in May 2008. Thus, these relatively low levelsof gasoline stocks could potentially prompt stronger inflows ofgasoline/blending components into the US, providing additionalemployment for transatlantic MRs, Gibson said. Product exportsAt the same time, product exports simply could not be ignored. Thepreliminary data for distillate trade out of the US showed that totalexports, primarily to the Caribbean/Latin America and Europe haveaveraged 0.72 mill barrels per day in the three weeks ending 18thMarch, up by 0.27 mill barrels per day from an average of 0.45 millbarrels per day in March 2010. This increase in distillate exports largely offset the weakness ingasoline imports in recent years. Gasoline imports have averaged 0.73 mill barrels per day over afour week period, marginally up by 30,000 barrels per day year-on-year, but still some 0.37 mill barrels per day below the level thistime two years ago. The rapid growth in distillate exports and the slow recovery ingasoline imports also meant that the distillate export market involume was similar in size to the gasoline import market. This, inreturn, made it much easier for owners to enhance their net returnsthrough back haul trades/triangulation, Gibson concluded. Source: Gibson Research. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 8INDUSTRY MARKETSApril 2011 TANKEROperator 09Here is how DNV puts it. Theresults of this study indicate thelack of responsiveness toeconomics as a driving factor forchange.[1]In general this is a misconception.Owners are acutely aware of fuel costs andterm charterers know how to distinguish fuelefficient ships from ships that are not.[2]Recently, tanker owners have institutedsuper slow-steaming down to 8.5 knots onships that were not supposed to be able to dothis.[3]This kind of slow-steaming was noteven on DNVs list of measures that ownersare alleged to be not adopting. Overall owners are responding to themassive post-2005 increase in bunker pricesjust about as fast as they can. However, thereis some truth in the consensus position.Markets do not always function perfectly. Andthere is at least one market imperfection thatis currently having a substantial impact onowners attempts to reduce CO2 emissions. That imperfection is tanker charterparty(C/P) speeds. When a tanker is fixed in the spot market,the contract, or C/P usually specifies a speedthat the ship is required to maintain on theloaded leg. For a variety of reasons, chartererstend to be very slow to change C/P speeds. For example, back in the late 1990s, Vela,the chartering arm of Aramco, took 14 knotsas their C/P speed. At the time, this was lessthan the economic speed, which a competitivemarket would have come with for ships thatcould do more than 14 knots.Vela accepted the additional transportationcosts of forcing ships to go less than theoptimal for its stipulated speed because theyknew that some ships could not do much morethan 14 knots. By forcing all ships to sail at the samespeed it simplified their scheduling, which atthe time was done manually. It is unlikely thatAramco headquarters even knew that Vela wassubjecting Aramco to unnecessary costs.In 2002, bunker prices started to rise and in2005 to 2007 skyrocketed to unheard oflevels. The economic speed in all but a boommarket was pretty much as slow as you cango. Yet the Vela C/P speed remained at 14knots. Other major oil companies reduced theirC/P speeds slightly but only to the range of 13or 13.5 knots. In late 2008, bunker pricesplummeted; but since then they haverecovered to around $600 per tonne. Once again the economic speed is just aboutas slow as you can go, and now VLCC ownersknow how to slow steam down to 8 or 9knots. Yet the C/P speeds remain in the 13, or14 knot range, well above that which isoptimal for the charterer even after accountingfor cargo carrying cost.The purpose of this paper is to estimate theimpact of these uneconomic C/P speeds onVLCC CO2 emissions.Table 1 shows how a VLCC owner wouldreact to the spot rate given $600 per tonnebunkers, accounting for cargo carrying costs,but with no C/P speed. For carrying costs, weassumed a cargo value of $730 per tonne(about $100 per barrel) and a cost of capital ofIt is almost received wisdom at the IMO that shipowners are slow to adopt measureswhich would increase fuel efficiency, even when such measures are economic, that is,should have been adopted with no regulation at all*. Stipulatedcharterparty speedsimpact on CO2emissionsWS DAYS LD SPD BL SPD MARGI IVCST C02/TPD25 65.82 8.50 9.50 481817 950559 1.072930 62.42 9.50 9.50 704825 856331 1.110835 60.97 10.00 9.50 964928 816284 1.133240 59.66 10.50 9.50 1223854 780052 1.157445 58.47 11.00 9.50 1480130 747113 1.184750 57.39 11.50 9.50 1732542 717038 1.216455 55.91 11.50 10.00 2000358 716907 1.220760 52.37 12.00 11.00 2177769 689089 1.266265 50.35 12.50 11.50 2387410 663610 1.304870 49.33 12.50 12.00 2650676 663474 1.313875 46.77 13.50 12.50 2792455 618291 1.387180 46.77 13.50 12.50 3093667 618291 1.387185 44.38 14.00 13.50 3244840 597892 1.441890 43.64 14.00 14.00 3500317 597747 1.454995 42.27 14.50 14.50 3687863 578894 1.5001100 41.63 14.50 15.00 3937861 578736 1.5168Table 1: VLCC speed up curve PG-East, BFO $600/tonne, no C/P speed. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 9TANKEROperator

April 2011 10INDUSTRY MARKETS5%. The VLCC we used is equipped with afull set of slow-steaming modifications. Theship was put on the RasTanura-Yokohamaroute, via the Malacca Straits both ways.The second column is round trip days. Thethird and fourth columns show the optimalsteaming curve that is, the speeds thatmaximise owners earnings net of carryingcost per day for each spot rate.[4]It turns out that these are the ships optimalspeeds regardless of whether this is an ownerin the spot market who is attempting tomaximise his/her profits in the face ofcarrying costs, or a term charterer who istrying to minimise his/her transport costs,including cargo carrying cost. The fifth column shows the owners voyagemargin (exclusive of OPEX and CAPEX), andthe sixth column the cargo carrying cost. Thelast column shows the tonnes of CO2 emittedper tonne per day of oil delivered. In otherwords, the fleet size is adjusted to deliver thesame amount of oil.Table 2 shows exactly the same calculationsexcept we have forced the owner to go 14knots loaded.At $600 per tonne bunker price and lowspot rates, the market optimal loaded speed isin the 10 to 11 knot range even accounting forcargo carrying costs. The 14 knot C/P speedforces the owner to go 3 or 4 knots fasterloaded than he would voluntarily, resulting ina big difference in CO2 emissions.For example at Worldscale 45 (WS45),about the current rate, the difference is justunder 20%. And it is precisely at the bottomof the market that we have the ships availableto slow down and still move the same amountof oil.[5]Not economicalIt is easy to see that, below WS80, the 14 knotC/P speed is not economic. For example, atWS45, if the owner were allowed to go theoptimal loaded speed of 11 knots, his voyagemargin would increase from $1.143 mill to$1.480 mill. But the loaded leg would increaseby 5.4 days increasing in-transit cargocarrying costs from $599,000 to $747,000. The owner could take $148,000 of his extramargin and give it to the charterer tocompensate for the increase in carrying cost,and still have $189,000 left over. Of course,he has tied up his ship for an extra 5.4 days.At WS45, this costs him $25,300 per day or$137,000. The bottom line is that there is $52,000available which the owner and charterer couldsomehow share by eliminating the C/P speed.Everybody wins. In a perfectly functioningmarket, this kind of gravy simply isntavailable.These computations also pretty much tell uswhy this sort of market imperfection persists.An amount of $52,000 is not a lot of money ina charter for which the gross charter hire isabout $2.2 mill and the inventory carryingcosts are of the order of $700,000. The speedoptimum is fairly flat so the loss to theowner/charterer of being off in speed is asmall percentage of the overall deal.Yet the difference in CO2 emissions can bequite substantial.Name and shameThe obvious question is: what to do about thismarket imperfection?In CTXs opinion, this is one of the fewcases where name-and-shame should work.The oil companies are very conscious of theirenvironmental reputation, or at least thepublics perception of it.They have nothing to lose from reducingC/P speeds to near-optimal.[6]In fact, theywill gain a few bucks.IMO should set up an office to monitor C/Pspeeds, and publicise any oil company thatpersists in dictating uneconomic C/P speeds.This should be an easy one.* This is an extract from a paper written byJack Devanney of the Center for TankshipExcellence. The full paper can be found athttp://www.c4tx.org/ctx/pub/WS DAYS LD SPD BL SPD MARGI IVCST C02/TPD25 53.12 14.00 9.50 -63241 598888 1.417330 53.12 14.00 9.50 238325 598888 1.417335 53.12 14.00 9.50 539891 598888 1.417340 53.12 14.00 9.50 841457 598888 1.417345 53.12 14.00 9.50 1143022 598888 1.417350 53.12 14.00 9.50 1444588 598888 1.417355 53.12 14.00 9.50 1746154 598888 1.417360 50.31 14.00 10.50 1979773 598668 1.406665 47.99 14.00 11.50 2210371 598440 1.405770 46.98 14.00 12.00 2473637 598317 1.409675 46.04 14.00 12.50 2733826 598185 1.417080 46.04 14.00 12.50 3035038 598185 1.417085 44.38 14.00 13.50 3244840 597892 1.441890 43.64 14.00 14.00 3500317 597747 1.454995 42.95 14.00 14.50 3753587 597594 1.4702100 42.31 14.00 15.00 4003585 597432 1.4883Table 2: VLCC speed up curve PG-East, BFO $600/tonne, 14k C/P speed. Footnotes:1] Det Norske Veritas, Pathways to Low Carbon Shipping, 2009-12-15.2] Are owners and charterers really that stupid? CTX Technical Report, 2011.3] Bockmann, M, VLCC next to turn to super-slowsteaming to cut costs, Lloyds List, 22 February 2011.4] These voyage calculations were done by the MFIX voyage analysis program. MFIX optimises speed in half knotincrements, so the speed up is a little jumpy. The slight drop in inventory carrying cost with increasing spot rate inTable 2 is due to a slight reduction in cargo deadweight due to the increased bunkers required.5] Of course, if the C/P speed is reduced and the fleet on average slows down, then spot rates will rise. At the end of the day, the loaded speed will not be the WS45 speed, but something slightly higher.6] Optimal here refers to market optimal. The market prices the cost of CO2 emissions at zero. If CO2 emissionswere more properly priced, then the optimal speeds would be still lower. The CTX has argued that by far the bestway of integrating the social cost of CO2 pollution into the owner/charterer calculus is a tax on CO2 stack gas emis-sions. See Direct Taxation of Ship-based CO2 Emissions. About the worst thing we can do is to impose EEDI. SeeThe Impact of EEDI on VLCC Design and CO2 Emissions.TOp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 15 Page 10In the long term, the furore could lead towould be investors quitting the area at atime when countries, such as the UAE,were coming out of their economicstrife. Dubai in particular could suffer, as althoughlocal Islamic finance is in place, much neededoverseas finance could be hard to get.However, there is no shortage of maritimeconcerns, both local and overseas, willing toopen up in the Emirate and elsewhere in theregion, or ramp up facilities and/or personnelalready in place. Events in Bahrain are difficult to call at thetime of writing, but a leading insurer toldTAKEROperator recently that the area wouldprobably be declared a War Risk zone, whichmeans that an operator contemplating visitingthe island state will have to pay a higherinsurance premium. Where that leaves ASRY is probably tooearly to tell - and what about Yemen? ASRYrecently sent out a statement saying that it wasbusiness as usual amid the uncertainty. Sanctions against Iran appear to be biting asrecently leading tanker company NITC lost itsP&I cover with leading UK mutuals.However, the company has tried to re-assureits charterers that it has alternative cover inplace. Once NITCs massive newbuildingprogramme is complete, the company willprobably climb to third place inTAKEROperators list of top 30 companies(see March issue Annual review, page V). Letus hope that sense prevails as NITC is a verywell run company and claims not to beaffected by the various sanctions in placeagainst Iran, unlike its counterpart IRISL.There is an Iranian election due later thisyear and the rest of the world will be hopingthat stability returns to the region, as it isawash with much needed oil and gas. An interesting statistic came out from aleading shipping analyst recently. He said thatnine out of 10 fixtures of large crude oiltankers from the MEG were destined forAsian refineries with only one out of the 10going to western destinations. Increased tanker movementsWith the start up of the Indian refineryexpansion schemes, especially Jamnagar, bothcrude and product shipments will increase stillfurther to and from the area. The Middle Eaststates also have plans to build new refineries,particularly in Saudi Arabia and Iraq, partly ina bid to enter the chemical/products exportmarkets. The region was always an importantshiprepair centre dominated by the huge docksat ASRY, Bahrain and Drydocks World-Dubai.However, question marks hang over bothoperations, the former due to political unrestin that country and the latter due to a seniormanagement upheaval that took place earlierthis year. Very soon both yards will experience severecompetition from giant docking facilitiesINDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTApril 2011 TANKEROperator 11Trying to write an objective article about maritime activities in the Middle East issomewhat fraught with danger at present, due to political unrest in several countries. Middle East business as usualamid the turmoilp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 11under construction at Ras Laffan, Qatar andDuqm, Oman. The huge Ras Laffan complexwas opened late last year with the drydockingof a Shell-managed LNGC. Large docks will probably be neededworldwide, as notwithstanding the influx ofVLCCs, Suezmaxes, Aframaxes and LNGCs,there is a growing fleet of large containershipsof over 300 m in length to service. There is a move to shift large crude oilloading tankers to Fujairah. A pipeline isunder construction from Abu Dhabi toFujairah where single point mooring buoyswill be installed offshore to load the crude expipeline. Also at Fujairah, several storage tankconcerns have set up shop and built producttanker discharge and load jetties and othersare looking to invest. According to InchcapeShipping Services (ISS) Dubai office, thisopens up enormous opportunities in theagency, crewing, spare parts and ship supplysectors, to name but a few. Despite its financial crisis, Dubai is stillregarded as the hub of the region in terms ofshiprepair and the service and support sectorsthat this activity supports. As the repairfacilities in Qatar and Oman grow, manyservice and engineering concerns will look toopen offices and/or warehouses in theshipyards, once a license has been granted.However, most will keep their Middle Eastheadquarters in Dubai, either in and aroundthe city, or out at the new industrial parksspringing up near Jebel Ali, which is itself agrowing port, catering for most types ofcargoes, including blending facilities for oilproducts and the areas first floatingregasification plant in the shape of theconverted LNGC Golar Freeze. According to a leading third partyshipmanagement concern, skilled workers areusually easier to come by than in Europe andcheaper to employ. Once employed, theyusually remain with one company for severalyears thus giving continuity of employment. One Norwegian manufacturing, service andsupport company, which has set up shop inDubai, told TAKEROperator that the addedvalue was being closer to the market wherethe action is. The company also confirmedthat it was easier to employ skilled engineersin the region. We can do more with localresources, the company said. The company (Kongsberg MarineServices) was looking to grow in the areaand would consider moving to the DubaiMaritime City in a few years. Othercompanies also confirmed their interest inrelocating to the man made peninsular, assoon as the facilities were in place, albeitthat the original time frame for itscompletion had slipped a bit.INDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTTANKEROperator

April 2011 12TOOne Norwegian manufacturing, service andsupport company, which has set up shop in Dubai, told TAKEROperator that the added value was being closer to the market where the action is.p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 12Specialist serviceproviders aboundINDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTApril 2011 TANKEROperator 13One example is leadingindependent repair andengineering specialist Goltens,which has been in the area formany years. Last year, this company signed acontract with Jadaf Dubai, part of theDrydocks World Group, to set up ashipbuilding and repair facility within theDubai Maritime City (DMC) complex. This is the second long term ground leaseagreement agreed between the two concerns.Under the latest agreement, two plots havebeen taken by Goltens totaling some 23,000sq m for a period of 25 years. Around 40% ofthe area will contain warehousing. Speaking at the end of January, presidentPaul Friedberg said that the company could beready to start repair work in about 12 monthstime at the new site. DMC already has twoshiplifts in place one of 6,000 tonnes andthe other of 3,000 tonnes lifting capacity -and many afloat berths for repair work. The original facilities at Al Jadaf in DubaiCreek will continue to operate for theforeseeable future, Friedberg explained. Heestimated that the move to DMC, includingthe building of the infrastructure, would costaround $15 mill. The new facility will be in an area calledthe Industrial Precinct, which is an areadedicated to shiprepair, manufacturing, as wellas workshop units to serve the marineindustry. He saw 2011 as a year of consolidation andone of going out into the marketplace to gaina larger share. He said that today, Goltensconcentrates on three core areas in-siturepairs, diesel engine repair and maintenanceand the latest venture - green technologies. DMC is already fitted with two shiplifts.In Dubai and the surrounding area, there are many companies based serving local ownersand managers, the international passing trade and the giant repair facilities. TAKEROperator has attempted to produce a snapshot of a few of them, highlighting their activities in the region. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 13TANKEROperator

April 2011 14INDUSTRY - MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTDuring the past five to six years, Goltenshas established seven new global repaircentres, lifting its annual shiprepair revenuefrom $90 mill in 2005 to around $200 mill in2010. Last year, the company opened a repaircentre in the Philippines and worldwideworked on 10,000 vessels of all types. Goltens success lies in the fact that thecompany can offer an independent alternativeto the OEMs service organisations. One of itscore businesses is in-situ repairs and in theMiddle East. Most of the in-situ repairs takeplace in Goltens dedicated warehouses. With its worldwide reach, Friedberg saidthat the company completed some 30,000projects annually and had 10% of the marketshare in specialist services, employing some1,400 specialists. However, not stopping there,Friedberg said that he was keen to open morerepair centres to join the 22 already inoperation. Locations being looked at includePanama, Chile, South Africa, Algeciras,Istanbul and Australia. These would pave the way for more in-siturepairs, as for example, China cannot undertakeafloat repairs. One development in Goltensfavour was that owners were prolongingdrydockings and Friedberg said that 50% of 2-stroke diesel engines were now over 10 yearsof age. The company also handles 4-stroke andhigh speed diesel engine repairs. Goltens latest venture concerns co-ordinatedclean technology upgrades. To cater for thisnew initiative, a new company wasestablished in Groningen, Netherlands Goltens Green Technology which opened itsdoors on 1st January this year. One area being covered is the installation,retrofitting and engineering of ballast watertreatment systems, independent of an OEM.Friedberg saw the potential to open up othercentres to offer this service in Shanghai andSingapore. He said that suppliers were partial,as they will say that their system is the bestthe market has to offer.Friedberg said that he saw the ballast watertreatment business being worth as much as$10 mill in five years time. DMC moveThere are many small shipbuilding and repairyards in the Gulf region with more planned.Another company eyeing a move to DMC isGrandweld. This company has signed a longterm lease agreement with Drydocks WorldDubai for a shipbuilding and repair facility atDMC. This could happen by the end of this year,or early in 2012, general manager Jamal Abkiexplained. He said that two plots totaling27,055 sq m had been leased for 25 years. He said that the company would rentshiprepair shops but build its ownnewbuilding facilities. It would also leaseslots on the two shiplifts as necessary. Similarto other small vessel repairers and builders inDubai, Grandweld would keep a presence inAl Jadaf, thus Akbi saw the move as anexpansion, rather than a relocation. Today the company builds tugs, workboats,naval craft, etc. The company builds hybridtugs with either diesel mechanical, or dieselelectric propulsion systems. The activity issplit roughly 30% repairs and 70% newbuilds,he explained. Established in 1984, as part of the GMMOSGroup (a portfolio company of Abraaj Capitaland Waha Capital), Grandweld has developedinto a leading shipbuilder of offshore vesselsand high speed aluminium vessels in the rangeof 20 m to 70 m. Akbi told TAKEROperator he was alsokeen to enter the bunker tanker market with aVik Sandvik design, which the company ismarketing locally. Despite the political tension in the region,there are several projects that if finalisedcould have an affect on the tanker industry.For example, there are plans to rebuild portsand jetties in Kuwait, Iraq, Qatar, Abu Dhabi,Fujairah and elsewhere, plus new andupgraded refinery project plans, especially inKuwait and Iraq. These could lead to greater exports of oiland petrochemicals from the region. InchcapeShipping Services (ISS) said that there areenormous opportunities for its launch serviceout of Fujairah, once the single point mooringbuoys come on stream to load Abu Dhabicrude. The pipeline is scheduled to be complete bythe third quarter of this year and it will have acapacity of transporting 2.2 mill barrels of oilper day from Abu Dhabi to Fujairah. Atpresent ISS has up to six supply vessels atFujairah offering services to passing shippingand the offshore sector. There are also plans toexpand at Ras Al Khaimah. In Iraq, the country plans to export 12 millbarrels per day by 2017 from the current 2.7mill bpd. The Basra oil terminal will havethree offshore loading jetties due to open laterthis year, or next, while Kuwait has itsBubiyan refinery scheme underway.OEM operationsMany well known OEMs have significantoperations in the area. One example isKongsberg, which has formed KongsbergMaritime Middle East. This subsidiary isbased for the time being out at DubaiInvestment Park, near Jebel Ali. However,there is talk of moving into DMC once thefacilities there are in place. This move could still be two or three years away,TAKEROperator was told. Kongsbergs facility in the UAE looks afterthe GCC region and the complex comes witha training classroom. The company specialisesin integrated control systems, especially forLNGCs in the region. In addition, dynamic positioning (DP)systems, navigation systems and enginecontrol automation are an integral part ofKongsbergs offering in the area. Thecompany handles warranty issues includingsystems support and services, spares, logistics, Grandwelds general manager Jamal Abki.Goltens success lies in the fact that thecompany can offer an independent alternativeto the OEMs service organisations. p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 14modifications and upgrades, including mid-life upgrades, retrofits, handling maintenanceagreements and not least training. Tank gauging and tank radar equipment isserviced on LNGCs and tankers andKongsberg training simulators are alsoinstalled at Abu Dhabi. ECDIS installationsupport is also offered. Training can beoffered on board ship on new or upgradedsystems. A new training regime is to start thismonth on DP systems, both on a technical andoperational footing. Kongsberg Middle East looks after theregas LNGC Golar Freeze, which is mooredat Jebel Ali. Among the services rendered areon the gas cargo control systems, safetysystems and the regasification equipmentsupport. For example, the LNGRV is fittedwith Emerson processing equipment.General manager Halvard Sagdahlexplained that vessel operators wereincreasingly looking for integrated systemsand Dubai and the surrounding states was agrowing support and service hub, as well asbeing a major hub for shiprepair. He said that Kongsberg had also signed amaintenance agreement with Shell, which hadput in place a five year plan to dock itsmanaged Q-Flex and Q-Max LNGCs at RasLaffan. This agreement includes LNG cargo anddeck automation, various control processesand navigational needs. Sagdahl said that thecompany was in the process of gettingregistered in the new shipyard and once that is in place, Kongsberg would open an officeon site. He explained that by having a serviceagreement in place with the company, vesseloperators could predict their costs. Theagreement could include spare parts, trainingand other services. Kongsberg would give acommitment on the response time to a requestfrom an operator. In general, services in the region werecheaper than found in Europe and vesselscalling at Fujairah for bunkers could also availthemselves of other services simultaneously. The Norwegian-based company has a thirdshare in Unique Systems based in Sharjah,which continues to act as a sales agent forKongsberg. Kongsberg employs 28 persons at its Dubaifacility, but is looking to grow to 40 in abouttwo years, Sagdahl said. Finnish presenceAnother OEM with a large presence in thearea is Wrtsil. The company has beeninvolved in the Middle East since 1992 whenit first set up shop in Abu Dhabi. In 2008- 2009, the company moved into apurpose-built building and workshop in DubaiInvestment Park. Both the services and shipspower divisions were merged into the onebuilding. At the same time, a new branchoffice was opened in the Jebel Ali freezone. From Dubai, Wrtsils team controls 14countries. In-situ repairs are undertaken in a15 m high 10,000 sq m workshop fitted withsix overhead cranes of a maximum of 30tonnes lifting capacity. A couple of the cranescan be twinned to give a lifting capacity of 60tonnes if needed. Complete engines can behandled by being shipped in by heavy liftvessel and then taken to the warehouse byroad. The workshop is the companys secondlargest facility after Singapore. Wrtsil has many spare parts and serviceagreements in place and TAKEROperatorwas told that more life cycle agreements werestill to come. Several are handled from Dubai. Recently, Wrtsil boosted its boilerrepair/servicing offering by recruiting JohnAitken from a nearby rival concern. All makesof boiler can be serviced and/or repaired.Wrtsil UAE managing director and vicepresident services Ad Bertens explained thatthe company saw an expanding market inLNGCs in the region. Engineers are being retrained in boilerrepair work - for example, in the art ofwelding. Wrtsil is currently undertaking mainengine low sulphur modifications on 12 of BPShippings tankers eight VLCCs and fourAframaxes. The modifications are performedwhile the vessels are on voyage and theequipment is packed into a 20 ft container andshipped to the vessel. The whole operationtakes around two weeks per vessel. Another major job was the installation ofelectronic monitoring equipment to measurethe luboil feed on cylinder liners on board 14NITC VLCCs. They are each fitted withRTA84 type main engines. In the Dubai warehouse, Wrtsil storesspares for large tanker RTA84 engines, suchas piston crowns. Two-stroke engine linerhonings are also undertaken at the site, as isthe reconditioning of pistons. Bertens said that branch offices have beenopened in strategic locations, such as ASRY toservice engines and other equipment at therepair complex, which despite the politicalupheaval in the state, claims to be operating asnormal. Another will be established at thegiant repair complex under construction atDuqm in Oman. As for the huge Dubai repair complex, thisyard insists on undertaking OEM workthemselves, which has caused problems withthe manufacturers service and repairdepartments and tanker owners looking to puttheir own repair personnel on board. April 2011 TANKEROperator 15INDUSTRY - MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTTOWrtsil UAE managing director Ad Bertens.Wrtsils ample repair facility.p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 15ASRY - Arab Shipbuilding and Repair Yard Co. centrally located in the Arabian Gulf, provides a comprehensive range of services for all your ship repair and conversion needs.P.O. Box 50110, Hidd, Kingdom of Bahrain T: +973 1767 1111 F: +973 1767 0236 E: [email protected] www.asry.net...take a closer lookp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 16Satcoms concernbuilds up presenceOne of the fastest growingtelecommunicationsproviders is Dubai-basedThuraya.Since its founding in 1997, thecompany has built up its coverageto around two thirds of worldusing three satellites. It is one ofthe leaders in handheld voice solutions withnearly 70% market share in its 140-countrycoverage area spanning Europe, Africa, theMiddle East, Asia/Pacific, and Australia. In recent years, Thuraya has developedvoice, data, and video solutions for themaritime sector among other industries. The company launched its third satellite inJanuary 2008, which has brought theAsia/Pacific region under its footprint thusextending its coverage. At the time of TAKEROperators visit,Thuraya was planning to launch the Comtechmaritime broadband solution. Earlier this year,this terminal, which supports voice and data,was under test. The company also offers an SOS service forits subscribers who find themselves in anyemergency situation. Thuraya said that it haddifferent mobile products and services on arobust satellite network that can support theseamless emergency and distresscommunications within its coverage and thushas applied for GMDSS. Approval wasexpected this year, the company said. Thuraya claimed that all major marineapplications are compatible with its products,including crew calling, crew mail, GSMbackhaul, video conferencing, tracking,weather updates, while GMDSS, LRIT andSOLAS were under approval with the processdue to be completed this year.Recent tie ups include a Memorandum ofUnderstanding with UAEs National TransportAuthority (NTA) whereby Thuraya and NTAwill explore and define areas of potential co-operation for the deployment of Thurayaservices and solutions on board UAE flagships. In addition, on an international level, Thurayaand NTA will liaise with the IMO to gainaccreditation of Thurayas maritime services. In another move last month, Thuraya signeda distribution agreement with Europeantelecommunications specialists, TetraCommunications. AgreementsLate last year, Thuraya signed an agreementwith Connect Telecom, an internationalmobile and satellite telecom distributor, whichhas procured a large quantity of Thurayashandhelds, including both the satellite phoneSG-2520 and the tough satellite phone XT.With its established distribution outlets inUAE, Middle East and Hong Kong, ConnectTelecom is growing its role and reputation asa main provider of mobile satellite servicesand products in the region.Thurayas XT is claimed to be the onlysatellite handheld that is IP54/IK03 certifiedmaking it dust, splash water and shock proof. Ithas the fastest data service, Waypoint navigationand a stable omni-directional antenna enablewalk and talk communications.The GPS and data services available onboth phones add to the user-friendliness of the handhelds.Thurayas SG-2520 handheld is a dualmode GSM/satellite handheld that was thefirst to provide Bluetooth capabilities. Thuraya has also expanded its partnershipwith Etisalat, the Middle East regions largesttelecom service provider, appointing it asdistributors of IP and marine in the UAE.Etisalat is now marketing and distributingThurayas satellite data and maritime servicesto vertical markets throughout the country.Thuraya IP is claimed to be the worldssmallest satellite broadband solution that wasthe first to reach streaming speeds of 384Kbps. With Standard IP speeds of up to 444Kbps, it is based on a user-friendly plug andplay system, which means users do not needto install additional software. Thuraya Marine is a multi-communicationdevice designed specifically for the maritimesector, especially small to medium-sizedvessels. This solution offers voice, data, SMS andfax services on board vessels, as well asemergency distress calling. The solution isclaimed to be easy-to-install with an omni-directional antenna that is operable regardlessof the vessels movements.Thuraya has also launched the new Seagull5000i solution in partnership with Singapore-based Addvalue Communications. Thisspecialised marine terminal is designed forsmall vessels and provides voice, data, SMSand fax services that are based exclusivelyover Thurayas satellite network. April 2011 TANKEROperator 17INDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF REPORTThuraya has also unveiled a Seagull comms system primarily for the smaller vessel market.TOp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 17The company received a blow inFebruary when four members ofthe International Group of P&IClubs Steamship Mutual, Westof England, North of England and the UKClub withdrew cover. However, thecompany said that it had managed to providecover up to the required $1 bill of pollutioncover by using a mixture of fixed-premiuminsurers and other insurance concerns basedoutside the EU having adequate and suitablere-insurance provisions. Speaking in February, NITCs chairman andmanaging director, Mohammad Souri, said:NITC has found itself caught up in a situationof tightening sanctions as a totally innocentparty, along with some 100 other Iranianshipping companies. We hope for an earlyresolution of this matter and speedy renewal ofcover from International Group members.In the meantime, the company has beenobliged to ensure alternative P&Iarrangements are in place for all ships tradingin its international fleet, up to the requiredlevel of $1bn of pollution cover for eachincident, he said.Souri also stressed that with cover in place,the company will be able to continue itsoperations, trading as normal for internationaloil majors.The company is 100% privately owned,respects all international conventions and hasnever been engaged in any activity prohibitedby the US, UN or EU, Souri explained. Before the P&I clubs withdrawals, NITChad not been affected by any economicsanctions on Iran. It continued to charter outvessels to the oil majors, having been vettedannually by companies such as BP, Shell,Repsol, Total, Statoil, ENI, ERG, Idemitsu and KPC. Sharjah-based area manager Capt R Gharehtold TAKEROperator during a visit toNITCs offices in January that the company isowned by five million retired Iranian privatecitizens through their pension schemes. Thevessels are operated under the Cypriot andMaltese flags and have not experienced anyproblems in the past with sanctions, CaptGhareh claimed.NITC manages five VLCCs from Sharjahand uses a Bank Saderat bank branch locatedin the Emirate for funds. He denied that NITChad used vessels for storage saying that it wasnot a trading concern, nor does it liftpetrochemicals into Iran. Around 80% of thecrude oil transported in NITCs tankerseminates from outside Iran with 51% going toEuropean destinations, Capt Gharehexplained.A green companyThe company has always prided itself in theway that it operates its vessels, bothcommercially and technically. Some 28tankers have been awarded Bureau GreenAward certificates and the company iscommitted to continuous improvement beingat TMSA Level 3, Capt Ghareh said. Thenewer vessels are to be fitted with anOceanSaver ballast water treatment plant andthey have CAP 1 notation from DNV. It is currently switching to a condition-based monitoring system. In addition, NITChas signed a contract with MHI to modify thevessels boilers in line with the EU directive ata cost of $500,000 per vessel. This is beingundertaken in three phases with Harris Pyeand MetroMac being sub-contracted to carryout the work. At the end of January, 22 vesselshad been modified and certificated by MHIand class. NITC has started to compute a CO2 indexon part of its VLCC fleet. The average CO2index of the companys 14-year old VLCCs ascomputed by the NavyTech technology was2.957 at 15 knots, the company claimed. Inaddition, the company has introduced avoluntary scheme aimed at reducing vesselsenergy consumption by up to 28% by acombination of measures including Slow steaming 10%. Higher spec hull coatings 5%. Modified propeller design 3%. Propeller vortex loss recovery 3% Speed optimisation 5%. Main engine fine tuning 2%. NITC does not have an agreement in place forfleet drydockings, but would rather negotiate adocking near where the vessel is trading. Hesaid that he had been approached by RasLaffan and Oman to use their new facilitiesand that he would send a team of experts toevaluate the shiprepairers, before making adecision as to whether to add them to the list.NITC does prefer the Singapore yards, due totheir expertise in machinery repairs butsometimes uses Lisnave, especially for theTANKEROperator

April 2011 18INDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF - PROFILE NITCBy 2013, leading tanker concern ITC will have 50 VLCCs on its books, plus nine Suezmaxes, five Aframaxes, three so called Caspimaxes, five chemical/product tankers and two LPG carriers.Major tanker playercaught up in politicsNITC has found itself caught up in a situationof tightening sanctions as a totally innocentparty, along with some 100 other Iranianshipping companies. We hope for an earlyresolution of this matter ...Mohammad Souri, chairman and managing director, NITC p2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 18NITC Marine College at the Applied ScienceUniversity. The college conducts courses onthe level of Bachelor of Science (BSc) in thedeck and engineering sectors. An initial 18students were accepted starting in 2009 andanother 40 were accepted to start in thesecond quarter of 2010.By the end of January, NITC vessels hadbeen attacked 16 times by pirates in the Gulfof Aden/Indian Ocean areas. Technicalmanager Anwar Lodhi said the vessels shouldbe allowed to carry armed guards, but thatwas against flag state rules. He said that someof the vessels did carry unarmed guards.NITC vessels use wire fencing, night visioncameras, water machines along the sides andthe speed was maintained at 14 knots whentransiting the areas. In January of this year, NITC took deliveryof the first of the 22 newbuildings, the317,000 dwt Sifa. It is being operated byNITC under a bareboat charter from OmanShipping.Built by South Koreas Hyundai HeavyIndustries, Sifa is believed to be the firstVLCC newbuilding to have a ballast watertreatment system installed - five years aheadof the 2016 deadline when this equipmentbecomes mandatory.Other green features include a vesselperformance system supplied by Kongsberg,designed to reduce fuel consumption andtherefore emissions by up to 5%. Thesystem allows continuous monitoring andcontrol of NOx, SOx and CO2 emissions fromboth the main and auxiliary engines.Safety and security measures includeinstallation of 16 CCTV cameras on deck(seven), in the engine room (seven) and in thepump room (two). These will allow betteroperational control by the crew and enhancesecurity, especially in the event of pirateattack. Input data for all 16 cameras can berecorded for up to 15 days. All of the 22 newbuilding VLCCs to beoperational by 2013 will include state-of-the-art equipment and systems in excess ofstatutory requirements and they will alsoapply for the Bureau Green Awardcertification.Suezmaxes and Aframaxes. The company hasused Dubai, but experienced a failedantifouling coating. As part of its ongoing training regime, eachVLCC can carry up to nine cadets, plus aninstructor. The cadets are Iranian and thecompany also has shore training academy NITC Maritime Training Centre - in theCaspian Sea, complete with simulators. Sinceit opened its doors in 1983, the academy hastrained more than 20,000 seafarers for NITCand third parties in the Caspian Sea region,including Shell, Total, Petronas and Statoil.Some 100 cadets are taken in each year. In2010, 127 cadets were recruited 12electrical, 85 engineering and 30 deck. The academy underwent a major expansionprogramme in the mid 2000s, which includedthe construction of new class room complexesand campus accommodation totaling 16,000sq m of interior space an investment of morethan $6 mill. Retraining is also undertakenand the company claimed to be one of the firstto embark on ECDIS training in 2000. In addition, in 2008 NITC established theINDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF - PROFILE NITCApril 2011 TANKEROperator 19The VLCC Sifa is the first of NITCs 22 newbuildings. She is on long term bareboat charter from Oman Shipping and is fitted with anOceanSaver ballast water treatment system.TOp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 19TANKEROperator

April 2011 20INDUSTRY MIDDLE EAST GULF - STSGAC Transfer Services (GTS) hasbeen operating since 1979. Withoil major approval, thecompanys mooring mastershave experience in both static and underwayberthing with all sizes of vessels. The Quality, Safety and EnvironmentalManagement System certified by DNVconsists of: ISO 9001:2008 - 14001:2004 &QHSAS 18001:2007. GTS operations manager Captain JagdeepSingh Sodhi told TAKEROperator that hethought that there were many more locationsworldwide that could be used for STS transfers. Operations are performed both in port and offport limits (OPL). In port it is normal practice touse tugs and pilots, while OPL transfers arenormally conducted while the vessel isunderway, which is more cost effective.GTS has found that the various flag staterules on STS tend to follow the OCIMFguidelines. However, the local port authorityregulations are weighted to enable the port tomake money from the service when conductedinside port limits. Thus far, GTS has not experienced anyproblems with the new 48-hour notice rule of anintended STS transfer. There are no hidden costs.However Capt Singh Sodhi warned that traders/owners and charterers should look for thecommencement and end of free time in the quote.As for the question of how many mooringmasters should be used in an STS operation,Capt Singh Sodhi said that by providing asecond mooring master, as has been suggestedin some quarters, the cost of the operationwould rise quite substantially. However, he thought that in certain cases,such as multiple operations, it would beprudent to employ two mooring masters andon certain tankers that are dedicated to STSoperations, there are two Chief Officers. Inthis instance, the owner normally wants theC/Os to have master licenses enabling them torelieve the master if required. During the first half of this year, GTS willbe evaluating the facilities, including thesimulator, at the training centre in Cork. It isthought that the training centre will offerbridge team management courses and will betailored to individual company needs. Capt Singh Sodhi stressed that as an STSservice provider, it is important that thecompanys mooring masters attendtraining/refresher courses, depending on theirlevel of experience. We think it would be a good idea if ourclients were to have first hand experience inattending an operation. Then the difficultieswould become more apparent for example,working with multi-national crews who feelconnecting hoses is not their job, Capt SinghSodhi said. Fewer crew difficultiesHe also thought that the reduction in the numberof crew on board vessels, as owners try to savemoney while sticking to the safe manningrequirement, makes the mooring/unmooringoperations difficult sometimes due to the lack ofpersonnel on board. Also the new design of the shipboard singlecrane with a shortage of fairleads and nowinches serving the manifold area, means thatgetting wires and ropes onto the bollards isvery difficult, thus increasing the time takenfor mooring/unmooring operations. Other factors that need to be taken intoconsideration include new regulations in placecovering the transfer of personnel from oneship to another when alongside each other.The shortage of crew to keep a proper bridgeand deck watch during an operation is also aproblem, as is the increase in check listswhich tend to repeat each other. Capt Singh Sodhi said that a client can bevery critical for operational delays, but wouldthink nothing if a cargo survey took six toeight hours to complete, due to shortages etc.STS operations are still very much hands onand should not be conducted under anycommercial pressure to berth at night, inadverse weather, etc. The decisions should be left to those on sitethat have the experience of local conditionsthere and now, which is the mooring master,and both the tanker masters involved in theoperation, as the three should work as one,Capt Singh Sodhi stressed. GTS recently entered into an agreementwith Rotterdam-based MariFlex to launchGAC Transfer Services Powered byMariFlex (GTSM). This gave the STSoperation provider a wider range of servicesand choice of STS locations across Europe,Asia, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. The alliance combines GAC's global reachwith MariFlex's expertise in a comprehensiverange of complementary maritime services,bringing a total of 60 years of experience inSTS transfers of dry and liquid cargoes, such ascrude oil, petroleum products and liquefied gas. STS transfer operations are now beingoffered from more than 10 bases, includingRotterdam, Amsterdam and Flushing in theNetherlands, Gibraltar in Spain, Frederikshavnand Kalundborg in Denmark, Gothenburg inSweden, Malta, Cyprus, Malaysia, Vietnam,the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At the time of the signing of the agreement,GAC Solutions group vice president ChristerSjodoff said: "With the increased number ofbases, GTSM can now respond faster and withgreater mobility and flexibility, and operateanywhere and anytime, as required by clients.We also provide all necessary equipment suchas hoses, fenders and support craft, as well asfull back-up services including standby boats,equipment transportation and 24-hourcommunication."Capt Singh Sodhi explained; We haveagreed an alliance with Mariflex to expand ourglobal reach and to share investments in newbases and support one another with personneland expertise. Together we can offer goodglobal coverage and are actively working ondeveloping new, strategic locations.Today, MariFlex Transfer Services offeringSTS have bases in: - Flushing (served fromRotterdam); Rotterdam; Amsterdam andAntwerp. GTS Powered by MariFlex havebases and offer services in: - Malta; Cyprus;Fujairah/Dubai/Persian Gulf in general;Vietnam and Skaw and Kalundborg inDenmark. GAC expands STSventureDubai-based GAC hasanother string to its bow -complete ship-to-shiptransfer operations withmooring masters provided. TOp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 20Find out how KVH TracPhone V7 can change your business at:www.kvh.com/tankerAn end-to-end communications solution with a compact 60 cm antenna and a fully integrated control unit and modem.Dramatically cut your airtime costsand improve your ships operations with KVHs mini-VSAT BroadbandSM the most affordable service for broadband Internet, e-mail, and telephone!Fast, low-cost Internet at sea Rely on broadband Internet with speeds as fast as 2 Mbps down and 512 Kbps up while saving 85% or more vs. other solutions.Crystal-clear telephone calls Make calls whenever and wherever you want using either of the two lines of integrated voice service optimised for maritime customers or KVHs crew calling solution.Easy to install and setup ViaSats exclusive ArcLight spread spectrumtechnology enables a small 60 cm antenna with dramatically superior performance, easy installation and activation in as little as 1 day!Integrated network management KVHs powerful CommBoxTM offers an optional suite of business-critical tools, including least-cost routing, web acceleration, and remote IT access.What broadband at sea was meant to beSM TracPhone V7.KVH Europe A/S Kokkedal Industripark 2B 2980 Kokkedal Denmark Tel: +45 45 160 180 Fax: +45 45 160 181 E-mail: [email protected] KVH Industries, Inc. KVH, TracPhone, CommBox, and the unique light-colored dome with dark contrasting baseplate are trademarks of KVH Industries, Inc. 11_KE_V7miniVSAT_Comm_Nordic_TankerOpWhat Broadband at sea was meant to be and mini-VSAT Broadband are service marks of KVH Industries, Inc. ArcLight is a registered trademark of ViaSat, Inc.; all other trademarks are the property of their respective companies. Patents Pending.New RegionsAdded!Global Expansion Continues! Weve maintained our communications costs from two years ago, but have now added the capability of being online, which is a benefit to both the technical organization and operations.- Mr. Kurt Rye Damkjr, Managing Director, Nordic Tankers Marine A/SWatch the testimonial: www.kvh.com/nordictankerp2- 21: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 16 Page 21INDUSTRY MANNING & TRAININGTANKEROperator

April 2011 22The modern tanker business faces amultitude of pressures in itsoperating environment. Faced withthe global economic downturn,shrinking commercial margins, rising bunkerprices, stringent environmental regulationsand ongoing operational challenges, includingpiracy, it is understandable that some willregard training as just another cost. However, the need to ensure that all yourmaritime professionals are qualified, capableand confident of doing their jobs to the best oftheir abilities is not only an investment worthmaking, but one that could also give you acrucial commercial advantage over yourcompetitors, particularly when there is ashortage of qualified, experienced crew. The human factor may be a source ofvulnerability at times, but it is also a source ofgreat opportunity. In such tough economictimes, it is vital that the skills of your keypersonnel are re-tuned and re-aligned in orderto drive up productivity levels. Efficienttanker operations require that people withdifferent tasks within your organisation thatare nevertheless collaborating towards thesame goal are able to understand the factors atwork that are outside their immediate role. Those on board a vessel will have practicalfirst hand knowledge, but can lackcommercial experience. By contrast, shore-based personnel will understand thecommercial aspects of tanker operations butwill lack the operational experience of theirseafaring colleagues. Working in these siloscompromises the lubricity of the overallprocess and exposes vulnerabilities that leadto inefficiencies, or even threaten safety.One consequence of the economic downturnhas been the temptation to see training andcrewing as soft costs that can be cut in orderto protect the bottom line. The UKs MarineAccident Investigation Board (MAIB), theIMO and DNV have highlighted concernsabout corners being cut and seafarers servingin positions for which they lack thequalifications and experience.This is despite the fact that the costs oftraining are low, relative to the investmentsthat are put at risk. For example, anexportation LNG terminal that costs $3 bill tobuild, with an LNGC alongside valued at$250 mill, discharging a cargo worth $20 mill,is a valuable asset - and a not inconsiderablesafety, environmental and financial risk.The best way to minimise that risk is toensure that all parties with a share of theresponsibility for implementing the correctprocedures, upholding regulations andmaintaining standards are properly trained todo so. The latest maritime training courses seek toachieve this by breaking down working silosbetween the operational and commercialactivities in every tanker business. Error consequencesThere are many instances of where acommercial error has operationalJoanne Kelleher, marketing executive, GAC Training & Service Solutions (GTSS),explains how modern training methods and technologies can help meet the plethoraof commercial and operational challenges facing the tanker industry.Dont forget thetraining budgetJoanne Kelleher, GTSS marketing executive. New E-Learning courseNow available on CD- Your choice of courseTank Cleaning eCourseThis course will take you through all the general procedures in connection with cleaning of tanks on board oil and chemical tankers.t4BGFUZSFRVJSFNFOUTt&DJFOUUBOLDMFBOJOHt1PUFOUJBMSJTLTBOEIB[BSETt&OWJSPONFOUBMBOEOBODJBMJNQBDUt"TTFTTNFOU$FSUJDBUJPOMarstal Navigationsskole E-mail: [email protected]: http://www.marnav.dk.BSOBW1UF-UEE-mail: [email protected]: http://www.marnav.sgp22- 34: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 30 Page 1INDUSTRY MANNING & TRAININGApril 2011 TANKEROperator 23consequences and vice versa; a vessel may notsee the importance of issuing a note of protestabout a shoreside delay, while theshipmanagement team may not understand thetrue cause of a breakdown that rendered theNote of Readiness invalid. Bridging thisknowledge gap between ship and shore can bea rich source of efficiency gains for tankeroperators.The drivers of change in the shippingindustry are also the catalyst for newapproaches in the world of maritime training -and there is no shortage of challenges facingtanker operators. Just as slow steaming hasemerged to counter rising fuel costs and newenvironmental solutions have been developedto drive up vessel efficiency, so the trainingsector has responded by modernising itsmethods and tools in order to equip allmaritime professionals with the skills that they need.New technology is also playing a decisiverole, not only in revolutionising shippingoperations through the likes of ECDIS, andalso in helping to deliver safe, effective,realistic and value-for-money training forcrews and land-based personnel alike. This isreflected in the training courses provided atGTSS and elsewhere.GTSS is a partnership between GAC, theglobal provider of shipping, logistics andmarine services, and the National MaritimeCollege of Ireland (NMCI), one of the mostadvanced maritime training facilities in theworld. GTSS is committed to delivering highvalue, technologically advanced training.Right now there are a number of innovativenew training tools, but among the mostexciting advances is the increasingsophistication of marine simulators. This isbest exemplified in the field of ship-to-shiptransfer (STS) training.STS is an inherently risky operation and theconsequences of getting it wrong can behorrendous. It is essential that everyoneinvolved in STS is properly trained; frommooring masters, senior masters andsuperintendents, to those co-ordinatingoperations from the shore. Specialist trainingfor all those involved in STS is fundamentalto realising efficiencies, minimising risk andensuring crew welfare.STS is also a clear example of whereindustry regulation, environmental awarenessand market pressure have upped the ante interms of the skills required by seafarers. Thebar was raised even higher in January 2011when new rules governing STS procedurestook effect under the auspices of the IMOsMARPOL Annex 1, Chapter 8. These new regulations place an even greateronus on tanker owners and operators to ensurethat STS activity is carried out competentlyand in a way that proactively manages the riskto personnel, vessels, equipment and theenvironment. This has prompted the trainingsector to utilise the latest technology to meetthe industrys needs. Shiphandling experience is the key tosuccessful STS operations and simulatortraining is the ideal way to solve the riddle ofhow to gain experience, without the risks ofon the job training. GTSS offers a week-longSTS simulator course at the NMCI, whichcovers a multitude of topics, including safemanoeuvring using the ships engines andhelm, the impact of natural forces, such aswind, current and interaction, the importanceof approach planning, efficient management ofSimulators are becoming increasingly sophisticated. VIDEO | BOOK | CBT | ONLINETraining solutions & services forIMO, ISM & STCW standards [email protected] | www.videotel.co.uk/N

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April 2011 24bridge procedures and effective and safebridge team management. The courseprogresses from the basics of STS proceduresin benign weather conditions to worst-casescenarios in adverse conditions. Largest simulator suiteNMCI has the largest simulator suite in theworld with 17 simulators, supplied byKongsberg Maritime, including one of the fewfull 360 deg simulators in the world anddamper-mounted simulators, which cansimulate the movement of the ocean. There are many variables at the disposal ofthe course lecturer, including different vesseltypes, locations, weather conditions and everyimaginable operational scenario, meaning thatattendees can be trained on precisely the righttype of vessel for their needs. GTSS course also complies with therequirements of the OCIMF 4th editionguidelines, which is particularly important forexternal organisations, including the oilmajors, looking for the reassurance ofcompetence that specialist courses provide.Increasing numbers of companies are alsoasking for commercial STS training for theirshoreside personnel that incorporate anelement of simulated STS operations, in orderto help them to understand the role of theirseafaring colleagues. To meet this demand, GTSS offers acommercial STS course that bridges the gapbetween ship and shore by covering the rolesand responsibilities of all parties involved inSTS operations, including the mooring master,the vessel owner, the shipping agent, the portand OCIMF, the vetting of the vesselsinvolved, the equipment required, cargoquality inspection and measurement, the costsand the bills of lading. There is a lot more to tanker operations thanSTS and other specialist tanker courses areavailable from maritime training providers,such as GTSS course on tanker operations atthe terminal, which focuses on the criticalship/shore interface between vessel andterminal from a commercial and a practicalperspective and covers everything from pre-vessel arrival jetty inspections and ship/shoresafety practices, to dealing with emergencysituations and defending demurrage claims.Given the rapid growth of the LNG sectorand the resulting demand for appropriatelytrained and qualified LNG professionals, thereis also a growing demand for specialist LNGCtraining. GTSS LNG courses cover thebuying and selling of LNG, operational safetyissues, the LNG value chain, world marketsand operational shipping logistics, as well as adedicated course on terminal operations.Despite the fact that training budgets havecome under considerable pressure during suchtough economic times, the demands placedupon maritime professionals have rarely beenhigher. The more forward thinking tankercompanies recognise that their human capitalcan be the strongest link in their value chainand are investing in training for their seafarersand land-based teams.At a time when there has never been agreater need for safe, cost-effective trainingthat better recreates the operationalenvironment and drives up professionalstandards, the marine training sector isresponding in a dynamic, creative andproactive fashion by delivering cutting edgetraining solutions that meet specialist needswith the right blend of practical andcommercial skills. In doing so, it is helping its tankercustomers to minimise the risks and maximisethe efficiencies in their operations.The National Maritime Collegeof Ireland is a state-of-the-art$100 mill training facility inCork. Located on a 10-acre waterside campus,NMCIs facilities include a suite of 17bridge, engine room, fleet work, VTS andGMDSS simulators, including one with360 deg imaging, full-size ship engineand control rooms, workshops, electricalengineering facilities, Return to Scenedigital imaging technology, a survivalpool and fire-fighting training facilities. As well as training the next generationof Irish seafarers and meeting the trainingrequirements of the Irish Naval Service,NMCI trains maritime professionals fromaround the world through GTSS. NMCI profileThe more forward thinking tanker companies recognise that their human capitalcan be the strongest link in their value chain and are investing in training for theirseafarers and land-based teams.TOp22- 34: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 31 Page 3p22- 34: p2- 7. qxd 01/ 04/ 2011 14: 31 Page 4Alphatron Marine will provide Transas andAlphatron equipment familiarisation coursesin the new Rotterdam training centre. The centre is equipped with the l