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  • 1.Tampere City-Region:Towards a Knowledge Economy Mika Kautonen - Jari Kolehmainen - Markku Sotarauta Critical

2. Tampere city-region: overview

  • population 445,500
  • 9 % of Finlands population
  • GRP per capita 3rd highest
  • GRP 19,200 EUR (1999)
  • EU 15 GRP index 100: in Tampere 94.9 (2000), 88.3 (1995)
  • population 300,000
  • the 2nd largest regional centre
  • City of Tampere, town of Nokia and municipalities of Yljrvi, Kangasala, Lempl, Pirkkala and Vesilahti
  • population 200,000

3. Tampere City Region 4.

  • Industry to develop in the 19th century: manufacturing of textile and clothing
  • At the end of the century, 69% of industrial employees in textile industry, 13% in pulp and paper industry and 8% in metal industry
  • Reparations after World War II contributed to the growth of metal industry
  • In the 1960s, textile, clothing, leather and shoe industries employed 38%, metal industry 31% and pulp and paper industry 14%
  • In the early 1980s reorganizations, spin-offs and specialization
  • Collapse of the Soviet trade affected traditional industries

Tampere city-region:from manufacturing to services 5.

  • recession from the early 1990s
  • growth of information and telecommunication technology and KIBS sectors (Nokia Group alone 3.600 in R&D)
  • in 2000, textile, clothing, leather and shoe industries employed 4%, metal products and machine building together 26% (9.800 employees), pulp and paper industry 11%, and electronics 9% of industrial employees (total manufacturing employment 32.000)
  • in comparison, so-called KIBS sector alone 19.000 employees (software and computer services, technical services, consultancy, R&D services, private training etc.)

Tampere city-region:from manufacturing to services 6.

  • Educated population in Tampere city-region
  • of total adult population (>15 years), 64.5% at least secondary level degree, and 26.5% HEI degree (nat. average of 59.4 and 23.3 %)
  • number of university students about 25.000
  • R&D intensity
  • R&D investments 14 per cent of national spending
  • 25% real annual change 1995-1999 (nat. average 14%)
  • growth particularly in the business sector
  • share of R&D personnel of the workforce high, 4.6% (nat. average 3.1)
  • Nevertheless, Helsinki Region dominates R&D expenditures with a share of 45% strongly.

Roots of local competitiveness 7. Knowledge Centres in Tampere 8. The basics of digital mediaagglomeration in Tampere

  • roots quite far in history, but the real emergence and rapid growth in the 1990s (5.000 employees in 1996 -> 10.000 in 2000)
  • the business structure very diverse, but dominated by the business units of large, internationalised ICT companies (especially Nokia Group)
  • major strengths: strong large companies, e ducational institutionsand science and technology base
  • major weakness: weak entrepreneurial atmosphere, the paucity of (new) companies aiming at fast growth and internationalisation
  • digital media has been one of the most important focus areas of local business development and innovation policy -> large eTampere Programme (appr. EUR 130 million) for five years.

9. 10.

  • traditionally, Finland has been a closed society with a very homogenous population
  • access to the EU -> increased in- and outmigration, immigrants
  • yet, images of Finland and especially its urban regions outside of the Capital region were not particularly prominent in the foreign experts field of choices (Raunio 2002)
  • several nation-wide polls consistently shown that as a city to live in, Tampere rated highest of all cities in Finland
  • based on e.g. increase of jobs, central location and good connections, and the cultural amenities of the city (e.g. theatres, festivals, congresses).

Cosmopolitanism and image 11.

  • economic crisis of the early 1990s had serious social consequences for Tampere city-region as the unemployment rate skyrocketed to over 20 per cent
  • despite economic growth unemployment rate is still over 10% (12,9% in 2001, whole country 12,0)
  • about 25% of the unemployed long-term unemployed and among them every second unemployed for more than two years
  • skills mismatches of the transformation period -> permanent problem?
  • 60 per cent of the long-term unemployed 50 years old or older, risk especially high in manufacturing sectors.

Social polarisation 12.

  • during the 1990s, rise of the environmentalism, environmental awakening
  • local environmental movements key actors in process of change by challenging the local political traditions/culture and especially the tradition of local governance, called brothers-in-arms axis
  • City of Tampere with a holistic environmental management system based on ISO 14001
  • Tampere Forum to stimulate local democracy and to activate citizen participation in sustainable development (est. 1996),a bottom-up approach.

Sustainability 13. Governance

  • in Finland, trend of the 90s the increasing sub-regional co-operation between municipalities
  • reasons, e.g.: new Regional Development Act (1994), small size of municipalities
  • local government gained more importance in regional policy. The new Act splits the responsibility for institutional regional development efforts between state and municipalities
  • sub-regions form the smallest regional policy unit
  • sub-regional co-operationsignificant part of local activities, yet experiences and success vary greatly.

14. Strategies focus on

  • Health care technology (Finn-Medi ltd)
  • ICT (Tampere Technology Centre ltd)
  • Automation and mechanical engineering (Tampere Technology Centre ltd)
  • Media communication (MediaTampere ltd)
  • KIBS (Professia ltd)
  • Tourism
  • City of Tampere is building institutions, infrastructure,and is co-ordinating the development network etc.

15. 16. Some conclusions

  • Concept of a comprehensive business development policy by the City of Tampere from 1998: many integrative aspects already acknowledged, however operationalisation slower.

Human resources Welfare infrastructure Material infrastructure Sectors & clusters New businessestablishments Regional innovation system Communication Communication 17. Some conclusions

  • several of the proposed challenges are well acknowledged in Tampere city-region, including learning- and innovation-based competitiveness, image of the region, and social inclusion
  • cultural aspects increasingly seen important also for the local economic development
  • cosmopolitanism considered very important, yet maybe most challenging among the policy-makers
  • sustainability-related matters usually conceived as a part of separate policy domain.