Synchrophasor-Based Monitoring, Analysis, and Control · Synchrophasors Are Standard SEL-421 IEEE...

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  • Copyright SEL 2008

    Synchrophasor-Based Monitoring, Analysis, and Control

    Roy Moxley Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

  • The Power System Is Changing

    Photo Courtesy of Shawn Jacobs, OG&E

  • 02 03 8/03 05 06 06 07 07+

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    SEL Synchrophasor Vision

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    Fault Type and Distance

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    Local side trip times WITHOUT synchrophasors Local side trip times WITH synchrophasors

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  • Synchrophasors Are StandardSEL-421

    IEEE C37.118

    SEL-451SEL-487ESEL-787SEL-734 SEL Fast MessageSEL-311A, B, CSEL-311LSEL-351SEL-351SSEL-351A

  • Protection AND Synchrophasors

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    Fault Type and Distance

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    Remote side trip times WITHOUT synchrophasors Remote side trip times WITH synchrophasors

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    Fault Type and Distance

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    Local side trip times WITHOUT synchrophasors Local side trip times WITH synchrophasors

    Synchrophasors do not hurt relay performance

  • Relaying Has No Impact on PMCU Function

    No lostdata

    4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.90

    1

    2

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    Local bus side phase A voltage synchrophasorSynchrophasor data check

    Time (s)

  • Relays Are Right for Synchrophasors

    Phasor measurement and control unit(PMCU) PMU

    Minimal incremental cost

    Reduced current and voltage connections

    High-accuracy measurements

    High reliability and availability

    Future control applications

    Relays are everywhere

  • SEL Synchrophasor Equipped Devices Worldwide !

    North AmericaNorth America>20,000 units>20,000 units

    South AmericaSouth America>2,000 units>2,000 units

    Europe/AsiaEurope/Asia>3,000 units>3,000 units

    Africa/Middle EastAfrica/Middle East>1,000 units>1,000 units

    Asia Asia PacificPacific

    >5,000 units>5,000 units

  • Application Options Not One Size Fits All

    SEL-5078 Visualization

    SEL-5077, SEL-5078 Archiving

    System Operator, Reliability Council

    SEL-3306 Hardware PDC SEL-5077 Software PDC

    SEL-3378 Vector Processor

    PMUs

  • Protection and Control Time Frame

    ~1.0 Second ~30 Seconds

    Relay Action Human ActionControl Action

  • METER PM 13:22

  • Monitor a Gen Drop Test (New Zealand)

  • 49.1

    49.3

    49.5

    49.7

    49.9

    50.1

    50.3

    Timestamp 5/3/2007 3:10:18.6805/3/2007 3:11:06.6805/3/2007 3:11:54.6805/3/2007 3:12:42.6805/3/2007 3:13:30.6805/3/2007 3:14:18.6805/3/2007 3:15:06.680

    Whakamaru_Frequency Huntly_Frequency

    Test Shows System Remains Stable When 400 MW Dropped

    Frequency recordings at both ends perfectly overlap and align in time.

  • Malin Round Mt. 500 kV Trips June 18, 2007

  • The MRI of Power Systems

    NERC press release on Florida outage

    Feb. 26, 2008:

    Synchrophasors are Like the MRI of bulk power

    systems

  • Synchrophasor-Based Control Now a Reality

  • Big Creek Controls Rector Static VAR Compensator

  • SCE Uses C37.118 From Relays and PMU

    SCADAMaster

    DNP3

    IEEE C37.118

    InformationProcessor

    (Harris 5000/6000, IEC 60870-103, Modbus, SEL Fast Message, SES 92, Telegyr 8979, Conitel 2020, GETAC, Recon 1.1, CoDeSys, OPC, )

  • Impact of the Rector SVC: 6-14-07 (pre-SVC) vs. 8-30-07 (post-SVC)

    Magunden Substation Voltage Comparison(Rector Substation Events 6-14-07 and 8-30-07)

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    -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00

    Time (seconds)

    Mag

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    n Vo

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    Rector 8-30-2007 event (POST-SVC) Rector 6-14-2007 event (PRE-SVC)

    The Rector SVC had the apparent effect of reducing the magnitude & duration of the fault-induced slow voltage

    recovery

    6-14-2007 (pre-SVC)

    8-30-2007 (post-SVC)

    NOTE: Voltages shown were measured ~70 miles south of Rector Substation (actual low voltage event was of greater

    magnitude at Rector substation itself)

  • Effect of SVC Operation on Big Creek Before -

  • Effect of SVC Operation on Big Creek After -

  • Synchronous Vector ProcessingSystem

    MeasurementFunction

    CalculationOutput

    Designation

    Send Control to System(Application)

    f(x)

  • Apply the

    Collect synchronous phasor measurements

    Collect logical inputs

    Perform vector and scalar math

    Make decisions

    Produce outputs

    Report data

  • Select Quantities From Each PMU

    PMU1PMU2PMU3

    Analogs| V1 |V1| I1 |I1FreqPSV42TE (time error)

    Binary dataStatusTriggers

  • Integrate Wide-Area Protection and Control

    Static Var Control

    SEL-421

    SEL-421

    SEL-421

  • Apply Flexible Function Calculations

    IEC 61131 engineMathTrigDifferentials

    Preprogrammed blocksPowerAngle differenceModal analysisStation topology check

  • Combine Pre-Configured with Custom Functions

  • Provides Function Blocks

  • Map PMU Quantities to Phase Angle Difference Monitor

  • Improve Local Measurements

    V A

    Substation State and Topology Processor

    Refined Is, Vs, Alarms,

    and Topology52

    52

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  • Identify and Quarantine Bad Data

    Measurements Measurements+

    Calculate Median

    Measurements+

    Calculate Median+

    Flag and Quarantine

    Set Flag

  • Line TripStable

    System Separation

    Line Trip and Generation

    LossUnstable

    Real-Time Modal Analysis Monitor Predicts System Disturbances

  • Use Oscillation Frequency and Damping Ratio

    For the complex Eigen value pair:

    Oscillation frequency is:

    Damping ratio is:

    dj=

    =2

    f dosc

    d

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    =2

    2

  • Modal Analysis Shows System Response

  • Develop Custom ApplicationsVoltage Collapse Detection

    Instability of Distributed Generation

    Complex Power Swings

    Others ?

  • Operating Point

    Bifurcation Point

    Utilities Are Operating Closer to the Edge

    PU Nominal Load

    Operating Point

    Bifurcation Point

    MarginMargin

    1.61.51.31.00.0

    0.5

    1.0

  • Long Island: Monitor Angles Between Transmission Distribution Buses to Detect and Prevent Voltage Collapse

    ( )X)cos(2V)sin(1S 2

    2s

    max=

    S = P + jQ

    ZL = R + jX

    rV

    0VS

  • Calculate Voltage Stability Index (VSI)

    SVP calculates maxima: P, Q, and S

    Calculate margins:

    QQQ maxmargin =

    =

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    PPP maxginmar =

    SSS maxmargin =

  • Improve Power Swing Detection

    Actual Swing from 2003 Blackout

  • Wide-Area Measurement Is Better than Traditional Blinder Methods

    Impedance Loci

    Wide-Area Measurement

    Replace and improve on local out of step

    What if load or source impedance changes?

  • Delta/Delta-Dot Phase Plane Analysis

    -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180-200

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    Slip

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  • Delta-Dot Delta-Doubledot Phase Plane

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4-40

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  • Use Fast Operate Control Blocks for Closed-Loop Control

  • Synchrophasors Are StandardSEL-421

    IEEE C37.118

    SEL-451SEL-487ESEL-787SEL-734 SEL Fast MessageSEL-311A, B, CSEL-311LSEL-351SEL-351SSEL-351A

  • Synchrophasors Provide New and Improved Capabilities

    Angle measurement

    Disturbance analysis

    Modal analysis

    Out-of-step detection

    Real-time control

    What Else Can They Do For You?

  • Thank You!Thank You!

    Synchrophasor-Based Monitoring, Analysis, and Control The Power System Is ChangingSEL Synchrophasor VisionSynchrophasors Are StandardProtection AND SynchrophasorsRelaying Has No Impact on PMCU FunctionRelays Are Right for SynchrophasorsSEL Synchrophasor Equipped Devices Worldwide !Application Options Not One Size Fits AllProtection and Control Time FrameMETER PM 13:22Monitor a Gen Drop Test (New Zealand)Test Shows System Remains Stable When 400 MW DroppedMalin Round Mt. 500 kV Trips June 18, 2007The MRI of Power SystemsSynchrophasor-Based Control Now a Reality Big Creek Controls Rector Static VAR CompensatorSCE Uses C37.118 From Relays and PMUImpact of the Rector SVC:6-14-07 (pre-SVC) vs. 8-30-07 (post-SVC)Effect of SVC Operation on Big CreekBefore - Effect of SVC Operation on Big Creek After -Synchronous Vector ProcessingApply theSelect Quantities From Each PMUIntegrate Wide-Area Protection and ControlApply Flexible Function CalculationsCombine Pre-Configured with Custom Functions Provides Function BlocksMap PMU Quantities to Phase Angle Difference MonitorSlide Number 30Improve Local MeasurementsIdentify and Quarantine Bad DataSlide Number 33Real-Time Modal Analysis MonitorPredicts System DisturbancesUse Oscillation Frequencyand Damping RatioModal AnalysisShows System ResponseDevelop Custom ApplicationsUtilities Are Operating Closer to the EdgeLong Island: Monitor Angles Between Transmission Distribution Buses to Detect and Prevent Voltage CollapseCalculate Voltage Stability Index (VSI)Improve Power Swing DetectionWide-Area Measurement Is Better than Traditional Blinder MethodsDelta/Delta-Dot Phase Plane AnalysisDelta-Dot Delta-Doubledot Phase PlaneUse Fast Operate Control Blocks for Closed-Loop ControlSynchrophasors Are StandardSynchrophasors Provide New and Improved CapabilitiesSlide Number 48