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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037) Chapter 4 Manage Software for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

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Page 1: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037) Chapter 4 Manage Software for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037)

Chapter 4Manage Software for SUSE Linux

Enterprise Server

Page 2: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037) Chapter 4 Manage Software for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration (Course 3037) 2

Objectives

• Manage RPM Software Packages

• Verify and Update Software Library Access

• Manage Software Updates with YaST Online Update Server (YOU)

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Manage RPM Software Packages

• Objectives– RPM Components and Features– RPM Basics– How to Manage Software Packages with rpm– How to Manage Software Packages with YaST

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RPM Components and Features

• RPM Package Manager (RPM)– Installs, updates, uninstalls, verifies, and queries

software• Basic RPM components

– RPM Package Manager– RPM database– RPM package– Package label

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RPM Components and Features (continued)

• Advantages of using RPM– Provides a consistent method for users to install

programs in Linux– Makes it easier to uninstall programs– Most software packages for Linux are now formatted

as RPM packages– Original source archives are included and easy to

verify– You can use RPM tools to enable software

installations using noninteractive scripts

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RPM Components and Features (continued)

• Advantages of using RPM (continued)– You can use RPM tools to verify that the software

installed correctly– RPM can track dependent software, which means that

any additional software needed is also installed– RPM allows for all packaged software to use public-

key technology to digitally sign the software

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RPM Basics

• RPM Package File Format– Naming format

• software_name-software_version-release_number.architecture.rpm

• RPM Configuration File– Global configuration file

• /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc– System configuration file

• /etc/rpmrc– User configuration file

• ~/.rpmrc

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RPM Basics (continued)

• RPM Database– Database files are stored in

• /var/lib/rpm/– Rebuild database

• rpm –rebuilddb– suse.de-backup-rpmdb

• Cron script

• Checks daily to see if there are any changes– Single backup size

• Approximately 5 MB for 1 GB in /usr

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm

• Use command rpm– To manage software packages

• Use command rpmbuild– To build installable RPM packages from pristine

sources

• Verify package authenticity– rpm --checksig package_name

• Install an RPM package– rpm -i package_name.rpm

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm (continued)

• Update an RPM package– rpm -F package_name.rpm

• Uninstall an RPM package– rpm -e package_name

• Update Software with patches– Query the installed version of the package

• rpm -q pine

– Check if the patch RPM is suitable for your version• rpm -qp --basedon pine-4.44-224.i586.patch.rpm

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm (continued)

• Update Software with patches (continued)– Display the list of files affected by a patch

• rpm -qpPl pine-4.44-224.i586.patch.rpm

• rpm -qPl pine (if patch is already installed)

– Patch RPMs are used just like normal RPMs– Display a list of all patches installed in the system

• rpm –qPa

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm (continued)

• Query archives and the RPM database– Use –q option– rpm -q --changelog rpm_name

• Displays detailed list of information about a specific package

– Use installed RPM database• To perform verification checks with the option -V, -y, or

--verify

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with rpm (continued)

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Exercise 4-1 Manage Software with RPM

• The package aalib – ASCII art library that includes the file aafire which

displays burning ASCII art flames

• In this exercise, you learn how to manage RPMs by working with the library aalib

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST

• How to manage software packages from the GUI interface– Steps

• Start YaST Install and Remove Software module• Locate package you want to install, update, or uninstall• Right-click a package

– Then select All in This List• Select installation option• Locate and change the status of other packages• Select Installation Summary

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

• How to manage software packages from the GUI interface (continued)– Steps (continued)

• Show package status (optional)• Display package dependencies• Select Autocheck (optional)• Select Accept

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

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How to Manage Software Packages with YaST (continued)

• How to install a package from the command line– One of the major functions of YaST is software

installation• Option –i

– Example• yast -i ethereal

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Exercise 4-2 Install a Software Package with YaST

• SLES 9 includes a group of graphics utilities– That are not included in a full installation

• In this exercise you will install these utilities using YaST

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Verify and Update Software Library Access

• Verify system is configured properly– To access dynamic libraries and application uses

• Objectives– Software Library Basics– How to View Shared Library Dependencies (ldd)– How to Modify the Software Library Configuration File

(/etc/ld.so.conf)– How to Update the Library Cache (/etc/ld.so.cache)

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Software Library Basics

• Dynamic Software Libraries– Programs share some code through shared libraries

• Reduces the size of the program executable– Linux system locates its dynamic libraries

• Through a configuration file that points to the locations

• Static Software Libraries– Link the needed libraries statically when a program is

compiled– Increases program size but provides independence

• Library Naming Syntax– libname.so.version

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How to View Shared Library Dependencies (ldd)

• Use the command ldd

• Syntax– ldd option filename

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How to Modify the Software Library Configuration File (/etc/ld.so.conf)

• File /etc/ld.so.conf– Contains a list of paths the Linux system uses to

search for libraries– You need to be authenticated as root

• Typical library directories– /lib/, /usr/lib/, /usr/local/lib/, and /usr/X11R6/

• /sbin/ldconfig –d– Lists all libraries available in the cache

• Set variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH=path to make sure that it is loaded

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How to Update the Library Cache (/etc/ld.so.cache)

• ld.so or /lib/ld-linux.so.2– Makes sure that the needed libraries are found

• And loaded when a program is started

• ldconfig– Updates the library cache– Sets the required links to the current shared libraries

• /etc/ld.so.cache– Library cache file – And is read by the runtime linker

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Exercise 4-3 Manage Shared Libraries

• In this exercise, you use some common utilities to manage the shared libraries on your SLES 9 server

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Manage Software Updates with YaST Online Update Server (YOU)

• Objectives– YOU Basics– How to Configure a Local YOU Server– How to Configure and Use a YOU Client

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YOU Basics

• YOU feature– Centralizes the updating of all systems in the network

• YOU server– Compared with one of the update servers in the

Internet authorized by SUSE– Can be configured to be recognized via SLP (Service

Location Protocol)• Local YOU clients

– Start the updates via HTTP

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How to Configure a Local YOU Server

• Steps– Start YaST YOU Sever Configuration module– Start the YOU server– Register the YOU server as a service on the local

SLP server (optional)– Add or change a product (optional)– Get the current patches for all products– Set up automatic synchronization (optional)

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How to Configure a Local YOU Server (continued)

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How to Configure a Local YOU Server (continued)

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How to Configure a Local YOU Server (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client

• How to install patches from a remote YOU server– Start the YaST Online Update module– Accept the defaults and continue– Enter your username and password– Manually select or deselect patches to install– Download and install patches

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

• How to install patches from a local YOU server– Start the YaST Online Update module– Point to the local YOU server– Select installation options– Set up automatic synchronization (optional)– Manually select or deselect patches to install– Select Install Patch or Skip Patch (conditional)– Select Remove Source Packages after Update– Update the system configuration

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

• How to install patches from the command line– Basic syntax

• online_update parameters

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How to Configure and Use YOU Client (continued)

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Exercise 4-4 Update SLES 9 from a Local YOU Server

• As a post-installation procedure– Make sure you have updated your installation with the

latest patches available from Novell SUSE Linux

• In this exercise you update SLES 9 from a local YOU server

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Summary

• Most Linux software is in Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) format

• rpm command– Installs, removes, verifies, and finds information about

RPM software packages

• Check package digital signature– Before installing it

• Verify contents of packages– Using the –V option of rpm command

• Dynamic libraries versus static libraries

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Summary (continued)

• Use YaST Online Update tool– To obtain the latest software updates for your SLES

system

• YOU servers– Centralize the updating of several SLES computers on

your network